Tue. Apr 9th, 2024

Dr. Gerard’s collection of Spiti fossils

On Dr. Gerard’s collection of fossils from the Spiti valley,

Aaiatic Society’e Museum.-By HENRY F. BLANFOBD, EBQ. A. B.

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The paper, of which the following ia a revised copy was read before a meeting of the h i a t i c Society about eighteen months since, but its publicit,ion was fortunutely deferred for a time, in order that the illwtrations which now accompany it might be completed. In this interval, my friend, Mr. Theobdd, returned from a visit to the Spiti valley, and on looking through the foasile which I had deecribed, he communicated to me hie conviction that certain of the epeoimenr which I had identified as European Lissmc species,. were not from the Spiti valley at all, but, in all probability, Whitby foesils which had been accidentally mixed up with Dr. Gerard’s collection. These specimens had been admitted on the same authority of the majority.
of the others, viz., the Rev. Mr. Everest’s figurea in the 18th. Volume of the Asiatic Researches, d owing to the neglected state of the collection, and the absence of labels on the majority of the specimens, there had been no m e m of detecting his error.

The examination of vlndoubted Whitby foesils, of Col. Strschej’s  collection and also of M. Jaquemont’s collection in the Mu& d’ Histoire Neturelle at Paris, led me to the eume conviction aa Mr.  Theobald, viz., that the Lisssio species were in reality Engliih specimens, and I accordingly wrote a postscript to that effect to be published together with the original paper. Shortly afterwards, however, I returned to India and as the paper had not then been into type, I conaidered it better to withdraw and modify it in a 4iuice with the above correction. A very considerable alteration had indeed become necessary. collection as originally examined consisted of a faunain part Tinssic,in part Liassic, and parfly also Upper Oolitic, some of the specier being either identical with species from the Oxford dq or cloeelJ

allied to forms of that age. The Triassic specimens m r e nd

sufficiently numerous to lead me t o infer the existence of a dis~net

formation of that age, and I contemplated the possibility of there being

A-nitsr Merophyllw, Sow. A m m m i h bijlona, Brug. Am& eou,

.w, Sow. Ammoniter Z’huwrauir, D’Orb. dmmoniter cocnwnir, Sow. and Ps-

ta, aquicolau, 80w. Five of tI1e.e.e were fiB11red by Mr. Evereat in the 1811

volume of the Aliatio lbseucher, aa forming part of Dr. Gerard’# colleotion.

———————– Page 2———————–

1863.2 On Dr. Gerard’s colktwn of Spiti foods. 125

a Liruaic formation in the Spiti valley, in which, as in the bed0 of St.

Camkn, certain Triassic forms were intermingled. The Upper Oolitic

forms, I regcucled (with doubt,) M indicating a distinct formation.

The fossile I had examined comprised a majority of Cephalopoda,

with a few species of Omteropoda and Conchifem. The Brachiopoda

which formed part of the original collection I had uot been able to

discover in the Society’s Museum.

Mr. Theobald’e investigations have now established the existence

of Triaseic be& as well aa those of Bilurian and Upper Oolitic age,

in the Spiti valley while the now proved mpuriouenese of the Liassic

foesib described, eliminate0 this fauna from coneideration. FIfrther

reeeerch in the Society’s Museum, haa yielded me the Bracliiopoda

of Dr. Gerard’s collection and a number of other fossils, which, however,

(with the exception of one or two ammonites) want of leisure at pre-

sent campels me to defer for future examination. The former consist

of Prodwta, 8pi+i4er, Turebratula and Bhynchvnslk, some of them of

Carboniferous age, but further than this I am not able to pronouuce

a t present. This paper, therefore, confinen itself to a description of

the genuine portion of those epeciea included in my original memoir.

I have mentioned that while i~ England I had the opportunity of

m i n i n g the valuable collection of Oolitic fossils made by Colonel

IJtmhey at the Niti Pass in Kumaon, as well aa those from norther11

Xepd collected by General Hardwicke, and M. Jaquemont’e collec-

tion from Spiti. This haa rendered all alteration necessary in the

names of those species which aleo occur in the above collections and

had already been named by authors or discoverern. This has been

effected in the preeent paper.



