Traditional Phytotherapy among the Inhabitants of Lahaul Valley through Amchi System of Medicine

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Observations on Traditional Phytotherapy among the Inhabitants of Lahaul Valley through Amchi System of Medicine —A Cold Desert Area of Himachal Pradesh in North Western Himalayas, India

Parveen Kumar Sharmal, Surender Kumar Thakur, S. Manuja, R. K. Rana, Pardeep Kumar,
Sanjay Sharma, Jagdish Chand, Ashok Singh, Krishan Kumar Katochz
‘Krishi Vigyan Kendra Lahaul and Spiti, Kukumseri, India
Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur, India
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The paper highlights the Phyto-diversity and indigenous uses an ecosystem existing in Lahaul Valley of tribal district of Lahaul and Spiti in Himacjhal Pradesh, India. This is one of the most preferred tourist spot especially for foreigners. The cold desert area of India is known for its specific topography, sense climate and unique vegetation. The valley is rich in high value medicinal wealth and local inhabitants (Buddhist) practice the Tebetan Amchi System of Medicine. Keeping in view the continuous pressure on nature, this paper reflects the Phyto-diversity of Valley, with reference to medicinal and aromatic plants and conservation mechanisms to protect the valuable wealth of the valley and also suggests effective ecotourisim planning of the study area.

Keywords: Diversity, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Ecotourisim, Lahaul Valley, Indigenous Uses,
Tebetan Amchi System of Medicine

l. Introduction
Twenty one year ago the word did not know about the biodiversity. Today, it is one of the most commonly used expressions in the biological sciences and has become a household word. During the National Forum on biodiversity held at Washington DC, w.e.f. September 21-24,1986, under the auspices of the National Academy of Science, Smithsonian Institute, the word spread like fire throughout the world. In the Rio Environmental Summit in 1992, biodiversity dominated the central issues of scientific and political concern worldwide. At global level about 16,04,000 species of plants, animals and micro-organisms have been described so far. However, it is estimated that there are around 17,98,000 species. Of the total species, 4,22,000 flowering plants reported from the world, of which > 50,000 species are used for medicinal purpose.

The high altitude Himalaya is rich in endemic plants [l]. The increasing potential threat to biological diversity ia an irreversible environment disorder that warrant immediate remedial measures for sustainable  conservation of biodiversity. It is believed that the excessive anthropogenic activities are the main cause of decline in population and availability of medicinal and aromatic plants in the Himalayan region [2-5]. The fast pace of tourism in high altitudinal areas are another important factor causing the damage of bio-diverse ecological system [6]. Himalaya is one of the mega biodiversity region of world [7]. The north western Himalaya consist unique habitats to sustain several endemic and rare plant taxa.The vegetation comprises evergreen forests with pure stands of Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, Quercus spp., Cedrus deodara, Abiex pindrnw, Picea smithiana, Taxus wullicviiana and Jtmiperus spp. in dry temperate and alpine regions representing various species composition make the valleys rich in phytodiversity.

The cold desert area covers 35 per cent of the total geographical area in Himachal Pradesh.  A review of literature indicates very few studies on medicinal & aromatic plants and ethnobotany of tribal valley/area of Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh

2. Materials and Method
2.1. Study Area
The present study has been carried out in Lahaul valley
of Himachal Pradesh. The Lahaul valley lies between
31°44’57” and 32″59‘57″N latitude and 76“46‘29″ and
78°4l’34″E longitude. It is surrounded by the main Hi-
malayan ranges on the North mainly Baralacha Pass, the
mid Himalayan range or Pir Punjal on the South, the
Kunjum range which separates Lahaul from Spiti on the
East and the off-shoot of the Pir Punjal range on the
West. In its West, the Chenab river flows into Pangi val-
ley, while in the North-East the Yunan river flows into
Zanskar. The Rohtang Pass (3978 m), the gate way to
valley, connects Lahaul to Kullu district. The valley can
be approached through Rohtang Pass (3978 m) by road
to Lahaul from Kullu, Kunjum Pass (4740 m) road to
Lahaul from Spiti, Baralacha Pass (5019 m) road to La-
haul from Leh, Kugti Pass (5043 m) partially by road and
on foot, and Drati Pass (4725 m) by foot joumey from
Chaurah-Chamba to Lahaul.

