Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur Himachal Himalaya by Bhargava 1998

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Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur Himachal Himalaya by Bhargava
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(C) INDIA. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (1998)
The Director Genera], Geological Surveyof India,
R. N‘ Dana. Geolo gisl (Sr.) S. S. Bose, Geologist (Sr.) Abir Gupta, S.T.A. (Geology)
The Director, Publication and Informatoin Division,
Geological Surveyof lndia_ 29 Jawaharlal Nehru Road,
Calpum-700016
The Deputy Director General. Geological Survey of
India. Operation IV, 29 lawaharlal Nchru Road‘
Calcutta-700016
An Union Priming Works (P) Ltd.
165, Sri Arabinda Sarani
Calctma-700 006
This volume entitled GEOLOGY OF SPIT1-KINNAUR. HIMACHAL HIMA.AYAis  dedicated to Maharnjapuram Siiaram Krishman. former Head of the Geological Survey of India IGSI), whose birth Centenary is commemorated this year – 1998 by various organisations with which he was closely associated. ii was generous of Dr. S. K. Aeharyya, the present Head of the survey, to give me the privilege on this ovcasion. to oiTcr a tribute to Dr. Krishnan. with whom 1 was closely associated. Little is knoum of the early life of Dr. Krishnan except he was born of humble parentage in 1898. in the village of Maharajapuram (Tamil Nadu) and that he had his schooling in the district headquarters at Tnnjorc (Tamil Nadu) where by winning successive yearly scholarships he was able to complete his school education. llc later joined the Presidency College, Madras and took his M.A. degree in Gcolog with high distinction that eamed him a scholarship for higher leaming in Geology at the imperial College, lnndon. He worked with Professors W. W. Watts and J. W. Evans and obtained his doctorate in Geology ..mng with Associate of the Royal College of Science and Diploma of the lmperial College. Dr. Krishnan joined the Geological Survey of lndia as an ofllcer in I924, when the department was a white man’s preserve. His high academic qualifications. hard work and personal qualities. in a short time, eamed him the respect of his white colleagues. Among Dr. Krishnans several monographs. scientific papers, reports, notes and his other Jrofessional attainments. the following stand out : l. Field work in Gangpur State (GSI, Mem. Vol. ll, 1987] 2. Being a man of strong convictions and foresight he gave a dissenting note in the Coking Coal Committee for adopting stringent conservation measures to stop rapid depletion ofour Coking Coal resources. 3. Setting up and Organising the Southern Circle of the GS! at Madras and training a group ofyoung geologists who later rose to eminent positions. 4. His. continuing; efforts for the exploitation of the then newly discovered lignlte deposits in Tamil Nadu due to which. at present. part of the thermal power generated is met for this state. 5. The comprehensive compilation by him ofihe Mineral Resources oft]-fen Madras Presidency (including parts of present Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka] even today is very good reference book (GSI Mem. Vol. 80, i952). 6. His studies on the Structure and Tectonic History oflndia [GSI Mern. Vol. 8i. i953]. 7. His contribution on “Iron Orc Deposits ofMiddle East and of/isia and the Far East” (Suwey ofWorld iron Ore resources : occurrence, appraisal and use. United Nations, Dcpi. of Economic :~n’|(l Social Affairs. New York. 1958]. B. His text book ofGc0loQ’ of lndia and Burma will evcr remain his monurncnial contribution. 9. A firm believer in lhc dissemination ofknowledgc, he rncouraged his daughter Mrs. Akhilanclcshwari Subrainziniam to translate his Condensed version of Geology of India into liindi for the benefit of those in the Hindi hvartlaind of our country. It was the only book on flit: Geology of [nrlia in llindl. Dr. Krislmun \\ft1>’ the first lndian Director of the GSI. lie was either closely associated with or
nr|.5.inisi:tl the iiiidcriiiciitimicd departments and was l-lend ofinost of them in lhc forniativc years. They
art” [ll ll’l(llt’llll§lIl’L‘Jll1I)l A-‘lilies, l2]l\to1nic Minerals Dcpartmcnl, [Li] Indian School nf Mines, l4) National
(‘-i‘liiilii.’~iinil l{t”~’r’iii’\ l| lnsiilutr and [5] Dept. :)f(“‘-rnlnq\’ and Cicupliysiifs,/\nrll1ra University. He was for
.1 wlnlw Ull‘lt‘i r on Spcrinl l)nt_\’ .-it thr Ministry in New f)cllii in l‘orniulni(‘ plans fnr Ml11(‘l’Lill)€‘V(‘lO[1Il’it‘[|l.
ili- was Li ni-‘inlv:.’r nl’-v.‘\’L’r.il lr:.’irn|~ti s<ir.’i(‘ti<‘s.
