Lahaul Spiti Ground Water Information

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Government of India
Ministry of Water Resources
CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
GROUND WATER INFORMATION BOOKLET
LAHAUL & SPITI DISTRICT
HIMACHAL PRADESH
NORTHERN HIMALAYAN REGION
DHARMSALA
2013
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Contributors
Anukaran Kujur
Assistant Hydrogeologist
Prepared under the guidance of
Daler Singh
Head of Office
Our Vision
Water security through sound management

GROUND WATER INFORMATION BOOKLET
Lahaul & Spiti District, Himachal Pradesh
CONTENTS
DISTRICT AT A GLANCE
Page
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1-2
2.0 CLIMATE & RAINFALL
3
3.0 GEOMORPHOLOGY & SOIL TYPES
3-5
4.0 GROUND WATER SCENARIO
5-11
4.1 Hydrogeology
5-9
4.2 Ground Water Resources
9-10
4.3 Ground Water Quality
11
4.4 Status of Ground Water Development
11
5.0 GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
12
5.1 Ground Water Development
12
5.2 Water Conservation & Artificial Recharge
12
6.0 GROUND WATER RELATED ISSUES & PROBLEMS
12
7.0 AWARENESS & TRAINING ACTIVITY
13
8.0 AREAS NOTIFIED BY CGWA / SGWA
13
9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
13
“ aw zrirervr alf- 2013″

LAHAUL & SPITI DISTRICT AT A GLANCE
Sl. N0 Items
Statistics
. GENERAL INFORIVIATION
i) Geographical area (sq km)
13,841
ii) Administrative Divisions (2001)
a) Number of Tehsil & Sub-tehsils
b) Number of Blocks
c) Number of Panchayats
d) Number ofVi1lages
2&1
2
41
521
m) Population (2011 Census)
a) Total population
b) Population Density (persons/sq km)
c) Rural & Urban Population in Percentage
d) SC & ST Population (in percent)
e) Sex Ratio
31,564 persons
2
100% & Nil
7.08 % & 81.44%
903 females per 1000 males
iv) Annual Rain fall (2012)
455.40 mm
2. GEOMORPHOLOGY
Major Physiographic units
oo Structural Hills
00 Valley F ills
00 Fluviatile Terrain
00 Glacio-Fluviatile Terrain
Altitude Range
3800 — 7000 m amsl
Major Drainages
a) Chenab Basin
b) Satluj Basin
Chandra River, Bhaga River
Spiti River
3. LAND USE (2008-09) in Ha
a) Forest area
b) Total Cropped Area
135400
3600
4. MAJOR SOIL TYPES
o< Alpine Sward (Spiti) 00 Sandy Loam (Lahaul) 5. IRRIGATION BY DIFFERENT SOURCES (2008-09) (Ha) Directorate of Land Record H.P. Net irrigated area through different sources 3359 Ha “ aw zinrvr alf- 2013" NUMBERS OF GROUND WATER MONITORING WELLS OF CGWB (As on 31.3.2013) oo No. ofDug Wells 00 No. of Piezometers Nil Nil PREDOMINANT GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS <1 Quatemary Alluvium oo Older Crystalline / Sedimentary / Metamorphic rocks HYDROGEOLOGY Major Water Bearing Fonnations a)Consolidated sediments / Hard Rocks (Older crystalline / Sedimentary/ Metamorphics) 00 Yield prospects 00 GW structures Covering major part Low (<3 lps) Springs & Handpumps b)Unconsolidated porous sediments (Alluvium) 00 Yield prospects 00 GW structures Valley area (3%) High (10-30 lps) Springs & Handpumps GROUND WATER EXPLORATION BY CGWB (As on 31.3.2013) $2 No of wells drilled Nil Q Depth Range (m) cx Discharge (lps) cx Transmissivity (m2/day) GROUND WATER QUALITY Presence of Chemical constituents more than permissible limits (eg. EC, F, As, Fe) Nil DYNAMIC GROUND WATER RESOURCES (2011) in MCM Not estimated due to localized aquifers O( Annual Replenishable Ground Water Resources cx Net Annual Ground Water Draft o< Projected Demand for Domestic and industrial uses up to 2025 cx Stage of Ground Water Development “ aw WWW alf- 2013" AWARENESS AND TRAINING ACTIVITY cx Mass Awareness Programmes 00 Water Management Training Programmes Nil Nil EFFORTS OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE & RAINWATER HARVESTING Nil GROUND WATER CONTROL AND REGULATION Number of OE Blocks N0 of Critical Blocks N0 of blocks notified Nil Nil Nil MAJOR GROUND WATER PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Nil “ aw WWW alf- 2013" Pz1gc|1 GROUND WATER INFORMATION BOOKLET LAHAUL & SPITI DISTRICT HIMACHAL PRADESH 1.0 INTRODUCTION Lahaul & Spiti is a scarcely populated district, located in northeastern part of the State. The district is entirely hilly and comprises of two major valleys viz. Lahaul & Spiti. The Lahaul