The distinctive features of the valley are snow covered
peaks, massive glaciers, view of bleak, sunny, higher
mountain ranges and narrow river valleys. The valley
represents few prominent lakes such as Chandratal, Sura-
jtal, Sissutal and Neelkant along with many glaciers.
Andrew Wilson denoted this valley as a “Valley of Gla-
ciers” [14]. High mountains, water falls, Buddhists Gom-
pas, Hindu Temples and trekking places are some of the
attractions for tourists. The inhabitants belong to Hindu
and Buddhist community.
The district contains 4l Panchyats. The total area of
the district is 13,835 kmz, out of which l,35,369 hectares
are under Forests and 4459 hectares are under cultivation,
The whole area of Lahaul is divided into four valleys
namely, Pattan Valley, Myar Valley, Todh Valley and
Tennan Valley. In the valley soil is more or less loam to
sandy loam with gravel. In the vicinity of villages and
nearby, denuded slopes are subjected to concentrated
year round grazing; hence the soil is equally poor. On the
northern aspects, in folds and hollows as also on easier
slopes, the soil is fairly deep and fertile for tree growth.
It is therefore, the best forests in the valley are on the left
bank of the Chanderbhaga River.
Due to melting of snow, the soil from the upper slope
is carried down to the lower slopes where the depth of
the soil is deeper. At present, soil in this tract is patrtillay
protected by the vegetation. The climate of the area is
dry temperate to alpine types and has distinct seasons.
The summer is rainless due to high mountains. The rainy
season receive very less rainfall. The winter season is
comparatively a large i.e., from late November to early
Copyright © 2011 SciRes.
April. During this period, heavy snow fall occurs in the
The Lahaul valley is also known for its unique faunal
diversity. Some of the prominent wild animals and birds
are Ibex (Capra ibex), Bharal (Psueudais nayaur), Snow
Leopard (Panthra uncia), Musk Dear (Moschus chry-
sogaster), Ghoral, (Nemorhaedus gora/), Himalayan
Mamiot (Marmota bobak), Wild Yak (Bus grunniens),
Himalayan Snow Cock (Tetragallus himalayensis), Hi-
malayn Snow Pigean (Columha leuconola), Crow (Cor-
vus caurinus), Chukor (Alectoris chukar), Bar-headed
Goose (Anser indicus), Snow Pigeon (Culumba leu-
conota) and Himalayan Snow Cock (T etraugallus hima-
Man has been utilizing plant resources for various
purposes since the time immemorial. The documentation
of traditional knowledge would appear to be the “need of
the hour” in view of the current demand for herb based
products. Documentation sen/es to ensure the preserva-
tion of traditional information for future generations. It is
also a step forward in the creation of a database on eth-
nobotanical notes. An attempt therefore, has been made
here to document the indigenous uses of some important
medicinal and aromatuic plants of Lahaul; Valley.
2.2. Surveys and Data Collection
The Lahaul valley has been surveyed under an adhoc pro-
ject funded by National Medicinal Plant Boards (NMPB)
Govt. of India, New Delhi during 2008-2010 to generate
information on indigenous uses of medicinal plants from
the inhabitants. Information on medicinal plants was col-
lected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). After
interaction, the inhabitants were interviewed for utilization
of medicinal plants and aromatic plants, mode of admini-
stration, occurrence in the area, etc. in different valley of
the Lahaul valley.
3. Results
3.1. Treatment by Animal Parts
The amchies keep in their medicine bags animal organs
like; dog or wolf tongue, antelope horns, snake flesh
rabbit heart and bile of beer and tiger etc. for treatment in
eheumatism, epilspsy and pulmonary and bronchial dis-
3.2. Treatment with Mineral Water
Sulphur and mineral springs in Kullu-Manali and Ladhak
area are frequently used in the treatment of headache and
other diseases of brain.