1. B B L E M ~ ~ TSULOATU~, E S Miller. Plate I. figs. 1, 2a-c.

This Belemnite is apparently identical with that occuring in the

Oolitic rocb of Cutch, which has been described and figured by Mr.

Sowerby, (aeol. Trans. 2 d Ser. Vol. V.) B. oanaliculatus, Schlot-


The Spiti rpeeimene diffe’r from those figured by Miller and

D’Orbiigny, in the g w d being more compressed in form, so that the

B 2

———————– Page 3———————–

128′ On Dr. Qsrard’a collection ,of Bpiti fom”18. [No. 2,

dmo-ventral diameter h rather the longer. The angle of the

phragmacone u about 17O, while that given by M. D ‘ O r b i j

is 180 to 1840. Thew differen-, however, do not appear to me to

warrant speoifio dirtinotion.

There rue wveral phngmwoner of thh rpecier in Dr. & d o

colleotion. The largest is 2 incher in diameter. The largeat guud

measures ae follows :-

8 in 10 lines long.

– 1 q , 1st. diam.

– lo+ ,, ant. post. dim.


2. AMMONITE^ acccrncTve, Strachey, Plate I. figs. 3, 3a.

A. tesG discoidel, percompressk, cornplanat& sublcevigatk, obsoletL

flexuoso-costata. Allfi actibus cornplanatis, amplexantibus. Ventn

sub-acuto ; juniori dentato. Umbilico parvo ; marginibue rotunda&

ApertuA angustt? hastat&. Lobo superiori septorum longiori.

Diameter of shell 1 inch 8 lines

,, of outer whorl 11 9, A fiugment wanting tha

Thicknem 4 ,, body whorl.

With of outer whorl = ?& of the diameter of the shell.

Nearly allied to several Liassic species, viz., A. o q n o t y Quensted,

A. lyrrz, D’Orbigny, and A. Coynarti, D’Orbigny, this Ammonite i

readily distinguished by the peculiar palmate form of the saddlee, and

the length of the superior lateral lobe as compared with the ventral

[puaa’ dorsal] lobe. The denticulation of the keel is, as in A. lym, only

apparent on the young shell, and becomes obsolete with age. The

sides are faintly marked with ribs curved like those of A. conarmw.

Dr. Gerard’s collection contains two specimens of thie species.

8. d ~ o N 1 ~ Br T8 E I G ~ L I ~n. , ~8. P1. 111. figs. 1, la.

A. testei discoid4 costat& compressb tubercnlaG. Anfractibur

amplexantibus, quadratis. Costis simplicibus, compressis, promi-

nentibus, antice inclinatis; apud venter, valdi: angulatis. V e n b

l Them is some doubt whether tl~ir speaimea be really from Bpiti, thou$

them is I think but little qllestion tbt it w m a from the north Himala1.n for

mation. It ir onelialf of 8 cut specimen. Another half apeaimen, (porsibly tb

fellow of the above,) ir in tho Britul~ Mawum,.itr l d t y being dw unknown.

———————– Page 4———————–

1863.1 On Dr. Bsrard’r 00ZkEtwn of &iti Jwrilr. 117

phato, coststo. Umbiico angusto ; lateribus leniter inclinatis, ro-


Diameter of shell 2 inches 1 line.

,, of outer whorl L ,, 2 ,,

Thioknesn 11 ,,

Width of outer whorl = #& of the diameter of the shell.

A peculiar form, combining the characters of the Blobmi and

A d t h e i groups. The young shell is smooth, (in the single speci-

men deadbed, to beyond the wmmencement of the body chamber,)

and the last half whorl ornamented with strong, simple compressed

ribs, inclined forwards from the umbilicue, and becoming more ele-

rated as ttley approach the ventral region, on the sidea of which,

they riee almost into tuberclea; then becoming leas prominent aa ,

they bend forward on each wide of the median line, they form an an-

gle in the centre, being again elevated at the bend into a series of

Rsttened tubercles. The whorls are rounded in the young, squared

in the old shell. The suturea ue very imperfectly seen : the saddles

appear to be squared in form, and symmetrically divided, and the

ruperior lateral lobe in probably longer than the ventral as in the


L ~ O X I T E WALLICHII, S Gray, Plate I. figs. 4, Ida, Plate 111.

&. 2, 3.