valley is located in the northwestem part of the district while the Spiti valley in located in southeastern part. The district, with its headquarter at Keylong lies between 3l°44’57” & 32° 59’57” North latitudes and 76°46’29” & 78°41’34” East longitudes and is covered by Survey of India degree sheets 52C, 52D and 52L. The district is bounded by Jammu & Kashmir State in the north, Tibet (China) in the east, Kinnaur in the southeast, Kullu in the south & Kangra and Kullu in the northwest. The district has a total geographical area of 13,841 sq km, covers about 25 % of the State geographical area and ranks 1“ in area in the State. There are no towns in the district and has 521 villages of which 287 villages are inhabited and 234 are uninhabited. The district has been divided into 2 divisions viz. Keylong and Kaza. There are 2 tehsils [Keylong & Kaza] & 1 sub-tehsils [Udaipur]. As per 2011 census, the district has a population of 31,564 persons with population density of 2 persons per sq km. Population wise it ranks 12m in the State. The male and female population in the district is 16,588 and 14,976 respectively with a female/male sex ratio of 903/1000. The schedule cast population in the district is 7.08 % and the schedule tribe population is 81.44 %. The major sources of irritation are small water channels or the Kuhls in the district and an area of 3359 hectare is brought under irrigation by various sources like surface flow / lift irrigation schemes and tanks. A sizeable part of the cultivated area of the district is not having assured irrigation facilities and agriculturists have to depend on the vagaries of weather. Under the various plans, the construction of kuhls and lift irrigation schemes are being taken up in the district. CGWB has carried out extensive hydrogeological studies both by conventional and non-conventional method in the district. So far groundwater exploration has not been carried out in the district Page |3 2.0 CLIMATE & RAINFALL Lahaul & Spiti district falls in the rain shadow area of Himalaya. The monsoon hardly penetrates and rarely reaches the valley in the fonn of mostly drizzle. The summer months are invariably dry. The annual rainfall in the district during 2012 was 455.4 mm. Snowfall varies from less than 1 m to 6 m and may be higher at higher altitudes, Temperature at Keylong was ranges from -13.2“ C to 26.8“ C during 201 l in the month of January and July respectively. 3.0 GEOMORPHOLOGY & SOIL TYPES The geornorphologial set up of the area is highly complex. The terrain has an immature topography and is traversed by deep valleys and high hill ranges. The district can be divided into two major geomorphological unit viz. Structural hills and valley fills. Structural hills are underlain by rocks belonging to pre-cambrian, palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. The rocks are generally trending in NNE-SSW and NE-SW direction with steep slopes. Escarpments and hogbacks are common features. Valley fills include both fluviatile deposits and moraines. These deposits occur as narrow and elongated strips along the main streams. The glacial deposits are under the influence of running water and have been temied as glacio-fluviatile deposits. Fluviatile terrain is demarcated in the lower reaches of both the Chenab and Spiti rivers. These are having thick vegetation. The width of these deposits is generally less than 3 km and are not unifonnly distributed. Glacio-fluviatile deposits are confined to the upper reaches of drainage system of the watersheds. These areas are either along the snowline or near to it. Mostly these are demarcated along the river/stream courses. These valleys are broad and gently slopping, generally devoid of any vegetation cover. The width of these deposits is more in northem parts in Lahaul valley. In Spiti valley, the important glacio-fluviatile deposits are along Kasima nadi, Puigulung Takpo, Perang river and Khemenger river. Glaciers are widely distributed over the central and northern parts of the district. The main glaciers are aligned in EW or WWN-EES direction with their offshoot glaciers in north-south direction feeding the tributaries of various rivers in either