3.3. Puncturing of Veins
The treatment consists of pricking the patient body with
specially needles at certain points. Usually this therapy is
uses for treatment of gout, blood and skin disorders.
3.4. Treatment by Mysticism
Treatment by Mysticism (Tantra-Mantra) is with influ-
ence with stars on human destiny. They treat the patient
by looking at the horoscope for their evil and good stars.
3.5. Other Uses
3.5.1. Use ofShilajit as a Single Medicine
Shilajeet is used as a single medicine in old age, for genel
debility and as an approdisiac. The medicine should be
taken on an empty stomach with milk or lukewonn water.
Peas and pigeons are forbidden in the diet while taking
Dose: 8 mg in first week and thereafter l6 mg for 2“,
3’d, and 4″‘ week. Then the dose is increased by 2mg up to
7 weeks and then it should be maintained.
3.5.2. Other Minerals Used in the Theraphy Are
v Sulphur;
0 Borax;
0 Sodium Sulphate;
4 Antimoni Sulphate;
0 Sodium Bicarbonate;
0 Yellow Arsenic;
0 Serpentine;
0 Quartz;
0 Metals and Bhasmas.
4. Discussion
The present study reveals that there is an intimate rela-
tionship between the inhabitants of Lahaul valley, par-
ticularly native people and plants of their surroundings.
During field studies, it was noticed that a vast treasure of
hidden knowledge is lying with them especially with the
old people living in the valley. A wide range of ail-
ments/diseases ranging from common cold & cough to
asthma, bronchitis, liver, stomach, heart, kidneys, and
cuts and wounds to snakebites are treated by the tradi-
tional healers of the valley (Amchies) with the help of
local plant remedies.
In total, 354 species of medicinal and aromatic plants
belonging to 208 genera and 76 families were recorded
from the Lahaul valley [15-17]. Out of the total 79 plant
species of medicinal and aromatic plants belonging to 37
families and 64 genera have been discussed in the pre-
sent paper which are used to cure more than two diseases
(Table l). The population of Aconitum heternphyllum
(Critically engangered), Picrorhiza kurrooa and Rheum
emodi (Engangered) and Begenia stracheyi and Rhodo-
dendron anthopogon (Vulnerable) according to IUCN
categoirization are very low.
Most of the plant species are in the altitudinal ranges
Table l. Diversity, distribution and indigenous uses of some important medicinal plants and aromatic

plants occurring in
cold desert area ofLahaul valley.
Taxa/Family Local namc
Altitudinalrange Herb/Shru _ _
(m) b/Tree Parts used
Indigenous uses
Allium curolinianum DC. Kcor, Jimboo 3300 – 4000
Angelica glaum Edgew. Chaura 2700 – 3510
Stimulant, diuretic, given with milk after
H Lcafand bulbs delivery); Soup making regarding the
treatment of stomach infections.
ll is beneficial in restoring kidney heat
and treating anemia, debility, lung dis-
eases, stomach disorders and fluid reten-
sion in the joints.
H Roots
Abdominal pain, cold, cough, fever, loss
of appetite, back pain, liver problems,
Bu/iium persicmn B. Fedtsch
Carum carvi L.
Chaerophyllum aromaricum L.
Shingu J eera
2760 – 3700
2700 – 3650
3000 – 3400
H Seeds
H Seeds
H Roots
dysentery in domestic animals and also
used as condiment.
ll is used to alleviate the disorders of the
lungs. Also used in eyes ailments.
Used against Indigestion;
Roots along with mint leaves are acts as
flavor agent.