A. t i e d dbcoide4, compreed, transvelsim costa&. Anfractibns

rutcampressis, complanatia. Ventre angwto, excavate, levigato. Cos.

t b acutis, bifurcatie, hand tuberculatis. Umbilico lato, profundo.

A p e r t d oblongo-quadrat9 Soptie, latenliter 6-lobatis.

Diameter of shell 1 inch 9 lines.

of outer whorl 7 i ,,


Thickness 7 ,,

Width of outer whorl = $& of the diameter of the shell.

This ammonite, of which there are two speoimens in the collection,

b allied to A. Pwkinumi, Sowerby. The chief poinb of departure

from the latter speoies am ;-the absence of tuberclea ; the greater

width of its whorls (* instead of of the diameter) ; and some

differmow in the sutural l o b , the superior lateral being barely so

long aa the ventral lobe, and having fewer ramllcations than that

of A. P a r M i . The two epecimens before me differ somewhat

———————– Page 5———————–

128 On Dr. Gerard’e collection of Spiti forrik. [No. 2,

in the characters of the ribbing of the outer whorl, those of the inner

whorls being exactly similar : the specimens are of the same diameter,

but while that figured at Plate I. fig. 4, appears to be full grown,’

that figured at Plate 111. fig. 2, is only a fragment, wanting the body

chamber, and the body-whorl of the former specimen, as ie the evle

with many Ammonites and Nautili, is thicker than the inner whorls

in proportion to their diameter, and exhibite a coarser and wider rib

bing, the ribe being rather inclined b a c k d . A . h . Sow, from

the Oolites of Cutch, bears a generd resemblance to the pwmt

species, but it appeara from the description to have the ribs eonti-

nuoue acrose the back.

6. A b n t o r n ~ ~OCTAQONU8, a Strachey, Plate I. figs.

A. feetA discoideik, c o m p d Anfr. parum amplerantibus, r o t u ~

datis, lateraliter seriebue 8 tuberculis magnis ornatis, irregulariter

costatis. Aperturtl elliptic&. Septii lateraliter 3-lobatis.

Allied to Ammonites Euysnii of Raspail, to which apecies I referred

it in the first instance. I t is ornamented with three row8 of promi-

nent tubercles connected by depressed and somewhat irregular ribe.

Only one fragment of this Ammonite is in Dr. Gerard’s collection,

viz., that figured. It does not allow cf my determining the s p a


6. AMMONITEB NEPALENBIB, Gray, Plate I. figs. 6, 6a.

A. Nepakmw. Gray, Hardwicke’s Illustrations.

A. discoid&, compresd, complanatll, costatli ; anfractibue per-

latis. Coatis filiformibus bi-vel tri-furcatis. Ventre rotundato. Um-

– bilico angusto. A p e r t d compress& elliptid. Septis ?

Diameter of shell 1 inch 6 lines.

,, of outer whorl 9 ,,

Thickness 6 i 9,

Width of outer whorl = of the diameter of the shell.

An Ammonite of the Macrocephali type, but more compressed, o m s

mented with distinct filiform ribs, bifurcating or trifwcath~g about the

middle of the whorl, and arched forwards in tho ventral region. TL

sutures &e not visible. A single specimen occure in Dr. Gerard’s

oollection. It is much smaller than Dr. Gray’s type, and has a

somewhat narrower umbilicus. Some large specimens were, however,

collected by Mr. Theobnld.

If so, however, the apecimen is a small one, as one in Col. Stmahey’s eollee-

tion i nearly 4 inched in diameter and one in the Britinh Mureum not len tbur

6 inches.

———————– Page 6———————–

1663.1 On Dr. Qerard’s collection of Spiti fossils. 129


A. icnuktriutus, Gray, Hardwicke’s illustrstions.

A single cast containing a portion of the body whorl in which is .

a beautiful cast of an Aptychus, is to be referred doubtfully to the

above speciee. The curvature of the ribs is similar to that of the

type, but the whorls are narrower and rather thicker. Judging from –

the few specimens I have seen, A. tsnuistriatue appears, however, to

be very variable in this respect, and I refer the Spiti specimen t h e m

fore provisionlly to this species.

8. ALIYOBITEB BIPLEX, Sowerby, Plate 11. fig. 5, Plate 111. figs.

4,4a–c, 6.

dmomiteu. Everest. As. Res. Vol. XVIII. Pt. 11. p. 114, P1. I.

fig8 2, 3.