direction. Bara Shingiri glacier is located in the southern part along the Great Himalayan Ranges contributing water to both Chenab and Spiti rivers. “ aw am-rvr a'¢- 2013 " Himachal Pradesh LAHAUL & SPITI DISTRICT PHYSIOGRAPHY & DRAINAGE [AdSense-B] Page |5 Geng’s Tang and Kelas Buk glaciers occupy the eastern part in catchment of Chenab also occur in the Central part. The other minor glaciers in the southem parts are Talshah, Tapri-Lamini, Raighar and Sara Ugma glaciers. Most of the soils in Spiti may be called alpine sward as the upper stratum of earth and vegetable mould is filled with incompletely decomposed roots of grass and other small plants. The depth of the fertile undisturbed horizon varies from 0.3 m to 0.6 m. Due to melting of the snow from the upper slopes; soil has been carried down to the lower slopes where the depth of the soil is deeper. The land in Spiti is fertile. The nature of soil varies from place to place. The nitrogenous and phosphatic content varies from medium to high. This is due to the scarcity of rainfall, high altitude, weathering of the mountain rocks from where water comes for irrigation in the fields. In Lahaul valley, the quality of land and its produce is homogeneous throughout the tract. The nature of the soil varies little and it may be described as a light sandy loam. 4.0 GROUND WATER SCENARIO 4.1 Hydrogeology The hydrogeological framework of the area is essentially controlled by geological setting, distribution of rainfall, snowfall and porosity of rocks constituting aquifers. Geologically, the area is underlain by the rocks of Proterozoic era to the quaternary period. Hydrogeologically, all these fonnations can be divided into units namely fissured and porous formations. Fissured formations are constituted by hard rock formations ranging in age from Precambrian to Mesozoic and composed mainly of granites, gneisses, slates, phyllites, quarzites, schists and limestones. These rocks are generally massive and devoid of any primary porosity. However due to tectonic activities, secondary porosity has been developed along fractures, joints and faults zones. Weathered zones rarely form any aquifer because of their poor thickness. Sometimes contact zones of rocks unit forms poor to moderate aquifer. These are developed occasionally for localized and domestic water needs in low topographic areas. Ground water occurs generally under unconfined conditions and ooze out in the form of springs. Discharge of the springs varies from mere seepage to more than 20 lps with temperature varies from l0°C to 25°C in nonnal temperature of springs and 26°C to 60°C in hot water springs. This spring Water is utilized for drinking and irrigation purposes. Porous formations include both fluviatile and fluvio-glacial deposits. There is no development of the alluvial terrains in the valley as most of their river courses flow through narrow valley portions between well defined compact and hard rock valley walls. In broader valleys, like on the right banks of Bhaga and Chandra Bhaga rivers where older glacial terrain exists, large cultivations are being practiced. The Width of these deposits varies from less than 500m to about 2.5km with increasing thickness of sediments towards the center of valley. These deposits are isolated and discontinuous and fomis potential ground water aquifer. “ aw am-rvr a'¢- 2013 " Page|6 LEGEND I I Z T I I I I I I T Himachal Pradesh LAHAUL & SPITI DISTRICT GEOLOGY 0 25 so m kilometers Thrust Elhalai ~ Salkhala Group ( Neoproterozoic) Spiti Formation (Jurassic) Tandi Group (Permo Triassic Jurassic) Lilang Group (Triassic - Jurassic) Kuling Group (salooni Formation)! ( Devonial to Permian) Kunzamla/'|'hango/'|'aki:he Formation ( Lower Cambrian to Silurian) Dalhousie-Mandi-Karsog Granitoids ( Lower Cambrian to Silurian) Batal Formation (Neo - Terminal Proterozoic) Manjir Formation ( Neoproterozoic) Giumal - Chikkim Formation (Cretacious) Vaikrita Group (Mesoproterozoic) W$E 5 N “ am #711-rvr at 2013 ” Page |7 Q 1122 Grnug / F arm ation Lithologg GW structure / Yield Potential Cenozoic Quaternary Fluvial / Fluvio- glacial / Alluvium Sand, silt, pebbles, cobbles, boulders > Springs are the
natural sources.