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Bakhyot ,
F erula jaexchkeana (L.) Vatke Kalyash
Heracleum candicans Wall. cX
DCI Dundu, Raswal
Selimmi vaginatum (Edgew,) Cl. Matosal
Achillea milIe_/olmm L. Shugumemog
Arctium Iappa L. Pichawag
Artemisia biennis Willd. Karkamng’
A. dracunculus L. C31???’
Seski, Nyurcha,
A. maritinm L. Garpeg,
Nyurehi, Scnsi
A. nilagarim (Cl.) Pamp. Chimtara
Cichorium intybus L. Khibsha
Cousinia thvmsonii Cl. Bacha Chawag,
Ec/zinops curnfgems DC. Chawag
Inulu racemosa Hk. Mano
./urinella macrocephala (Royle) Dhoo
Aswal P
Senecio gracili/Iorzls (L.) DC. Zerjum
Sonchus oleraceus L. Panu Aag
2600 – 3400
2690 – 3660
2710 – 3630
2700 – 3600
3200 – 3420
2510 – 3950
2500 – 4000
2600 – 3800
2990 – 3490
2720 – 4000
2500 – 3500
2600 – 3500
Above 3700
3200 – 3800
2640 – 3830
Roots and
Flowering part
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole Herb
Whole Herb
Whole Herb
Used for pain of chest, backache despoti-
dency, fatigue, rheumatism and poultices.
It is used to treat inflammation and pain
caused by vulnerable fever, checks haem-
orrhage and abdominal cramps caused by
the intestinal worms. It is also beneficial in
treating leprosy.
It is used to treat Cough, asthma, hysteria,
nurvus tonic, sedative, incense, spices,
local liquor, antibacterial, analgesic.
lt is used as Canninative, tonic, stimu-
lant, toothache, cough, cold, insect repel-
lent and diaphoretic.
It treats Gastric, burns; burs used for re-
pelling rodents.
Used against obesity.
Acts as Carminative for animals, throat
infection, toothache and in menstrual
Tonic used to remove abdominal para-
sites, anthelmintic, antiseptic, blood puri-
fier, gastric disorder; Edible bunch grass
used for storing the boiled water after
sprinkling the sattu or roasted barley
Abscess, analgesic, anthelmintic, antisep-
tic, antispasmodic, asthama, ear com-
plaints, epilepsy, haemostat, headache,
menstrual complaints, nervous disease,
peptic ulcer, skin disease, sores, stom-
achache, tonic, vermifuge, wounds.
Used to treat Fever, headache, vomiting,
diarrhoea, joint pain, also act as blood
Cure body pain, swelling due to sprain,
Used to cure Cold, cough, promote teeth
of infants, fever, urinary trouble, tonic,
septic, food poisoning.
It is used to treat Asthma, blood purify,
stomach disease, rheumatism, liver com-
plaint, fever, headache.
Roots are Antiseptic, used to cure fever
during child birth, laxative, skin erup-
tion); Religious (incense in temples).
Used as Antidote against insect bite, ring
worm disease, pussed ear.
Used to treat jaundice and liver com-
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Taruxucum o_//Icinrl/9 Wigg. Quanti, Sarkhen
Mentok, Dudhi
Belula utilis D.Don Bh°lpg‘:;3 Shag’
Arnebia euchroma Royle ex Ratanjot,
Benth. Khomig
Onorma hispida Wall. ex G. Don Kaume
ca 1 1 rd»
” ”<‘§‘l‘f.’§.§,fZI‘.’ “‘ @<>’@“°kPa
C. ovata Benth, Golchokpa
Cannabis saliva L. Bharig, bang
Rhodiula heterodunta (Hk. &
Th.) A. Boriss.
Chertupadium botryx L. Ssztilrsll’
./unipems eommlmis L. P°‘”d§‘h§;“k““’
J. polycarpox Boiss. Shur, Leyur
2710-3800 H
3000 – 4000 T
2650 – 4000 H
3410 – 3550 H
Z800 – 3500 H
3400 – 3600 H
2600 – 3500 H
2900 – 4000 H
2500 – 3550 H
2500 – 4000 Sh
2500 – 4000 T
Whole Herb
Bark and other
aerial parts
Roots and
Flower and
Seeds, Leaves
and Stem
Aerial part
Aerial part
Entire herb
Entire herb
Used as bandage of cuts, headache, fever,
liver, kidney, chronic disease of the di-
gestive organs, cure jaundice, inflamma-
tion of the liver, loss of appetite, food
poisoning, antibiotic, tonic, blood puri-
tier, hepatitis, migrains, foreheads); Reli-
gious; Musical instrument; Temporary
tattooing of hands.