A. aunukrtw. Sowerby. Op. et. vol. cit. p. 278.

Several specimens of an Ammonite, which I cannot distinguish

from the well known Oolitic species above quoted, occur in the col-

lection, in black siliceous nodulee. One large specimen measures 5

inchea and 2 linen in diameter. Others less perfect, from 8 to 8)

inches. The width of the outer whorl varies from to &$ in the

more typical specimens, and the aperture is almost orbicular, slightly

flattened at the sides. The ribs are sharp and nnmerous, and bifur-

cate very regularly at about 4 across the whorl. Most of them .

have an occasional deep sulcation, indicating the position of a pre-

vious mouth. The sutures correspond closely to that figured by M.

D’Orbigny in the Pal. Franpise.

In addition to the above, two specimens, which at first I hesitated

to regard as the same species, have the ribs much more numerous,

and the whorls wider; the outer whorl being && and respective-

ly, of the diameter. That with the latter measurement is moreover

more compressed than the typical specimens, %he thickness being

only. On consideration, however, I can see no good reason for

regrvding these specimens as specifically distinct from the more typi-

4 Their sut~~rea are very similar, and ae regards form, the nsrrow-

er whorled of the two differs but little from the type, while the

peculiar close set ribbing distinctly indicates the specific identity of

the two. One of these is figured at Plate 111. figs. 4, 4a.

An important point to be noticed in comparing full grown y e &

———————– Page 7———————–

mens of this species, and indeed of many of the Planukti and some

other Ammonitee, is that the laat two or three eutures are frequently

eloaer than the preceding, sod are more or leas shortened md di

torted. I n order, therefore, to establish a reliable cornpariaon, md ta

avoid erroneous specific diitinctio~, one of the older sutnrea should

be regarded as the standard. I giv6 an illmtration of thia in figs.

4b and 4c of Plate 111. the first of which represents the last s u h

of the whorl, (that terminating the body chamber,) the second, the

sixth suturo of the same specimen, counted backwards. I have ob

served similar irregularities in A. infitw, and many Nautili (a. g.

N. Bouchclrdianus,) have the last one or two chambere considerably

narrower than those formed during earlier growth.

Fig. 6, Plate 111. is the lmt suture of a specimen of the normal

variety of A. biplmY which I give ar i t is the only one visible on my

of rnx epecimene.


Two epecimens differ from the preceding in having the ribs,

pecially those of the laet whorl, trifurmtr. I bave seen specimear

both from Niti and Spiti with frsciate ribs, but otherwise undiitin-

guishable from A. biplw. I am inclined to doubt whether tbey bo

otl~er than varieties of that species.

10. A ~ ~ M O NTOBQUATUS, I T S ~ SOW.? PI. 111. 6ga. 6,&, 7,7a, 8.

A. test& discoidetl, compress&, coatatd, late urnbilicat4. Anfrwti-

bus rotundatis, depreesis, convolutis. Costis filiformibus, rectie, mtid

inclinatis, apud f anfractuum cliametris bifurcatir. Ventre late m

tundato, costato. Aperturrl reniformi. Septorum lobis htmdibus 1.

a b

Diameter of shell, 1 inch 6 linee.

,, of outer wborl, 5 9, 9 linen.

Thickness 7 t ,, 1 inoh l+ ,,

Width of outer whorl = &’5 to ?d5 of the diameter of the shell.

This ehell is distinguiehed from A. bykr ohiefly by its d e p d

whorls, and also by the-greater width and comparative ehortnem of

the saddles and lobes. The ornamentation of the shell ie preci4

that of A. b i p h , and it is indeed possible that A. torpwtw may be

merely a variety of that species, but until specimens of interned&

form, $c., have’been di~covered, tho distinction, I have indicated m

too considerable to be disregarded.

———————– Page 8———————–

1863.1 On Dr. Berard’r collection of 8piii fomilr.

11. A a r r m ~ msPIrIEa0113, R. 0., Plabe 11. f i e . 4, ha, 4b.

Diameter of e h d , 2 inches 8 lines.