> Shallow dugwells /
shallow tubewells
structure feasible.
>Moderate to High
yield potential
(l0-30 lps).
Mesozoic
Cretaceous
Giumal-
Chikkim
Formation
Sandstone,
siltstone, shale,
conglomerate.
Jurassic
Spiti
Formation
Shale, sandstone
and siltstone.
Triassic-Jurassic
Lilang Group
/ Kalhel
Formation
limestones,
shales, dolomites
and sandstones.
Penno – Traissic-
Jurassic
Tandi Group
Limestone
Palaeozoic
Devonian to
Permian
Kuling
Group
Quartzites,
Sandstones and
Black Shales
Lower Cambrian
to Silurian
Kunamla—
Thango-
Takche
Formation
Shale, schist,
sandstone,
dolomite
Lower Cambrian
to Silurian
Rohtang
Granitoid
Granitoids
Proterozoic
Neoproterozoic
to Terminal
Proterozoic
Batal
Formation
Shales, phyllites
and Quartzites
Neoproterozoic
Manjir
Formation
Bhalai
Formation
(Salkhala
Group)
Sandstone,
limestone, shale
Slates, schists
slates, phyllites,
quartzites.
Mesoproterozoic
Vaikrita
Group
slates, phyllites,
quanzites, schists
> Springs are the
natural sources.
> Shallow borewells
feasible.
>Low to moderate
yield potential
borewells (l-5 lps)
Ground water generally occurs under unconfined to semi-confined conditions.
Recently State Irrigation and Public Health Department has drilled shallow borewells fitted
with the handpumps. The depth of these borewells varies from 35.40 to 70. l2 m bgl. Depth
to water level varies from 7.84 m bgl at Koksar village to 59.38 mbgl at Maragaon village
while discharge ranges from 12 to 20 lpm.
4: n
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GROUNDWA TER CONDITION
GW under wateriable to semi-confined condlion,
High yield (10-25 lps), wells and tubewells feasible,
Groundwater quality good.
Fills Z]
GW under waterlable lo semi-confined condlion,
Fissured high elevation aquifers
Low yield (< 5 lps) , springs & handpumps \ _ A sszs A B1 54 6 X 6‘z5)§§‘Q~ \¢‘*‘$P>
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Water table follows the topography and the fonnations encountered are valley fill
deposits consisting of sand, gravels, pebbles & cobbles. There are two locations, which are
worth mentions from the point of view of development of ground water viz. Jispa and
Udaipur.
Jispa lies on the right bank of Bhaga river with a gently sloping ground fonned by the
deposition of scree material brought down from hills in the north east due to melting of the
snow. This unconsolidated accumulation of sediments may form a site for exploring the
possibility of the construction of suitable ground water structure i.e. open dugwell or a
tubewell depending upon the availability of adequate saturated thickness of the sediments.
Udaipur town and the Chandra Bhaga river exists a gently sloping alluvial plains merging
with the river large amount of debris consisting of huge boulders and finer clastics is
brought down by Miyar Nala and deposited in this valley called Patten valley. This alluvial
flat plains is located with in few meters height from the river level and is suitable for
development of ground water resources.