Curing redness in eyes antiseptic, antiseptic.
burns, cuts, contraceptive, ear complaints,
hysteria, jaundice, spermicidal, Wounds.
Act as Abortifacient, hair tonic, also used
to treat blood pressure, backache, head-
ache); dye.
Used as blood purifier, cuts, swells, ulcer,
Wound); Religious; (lamma people use
the pink dye for lamistie ceremonies).
Used to treat Rheumatism, swelling due
to sprain, and skin disease.
Medicinal (Oxytoxic, wound).
Used to cure appetite, bowel complaints,
bronchitis, cuts, dyspepsia, ear, eye com-
plaints, gonorrhoea, narcotic, piles, skin
disorder, skin eruption, cold, cough, eon-
vulsions, cramps, epilepsy, laxative, ner-
vine stimulant, paralysis of tongue, sleep-
ing pills Miscellaneous (local shoe: Pula
is prepared).
Used to treat Cough and lung infections.
Used to treat Gastric disorder, Gall blad-
der, liver diseases.
lt is useful against treating Kidney disor-
der, malfunctioning of kidney, liver,
bladder, heart disease, new/ous disorder,
oil—from barriers inhaled as vapors, or
taken in the form of pills, dropsy mucous
discharge, antibiotic for animal, repel
flies); Fuel; Religious (smoke purifier.
against evil sprits, leaves dipped three
times in ara.k or chang as a mark of cele-
Oil is used as antibiotic for animal, repel
flies, nervous disorder, stomach cramp);
Fuel; Timber; Religious (incense, smoke
purifier, leaves dipped three times in arak
or chang as a mark of celebration, against
evil sprits.
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Dioscorea deltnidea Wall. ex K. h
Kunth ms
Hippophae rhamnoides D. Don Sarla
H. xalicifo/ia D. Don Sarla
Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Kmk’ Buchchur’
Cieer microphyllum Benth.,
Fu m ar iaceae
Carydalis govaniana Wall.
Swertia cordala (G. Don) Cl.
Geranium nepalense Sw. Glzggfizgr
G. pratense L. Porlo
I‘[)’]JCVi(‘lIM perj/bratum L. –
Iris kemuonenxis D. Don ex
. Akh t, K ,
Juglans regm L. K530“ a
Ajuga bmcleom Wall, ex Benth. Nealkamhi
Menlha longifolfa (L) Huds. Tak§;‘;1,’;’i‘;”“l’
. Lamay masha,
Origanum vulgare L. Massow
2490 – 3000
2500 – 3900
2600 – 3800
2700 – 3600
2700 – 3600
2900 – 4000
2800 – 4000
2500 – 2900
3000 – 3900
2500 – 3000
2600 – 3200
2700 – 3600
2700 – 3600
Fruits and bark
Fmits and bark
Stem and
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Branches and
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Tubers are Source of diosgenin, a ster-
oidal sapogcnin, oral contraceptive pills.
it is beneficial in treating diseases of the
lungs, blood coagulation and blood cysts.
Used ty treat Cuts, ulcer, wounds, cough,
fever, dandruffof hairs and skin disease);
Edible; Fuel; Fodder; Small timber; Ag-
ricultural tools.
It is a rejuvenating agent and is useful
against the treatment of haemorrhage,
gall bladder, liver, spleen and all kinds of
initial and chronic fevers.
Used to cure mouth disease tongue infec-
tion, jaundice.
Used against excess fonnation of impure
blood. Also used for drying up excess pus
fonnation in lungs and visceral organs.