,, of o u k whorl, 9 ,,

Thickness, 11 ,,

Width of oubr whorl = of the diameter d the shed.

bo bhe d. plan& of

This Ammonite bema some ~ ~ e s m b h c e

Dt&bigny, but ie dietinguished by the following charao6ers.-tha

whorls of the spik epeciee rre eomemhat narrower, the ribr mom

flexnow, and emutea tomtds the front inetesd of bawards the rear

in the ventral area, and the h e l l ie crossed at .intervals of rather

more than half a Whorl, by deep oblique aalatione bounded poste-

riorly by s h g The sutures are identical with thoae of the


A. plsnnls, sroept bhat the wntd and wpeaior latad lobw of the

Spiti foad ue equal in length, md it haa but two minute aooerrory

lober, batead of 8, aa figured by Y. DWnb’iy.

12. kKX0XITl0 aUZTA’lV0, &Why, PlIlh Iv. @. 1, Ba, 1b.

A ImU die&&&, c o m p d . A&rwtibua rotundatis, spud umbi-

licnm cnesiaribur, tubeM:ulatwosWi, 3 d c i e obliquie ndatie.

Coetis oumeroeie, tenuibus, spud umbiAicnm 8,4-faaciirtie, apud ven-

ter, lenitar entic& d m . Ventre rotundato. Umbibo .profund$

lato, tuhulia 20 cmonato. A p e x t d semiIumi ? fleptarum lobin

laterelibus 6.

Diameter of ehell, 2 inches 1 line.

,, of outer whor4 g+ ,,

Thicknew, 11 ,,

Width of outer whorl = ss of the diameter of the ehell.

Very cloeely allied to the preoediig species, from which it ir

d i h e d chiefly by the charackrs of its eufaree; the lobes

snd saddltx being + longer, and the soddlee narrower than in

A 6’pitisnrir; while there are 4 conspicuous and 2 minute lateral

lobes instead of 8 of the former, aa in the above epeaies. Thew

are Jso eollee diff~~enoea .in tihe ornamentstion, but how far

them .ue c o ~ t e n I f am unable to asy. Thus, in d @itienru, the

rib and tubercles are leaa numeroum than in A. g u t t a h , and the aul-

ci of g m d h .re three to erch whorl snd continuous in the former

Ipecier, whih in the latter there are h e l y 2 to the whorl. These

I coneider, however, to be unimpodbt, and ehould

Lfter differenoee

further epeoimens shew the euturea to be more variable than is ueual


———————– Page 9———————–

in Ammonites of the same group, there would remain no good reason I

for distinguishing the two forms in question. I

18. Aarlrorrzlrse HYPHABI~, n. s. Plate IV. figs. 2,2a, 2b. I

A. tesfil diswidea, compressil, costatg. Anfractibus subquadratis, ,

parum amplexantibw. Costis valdis, rectis; nonnulia (plerumque

alternantibus) bifurcatis; medio ventre parum incisii, haud inter-

ruptis. Ventre plaoato. Umbilico magno : suturie impressis. Aper-

tun reniformi. Septorum lobis lateralibua 4.

Diameter of shell, 1 inch 10 lines.

,, of onter whorl, 7 ,,

Thickness, 8 ,,

Width of outer whorl = of the diameter of the shell.

Intermediate in form between A. mmunb, aud A. Pa~kimoni, thhl

shell is distinguished from the first by the mesial notching of therib

which indicates an approach to the Dentati, (Chdi of Von Buch);

and from the second by its continuous ribs, as well as by the inferior

number of its lobes and their greater equality in size. Some of the

. ribs carry a small tubercle at the bifurcation, which occure alternately

on the opposite sides of the whorl. The collection contains two amd

specimens of this Ammonite, which are precisely similar to each

other, and a fragment of a larger specimen I) inches in thicknew.

14. A ~ ~ o ~ GEEAEDI, I T E ~ n. 6. Plate 11. figs. 6, 6a. 6b.

A. test& subglobod, levigat4 angust& umbilicstii. Anrractibne ,

ventraliter subwmpressis, amplexantibus ; senioribus, radiatim 1 8

undulatis. Ventre rotundato. Umbilico parvo, profundo. Aperk-

rfl trigonii, apud dorsum valde excavatii.

a b

Diameter of shell 2 inches. 8+ inches.

,, of outer whorl 1 inch. 14 ,,

Thickneee 1 ,, 2 lines. 1+ ,,

Width of outer whorl = AoT of the diameter of the shell.