Springs are widely distributed all over the area in all types of fonnation at varying
altitudes. These are the major sources of water supplies both for irrigation as well as for
domestic purposes. Springs are of both fracture and seepage types. The fracture types of
springs exist in the low topographic areas either along structurally weak zones or at the
contact of geological formations where as seepage type of springs are formed on the slope
of hills covered with loose material such as talus and scree. These springs are both
perennial and seasonal with varying discharges and temperatures. Springs get recharged
from rainfall and snowfall. Discharge of these springs generally increases during the
summers. Irrigation and domestic water supply needs are met from these springs. The
discharge generally varies from seepages to more than 20 lps with temperature varying
from less than 100 C to 250C in normal temperature springs and 26°C to 60°C in hot water
springs.
4.2 Ground Water Resources
Snowfall / rainfall is the major source of groundwater recharge apart from the influent
seepage from the rivers, irrigated fields and inflow from upland areas whereas discharge
from ground water mainly takes place from effluent seepages of ground water in the fonn
of springs and base flow in streams etc.
The district has a hilly terrain having very high slopes. The valley areas are deep, narrow
and isolated. The areas therefore not considered for estimation of the ground water
resources due to their discontinuous aquifer systems.
“ aw am-rvr alf- 2013 ”

DISTRICT LAHAUL l SFITL HIMAOHAL PRIOESH
“WIN. GIOUID WATER QOAII)
KIIUSTIIV OF WMSR RESGICES
u MI OJ
=1-;fl…’=?
FM, .
&&:.4;~.“_nm_c
5%”:
. ‘l
§,\’
.v“”’
4.
< Hard "Wk Spring 30-2000 aquifers development Check dam, Check dam cum ground water dam, Recharge shaft Reservoir - - - Fault/lineament ' Spring \ Major drainage — — — — Tehsil boundary - — - District boundary - ' - State boundary “ am €‘f?1\"1'"T at 2013 ” 4.3 Ground Water Quality agc 111 National Hydrograph Network Stations has not been established in the district so far. However, the water samples collected from various sources like spring and handpumps during the various hydrogeological studies revels that the overall ground Water quality is good and is suitable for all type of uses. HS/cm S. No Parameter Ran e Min Max 1 pH 7 35 7 80 2 EC 91 141 T.D.S (mg/ 1) 23 90 3. HCO; (mg/ 1) 11 34 4. Cl (mg/1) 2.1 5.30 SO4 (mg/ 1) 4.5 30 Ul . NO; (mg/1) 2 3 9“ F (mg/ 1) 0.16 0.30 >1
Ca
(mg/ 1)
3.3
17
O0
. Mg
(mg/1)
1.20
5.20
>9
Na
(mg/1)
0.35
1.40
10. K
(mg/1)
0.45
1.30
11. TH as CaCO3 (mg/1) 15 65
The EC in ground water is below 1000 uS/cm at 25° C. Other chemical parameters are
also within the permissible limits. Thus it can be concluded that the over all quality of
ground water is good and suitable for domestic and irrigation use.
4.4 Status of Ground Water Development
The major chunk of demand for domestic and irrigation use is fulfilled by means of
either spring or nallah sources. Most of these sources are perennial with low to moderate
seasonal fluctuation. At places they are tapped by the irrigation department for
implementing water supply schemes.
Ground water exploration has not been carried out by CGWB in the district because of
hard approachability for the heavy machinery. However state Irrigation department has
drilled number of shallow bore wells fitted with handpump in various parts of the district
for domestic use. The depth of these bore wells ranges between 100 to 200 feet. At places
where the discharge is sufficient, depending upon the need, they are energized. These
handpumps are installed in hard rock hilly terrain and also along the river valleys.
“ aw am-rvr alf- 2013 ”

Page \l2
5 GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
5.1 Ground Water Development
The district being hilly & mountainous, traditional sources of ground Water mainly
springs has played a major role since past in providing assured irrigation and Water supply.