Herb is also used to heal niptured Wounds
and fractured bones.
Used in treatment of hot disorders of the
gall bladder.
Used to treat Cuts, jaundice, toothache,
ulcer, wounds and stomach complaints.
Used as Naksur, black dye, stomach trou-
ble, jaundice, gastrie disorder.
Used in inhancement of immunity, cures
malarial tever, anti-depressant, a.nti-tumou-
mus, anti-cancerous, anti-viral.
Medicinal (Epilepsy, fever, toothache).
Fruit-coat & bark is useful for teeth clean-
ing, skin diseases, anthelmintic, astringent,
toothache, fungicide, insecticides.
Used to treat Malaria] fcver and tonic for
gastric problems.
Used as carminative, digestive, on wound
to kill maggots.
Used to cure bronchitis, colic, diarrhoea,
bath to ladies atter child birth.
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Thymus Iinearis Benth. Koehi masha 2730 – 3800 H Whole herb
Polygamztum cirrhi/bliuni
(Wall.) Royle
P. verlicillalum L.
M a lvaceae
Malva sylvestris L. Sotsal
M. verlicillata L. Mikanchi
Dacfylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don.)
S00 Hathpanja
Oxalis corniculata L.
Meconopsis aculeata Royle Chharmen
Plantaga depressa Willd. Maran
P. major L. Karecha
Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
Bistorta af/inis Greene Chunru, Kapad
3050 – 3120
2500 – 3650
3100 – 3600
2700 – 2990
3000 – 3400
3000 – 3300
3200 – 4000
2610 — 3410
2600 – 3450
2500 – 3700
2700 – 4000
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Whole herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Used as Antifungal, antibacterial, pain
reliever during childbirth to mother, whoop-
ing cough, epilepsy, skin eruption, reduce
excessive bile secretion, juice, alopecia or
hair loss, spices phlegm counter spasmodic
pains, stomach complaint, cold, toothache,
kill hookworms, liver compliant, heating
lt restores body strength and is useful in
the treatment of pain in kidneys and waist
region, fluid retension in joints and im-
Used to cure Appetite, Nervine tonic,
kidney trouble and also restores body
Used against treatment of Stomach cramp
and whooping cough
It is used to treat dropsy, thrists, diarrhea,
infected sores and dilates all vessel in the
Used as Antibiotic, Wound healing, bone
fracture, cough, cold, cuts, sexual disabil-
ity, rheumatism, blood purifier, tonic, many
ayurvedic and unani medicine preparations
Used to cure Appetite. corns, cuts, dy-
santery, fever, jaundice, rickets, scurvey,
stomachache, swelling, Wart, cataract, con-
It is effective against the disorder of
lungs, liver and inflammation.
It stops diarrhea and also beneficial in
treating fevers.
Used against the treatment of Fever,
cough, gastric disorders and other stomach
It is used for gyaecological diseases like
menstrual irregularity, diseases of uterus.
Also improves blood circulation, helps in
Cures diarrhoea, cheek tlatulenee and
also check dysentery
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Rheum nus/rule Spreng. Archo
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Napchati
Androsace rolundififlia Hardw. Zigsolo marpo
Primula denticulata Sm.
P. raxea Royle
Acomlum heterophyllum Wall. ex Bonga, Atees
Roylc Boa
A. violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf Djllifilmis’
Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. Chutrak
Delphinium cashmerianum Royle Nakamogoma.
R. hirtellur D. Don Goodi,
Thalia/rum minus L.
Fragizria vesm var. rmbicola L. Palla
Rubia cordi/oliu L.