Thia Ammonite belonp tc a group lnrgely represented in t h ~ 1

Triassic beds of St. Cassian, and of which one species only, A. d e ~


naliu, Von Buch, is described by M. D’Orbigny, Quensted and othm I

from the Upper Liaa of France and Germany.* To this speciea, A.

O ~ d beam i much external resemblance, but the sutural r&fi*

tions of the Bpiti fossil prove it to be without doubt a dietinct s p

* Seved p i e 6 00cw in the cretaoeons rock# of 8. India.

———————– Page 10———————–

1863.1 On Dr. Gerard’e collection of &iti fusails. 133

ciea. Noreover, from such fragments of shell as remain on one of

our specimens, i t appears that this was smooth in A. Gwardi as in

the Triassic forms, whereas that of A. eternalis is ornamented ex-

ternally with fine ribs.

The ventral lobe of the septs of A. Gerardi is extremely short,

barely half aa long as the superior lateral lobe, and is divided almost

ite entire length. The lateral lobes are nearly equal and fan-shaped

at the extremity, and the saddles simple and compressed in form.

Four specimens are in the G e r d collection ; one of the smaller, a

distorted specimen, waa figured in the Asiatic Researches ; another

is here represented. These are both young and do not shew the

radiate undulations which characterize the adult shell.+

15. CEEATITEB? HIMALAYAKLIB, n. a. Plate 11. figs. 7, 7a.

C. test3 discoider2, compressA, csrinatll, tuberculato-costa&. An-

fractibua amplexantibus, complanatis. Tuberculis internis apud f

m ~ t u u m10 : externis apud peripheriam 20. Costis haud promi-

nentibus, inoequalibus, plerumque bi vel tri-furcatis. Ventre angush

carinato, haud snlcato. Umbilico parvo ; marginibus rotundatis.

Aperturil angulaG ovatii, antid complanahl.

Diameter of shell, 1 inch 6 linee.

,, of outer whorl 9 ,,

Thickness, 7 9,

Width of outer whorl = of the diameter of the hell.

The specimen of this shell in the Spiti collection, although in a

very fair state of preservation, does not present so clean a surface on

that part on which alone the sutures are visible, aa could be desired

for the satiafmtory determination of the genus. There is, however,.

no trace of any foliation on the saddles, so far as they can be seen,

while the lobes of one part are dietinctly dentated like those of the

typical Ceratitea. It is clearly distir~ct from 0. Jqusmonti, Von

Buch, the only known Himalay an species of the genus, which accord-

ing to its discoverer, whose name it bears, wae found rrssociated with

Ammonitao Wlcx, and a number of other Oolitic forms of Ammonites.

In form and ornamentation, C. Himalayanus, is closely allied to C.

Nodoar, the type of the genus, but differs in its narrower ventral

region and keeled periphery.

The hlsrgost spwimone wen, ullly dbuovered &r tho plutoe had bwn fininhed.

B a

———————– Page 11———————–

134 On Dr. Ucrard’~ colbction of Spiti fmde. [[Aa 2,




16. TUBBITELLA YOIPTIUM, n. s. Plate I. fig. 7.

firritelta ? As. Res. VoL XVIII. Part 2, p. 114, PI. I. fig. la. ,

9. teeti craee4 conic&, turritfi. Spiril bwvi, angulo 28′. A n M –

bun angulatb, medio vdd& bicarbatis, supem& obliquis, plenrtic:

ultimo ad basin depress2 rotundato. Sufuria valdb exeavatis. Aper. 1


tur8 circulari. I

Length of fragment, % inch 9 linea. 1

Total length of spire ~estored, 2 inchea 9 ,,

Width of last whorl, 1 inch.

of peristome, 8 9 .

An obtuse thick-shelled speciee, with the upper and lower sdrar 1

of the whorls bevelled towards the suture, ornamented with t*o

spiral keels, the lower of which is the most prominent.

The colleoticm containa three fragments of thia spacisr, the I

of which ie figured in the h i s t i c Researches, loc. cit. and rlw in

the accompanying Plate I.

Judging from its appearance (mineral charaater) it is from the same

beds as the Ceratite and dmnonitau Brnwdd.