These include the nallas, springs. In some of the areas, at present too these are the only
sources for the water of the settlements. However modern means for tapping the ground
water have been employed in recent years.
During the last 15-20 years, Irrigation and Public Health Department has constructed
number of small depth bore wells fitted with handpumps in these areas. High hill ranges
occupy more than 95 % of the area of the district. During the very past years, the
traditional ground water source has served the settlements. Ground water development on
small scale is seen in the valleys areas particularly in the Lahaul and Spiti valley.
Handpumps have been installed in these areas and are energized for the water supply.
There exists a scope to explore the potentialities of rest of the areas for ground water in
low lying valley areas. The hilly area of the district is feasible for only drilling shallow to
medium depth bore wells.
5.2 Water Conservation & Artificial Recharge
Ground water extraction through springs and hand pumps are the major sources of
water supply, but the availability of water during summer is limited particularly in lean
periods and requires immediate attention to augment the ground water resource. Based
upon the climatic conditions, topography, hydrogeology of the area, suitable structure for
rain water harvesting and artificial recharge to ground water are required. Proper scientific
intervention for spring development and revival is required in water scarce areas. In the
hilly areas, roof top rainwater harvesting structures like storage tanks are recommended
while in low hill ranges, check dam and roof top rainwater/ snow harvesting structures can
be adopted.
6 GROUND WATER RELATED ISSUES & PROBLEMS
The entire district is hilly and mountainous and comes under the rain shadow area of
Himalaya. In such hard rock terrain, since the aquifers are discontinuous and of different
geological/hydrogeological setup, the ground water scenarios are different in various parts
of the districts.
Most of the ground water issues and problems in the district are localized and need to
be treated independently by taking micro level studies in a particular area.
“ aw am-rvr a’¢- 2013 ”

P:1gc\l3
7 AWARENESS & TRAINING ACTIVITY
Mass Awareness Programme (MAP) & Water Management Training Programme
(WMTP) by CGWB
No Mass Awareness & Training Programme has been taken up in the district.
Participation in Exhibition, Mela, Fair etc
CGWB has not participated in exhibition, Melas so far.
Presentation & Lectures delivered in public forum / Radio/TV/Institution of
repute/Grassroots association /NGO/Academic institutions etc
No presentation/lecture has been delivered in public forum so far.
8 AREAS NOTIFIED BY CGWA / SGWA
As per Ground Water Resource Estimation of Himachal Pradesh as on March 2011, none
of the areas of the district is notified.
9. RECOMMENDATIONS
> In valley areas, in addition to traditional ground water structures like springs,
shallow to medium depth tube wells can be constructed for developing the ground
water resource.
> In hilly terrain, springs and perennial nallas are the major sources of water. Shallow
to medium depth bore wells fitted with hand pump are useful ground water
structures for meeting the domestic needs and are feasible at favorable locations.
> Traditional source i.e. springs need to be revived, developed & protected on
scientific lines for various use. The discharge of such springs can be sustained by
construction of small check dams or subsurface dykes across the nallas/tributaries
at favorable locations.
> Small ponds/tanks can be utilized for recharging ground water. These structures
can be constructed for harvesting and utilizing domestic needs.
> Snow water harvesting practices can be adopted in hilly areas since the district
receives ample snowfall.
> There is need to create awareness for water conservation, augmentation and proper
waste disposal for protecting water sources.
5452‘,/g Marga – siufa um;
“ FIT-T am-rvr a’¢- 2013 ”

For Technical Assistance Relating to
Rainwater Harvesting
Q
Artificial Recharge to Ground Water
Contact:
CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD
NORTHERN HIMALAYAN REGION
Dove Cottage, Ram Nagar, Dharamshala
(H.P)
Phone: 01892— 224775; 227160
Telefax: 01892-223535
e-mail: rdnhr-cgwb@nic.in
tsnhr-cgwb@nic.in
Szkl/Pl HUMAQNITY
“ FIT-T am-rvr a’¢- 2013 ”