Bergenia ligulam Haw. Stemb. Silpayi
B. strncheyi Hk. & Th. Silpayi
Pedicularis bicurnutu Klotzsch
ex Klotzsch
Lugm serpo
3015 – 3910
2500 » 3700
2730 – 3400
3100 – 3840
2900 – 3600
3600 » 4000
3000 — 4000
2750 – 3500
3200 – 3400
2500 – 4000
2500 ~ 3200
3400 – 4000
3300 – 4000
3500 – 3800
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Entire herb
Fruit and inflo-
Stem and root
Roots and
Rt, Lf
Aerial Part
ll purges epidemic diseases and also
beneficial in treating indigestion and fla-
Helps in treating Boils, colic, cooling,
diuretic, dymenorrhoea, purgative, seur~
vey, swelling of muscle, stomachache.
Reduces excess serous fluid, fever, wound
in the body and sudden swelling.
It is useful in treating wounds, psoriasis
and warts.
It is useful to cure muscular pain.
It is an antitode against snake and scorpion
bite and treats infectious lever. Also useful
in treating intestine infections.
Used to cure cough,
gastrointestinal complaints, renal pain,
rheumatism and stemaehachc.
Restores digestive heat of the stomach.
Also useful in treating indigestion, tumors
ofeold nature, hclas infected wounds.
It ius used against frequent occurrence of
common cold and fcverb due to poisoning,
helps to cure sking deseasest
It stops diarrohaea, dries pus of wounds
and useful in treatment of liceinfcstation.
Used against inflammation, turbid fever,
unripe fever and diffused fever.
it reduces ous accumulated in the lungs
and chest and also helps in treatment of
inflammation of nerves.
It is effective against blood related prob-
lems, fever diffused from the kidneys and
intestinal fevers,
Used against Asthma, boils, cuts, wounds,
bums, fever, liver complaints, ophthalmia,
piles, thirst, kidney stones, urine com-
plaints and diarrhoea of cattlcs.
Cures Kidney stone, poultice, stiffjoint,
diuretic, antiscorbutic, astringent, fever,
opthalmia, tonic, cuts, wounds); Edible.
It is useful in treating liver and gall bladder
problems, excessive seminal discharge,
oedema and hangover.
Copyright © 2011 SeiRes.

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex
Verbascum thaprus L. Tumbm’
Hyascyamur niger L.
Equiseliun arvense L.
Karu 3400 – 4000 H Entire herb
Ja“””“” L°“di’ 2500 – 3900 H Entire herb
It is useful in treating Anemia, arthritis,
asthma, bitter tonic, cardiotonic, cold,
dyspepsia, diarrhoea, intluenz, diuretic,
fever, hepato protective, indig€\’\OUS sys-
tem of medicine, jaundice, liver trouble,
stomach, laxative, pure circulation blood,
neck pain, intemal wound. large dose asca-
ll is useful in curing Asthma, cough,
diarrhoea, dyesentry of sheep, poultice,
skin disease, narcotic, fish poisoning, car
infection, dye.
It subsides pains cused due to pathogen
Bazerbangh 2600 – 3630 H Entire herb diseases, toothache, pharyngitis and also
used in treating malignant ulcers.
It acts as Diuretic haemostatic, propcr1ic-
Khin 2800 – 3560 H Ashes ofplants kidney, dropsy gravel affection, acidity,
‘H-herb; Sh-Shrub; T-Tree.
from 2800 to 3800 m above the mean sea level. It was
observed that the developmental activities like; contruc-
tion of roads, dams and hydropower units had brought
rapid change in local environment, old culture, mindset
of the native people and also threatened to existing flora
and flauna of the valley.
The occurrence of near endemic, endemic, critically
endangered, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened and
threatened species indicated high anthropogenic pressure
and that area has high conservation value. Most of these
species are commercially viable. Mass reproduction for
ex-situ conservation and to ensure availability of quality
planting material for cultivation, together with education
and awareness programmes for large-scale cultivation are
suggested. The old people still says that the superstition is
the best way to conserve this valuable wealth.
5. Acknowledgements
Help of forest officials of Lahaul valley is duly ac-
knowledged. Thanks are due to the inhabitants for shar-
ing important information regarding the use of plants.
The authors are grateful to National Medicinal Plant
Board, Govt. of India for providing financial assistance
through a project.
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