Some fragments of casts of a small turretted species with snb

nngulated whorls, evidently belong to this genus. The upper s u b

of the whorls is flattened and oblique, the base convex, and marked

on the cast with 4 equidistant ridges, the interval between the ps

terior ridge, and the keel being twice as great as th& between the

ridges. Aperture oub-pentangular, rounded in front.


A fiat Solarium ehaped cast, much distorted by press- and w a b

worn, evidently distinct from the above.


19. A~TAEFE MAJOB, Sowerby.

Unw ? and Triyonk ? Herbert and Everest, Gleanings in Science,

Vol. 111. p. 273, Plrrte XVII. figs. 40, b.

———————– Page 12———————–

1863.1 0s Dr. Qerasd’r colkction of Sprd6 foasil. 133

Unio ? Everest, As. Bes. Vol. XVIII. Part 2, p. 114, Plate 11.

@. 26, a, b, c.

drtortsplonata, Sowerby, Qp. cit. p. 278.

drtwts mq-w, Sowerby, GeoL Trans. 2nd aeries, Vol. V. Plate

LXI. fig. 1.

This species, three specimenr of which occw iu Dr. Gerard’s col-

lection, is undoubtedly identical with the Cutch species named t~

above by Mr. Sowerby. The specimens are smaller than those from

Cutch, bu$ in fomn, only differ in tbek the mterior end ir lea6 trun-

cated, and the length of the shell is somewhat leus proportionally,

than in the specimen figured in the Geological Transactions, which b

hted to be romewhat d i w (i, 8. in the present terminology, by-

e) than the average. The measurements of our largest specimen

ue M fOu0~1):-

Length 2 inches 8 li-

Height 1 inch 7 ,,

Thicknem 1 ,,

20. C Y P B ~ A’PBIQORALIB, ? D. 8. Plate IV. figs. 4, 5.

C. k dtrigono-cordiformi, c r d , eub-intlatg, sbriea, sattie& ro-

tund.% postice anplat&, o b t d earin&. Area posbriori levigatil.

Umbonibu pmminentibus.

Length 1 inch.

Height 10 lines.

A smell trigonal sbell, chiefly occurring aer clrats, and of eomewhrt

b b t f u l geoue. It b aaeoeistied with Auk& d i n o h in sandstone.

21. NUCULA cunrrpoaure, Sowerby.

ModwZa. Herbert, Gleaa. in Sciesco, Vel. 111. p. 272, P1. XVIT.

figs. 50, 5, c.

diodwla: Everest, As. b. Vol. XVIII. Part 2, p. 114, P1. 11.

figs. 28, a, b, c.

N*c&. Sowerby, Ar Res. VoL cit. p. 276.

NvcrZo msim. Bowerby, Q d . Trans. %d Seriee, Vol. V.

Plate XXII. fig. 4.

Mort of the speoimrns of this rhell are much orusbd, and the

vdrea being united, do not admit of eramination of the binge. A

small cast, however, apparently identical, but probably from a differ-

ent bed, shews that the shell is, as surmised by Mr. Sowerby, a A’u-

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136 On Dr. QrarGs collcetwn of Spiti f o a i b . [No.&

cula. Allowing for the distortion of the specimens, the form so

closely resembles that of N. c w ~ o r m kfrom the Cutch Oolites that

I cannot hesitate to regard them as specifically identical.

Length 1 inch 1 line.

Height 7 lines.

Thickness 7. ,, approximately.


VIBQATA, Sowerby.

Arca. Herbert, Glean. in Sc. Vol. 111. p. 272, P1. XVII. fig. 6.

Arcrr. Evereat, As. Res. Vol. XVIII. Part 2, p. 114, Plate 11.

fig. 27.

&uElcza wgata. Sowerby, Geol. Trans. 2nd Seriee, Vol. V. P1.

XXII. fig. 1.

The specimens of this shell are much crushed, so that their form

is not accurately determinable, but it appears to be identical with

the Cutch species, and is characterbed by similar sharp radiating

ribs, with lines of growth strongly marked towards the margins.

A large concentrically-undulated shell, in bad preservation, rp

pears to belong to this genus. Also a smaller fragment, marked

with deep broad concentric furrows diatinct from the above. The

specimens are insufficient to admit of specific description.

24. MONOTIS coacsnrsxcus, n. s. Plate IV. figs. 6, 6a, 7.

M. test4 obliquo-pyriformi, inaequivalvi, anticb excsvatil, postid

rotundati5. Valvii siniatra inflatii, concentrice undulati ; urnbone

prominenti incurvath. Vdv& dextrP convex&, obliqub orbioului;

margine cardinali recti ; concentric* striatfi, supern* angustb incii.

Length about 1 inch 8 lines.

Width 1 ,,

Thickness 7 ,,

I n form, and in the sculpturing of the left valve, much resembling

Inoceramw concentricus of the Qault. The right valve resembling

Qhat of an Anomicr in form, with a deep linear notch just under the

hinge line. The specimens sre not very perfect. They are embed-

ded in a black siliceous stone, similar to that of the nodulea in which

the Ammonites are enclosed. They are wsociated with Bslcmnitu


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1863.1 On Dr. Gerard’s collectim of Spiti foaeilr. 137


Some specimens of sandstone are full of the valves of an Auicula,

which appeara to be identical with thin widely ranging Oolitic species.

None of them are sufficiently perfect to enable me to identify them

with certainty, but the form of the ornamented valve, and the sculp-

turing, so closely resemble those of the type specimens, that there is

at least great probability of their identity. If any thing, the Spiti

specimens are somewhat more orbicular than those of Europe, but

they vary somewhat in form, unless I have confounded two distinct

species ; a question, which the state of the specimens does not enable

me to decide satisfactorily.

26. MYTILUS XYTILOXDEA, n. 0, PI. IV. fig. 8.

M. tesa semiovatii, elongat& ; antic& truncatii, angulaG planatil,

recta ; postice rotundat8 ; concentric8 striatii, haud costatil

Length 2 inches.

Height 1 ,,

Thii shell has precisely the form of the common Mytilw edulk.

The umbo of the only specimen in the collection, is wanting.

Sub-kingdom. ANNULOSA.


27. SUEW ? P1. IV. fig. 9.

An internal cast of a depressed spheroidal Echinid with narrow

ambulacra, pores in simple pairs, broad interambulacra with five or

six plates in each row, and a very large circular disc, the platen of

which are not however distinguishable. As regards form it might be

either a Cidcrrio or one of the #alenide, but the size of the die0 in

such that it can only be refehed to the latter family. It seems

improbable from its assooiation with Oolitic forms that it should

belong to the genus to which I have referred it provisionally (all the

known SaIsnicM being cretaceous), but the disc is much larger than

any known species of the oolitic Acroaalenia.


Plate I.

Figs. 1,2 u-c, Phragmacone and guard of Belemnites sulcatus,


,, 3, &a Ammonites ncucinctus, Strachey.

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138 On Dr. Gerard’s col2ectior, of &iti jb&. [No.!,

Figs. 4 Ammonites Wallichii, Gray ; a. suture.

5, a-b, Ammonites octagonna, Strachey ; c. mture.


,, 6, 6a, Ammonites Nepalensis, Gray.

,, 7, Twitella P muntium, Blanford.

Plate IZ.

Figs. 1, la-b, 2, 8, Ammonites cmmunia, Sow. Bee note, p. 1%.

,, 4, 45, Ammonites Spitienais, Blanford ; b. suture.

, ,, 6, Suture of Ammonites biplex, Sow.

,, 6, &r, Ammonites Gerardi, Blanf. Sep. b. suture.

,, 7, 7a, Ceratites Himalayanus, Blanf.

Plate 111.

Figs. 1, la, Ammonites Strigilis, Bldord.

!2, 3, Ammonites Wallichii, Gray.


,, 4, ha, Ammonites biplex, Sowerby; b, c first and sixth eutw~

of the same Ammonite.

,, 5, Suture of anothem speoimen.

,, 6, 6a, 7,7a.-A~nmonitee torquatus, Sowerby.

,, 8, Suture of the above.

Plate IV.

Figs. 1, la, Ammonites guttstus, strachey ; b. .suture.

2, %, Ammonites Hyphaeis, Blanford ; b. suture.

,, 8, 3% Pleurotomaria.

,, 4, 6, Cyprine ? trigonalis, Blanford.

,, 6, 6a, 7, Monotis concentricus, Blanford.

, 8, Mytilus mytiloidea, Blanford.

,, 9, Salenia ?

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