‘-~~ i El-.l:: in l{i’!\llI‘|€|ll rust‘ llll1li4‘|‘ t||;in his i’l1\liil)lC pr0l’t‘S.sinn€il attainments. H1‘: was It \’z’ih1u’.l
lli\’ii’l it-E v~< iilw !”iii.‘~ lint! 1 wilt? iii‘ .ll‘\\.l‘.‘.~ .|~.»||l.ilil» for help. ifrequircci. llc ll|.L‘LllCLllCCl the qualities of
i1nmi‘1!_’.’ owl i:i~’.l- \.- ri ill iiiqli Ilillll.lHLf .lll\’l slnnila‘ |l\‘lli|_f llc had no respect for the (‘[2155 distinctions in
om-.*i’iiin’ ‘n .*—| i l- ti tlliil ‘.\”.i:~ ill\‘.’.”~’ \ 1-i|i.\1rli~i.i|i~ wilii those who worked with him. His door in ihc nflii <- \\.-Tr» »il\‘.’il‘ \ :~;_-1» [Emir ilislzni ll-‘ii’\ ;-irrl iinncmrs hurl lllt‘ least effect on him like water on a duck‘s bark. ll1\l‘>fit’i‘|’ll ior pow‘ snlili nl . ! mi 5i- r~nn.:ll_\=.<‘.v.i|’s>;i|1rll1c \\/as over ready to help them with tuition or
cxtiiiiiziaitioii fc:-s wlivn ‘tll)I‘\l’ll:l‘ in-tl tic l‘ilFHt‘(l. respc-ct without least expecting it.
l)r. Knslmmi nus rmlowetl with clrnr thinking as is evident from his precise factual and lurid
style nl writing wnli r’l’l\“p .s.cntrncz~s. Bring a master of condensation. he had the ability to separate the
CSSl‘flll2’llS from u lit.»-.i -if l>cwil<icrini;’, tlelails and prescnt views without distortion or bias.
Dr Krislman. before his death, was conferred the title of Padma Bhushan by the President of
lndia for his outstanding scwires to his country in the field of Earth Science.
Wherever Dr. Kn’sl1ni’|n\v0rk(‘d. he had set up exacting standards for his followers in the profession
and it should he remembered that he did not spare himself either. For him his day began and ended with
Geology.
His life is a beacon light and offers inspiration to succeeding generations ofgeoingists to dedicate themselves
to the cause of Earth Science in general and to India. in particular.
<’_T.>-Q5/¢–=~
Chennai. (J. Swunl Nlth)
September 8th. 1998 Former Director General
Geological Survey of lndla

FOREWORD
The Spiii Valley, which exposes an almost uninterrupted squencc of the Eocaiiibrian to the Certaceous
sediments, has been a classical area for stratigraphers since the days of Gerard (I827, 1841) The Kiruiaur
area, on the other hand, was earlier believed to be essentially a Precambrian terrain Recently, Palaeozoic
and Mesozoic sequences have also been studied front this area indicating that the Kinnaur area probably
constitutes t.he Western limit of the Kumaon-Tethyan basin. Although Palaeontological accounts of tarious
localities of the Spiti-Kirinaur bclt have been provided by a number of workers from time to time, no
detailed and systematic lithostratigraphicfbiostrtitigraphic studies with adequate section measurements and
sedimeiitologieal studies have been tuidertaken in the belt as a whole after Reed (1910, 1912) and Diener
(I890-I915). Consequently, detailed classification of the sequence as per the Intematicinal Code of
Stratigraphic Nomenclature and precise age limits of the various units remained incomplete.
The present Memoirs Volume by O. N. Bhargava and U. K. Bassi provides ii fairly comprehensive
account of this relatively unltnown part of the Himalayas and strengthens the foundation laid by Hayden
(I904). The vmtc-up is based on rigorous and painstaking mapping work undertaken for a period of more
than one decade by the authors in the tough, inaccessible and inhospitable terrains of. Spiti-Kinnaur, the
noi1.hemi:nusl outposts ot‘ Himachal _Pradesh. The study provides It S)’5l6l1\i.lllO litliostratigraphic classification
of the sedimentary sequence into fairly vicll-defined “Groups” and “Forinations” Efforts have been made
to determine the age of the various fonnations on the basis of fossil assemblages. The classification takes
into account the merits and demerits of earlier attempts put forward by various workers from different
localities of tlic Spiti-Kinnaur belt. An attempt has also been made to work out the fncies variations,
environments of deposition of the various litho-stratigraphic units and the sequence of tectonic events that
have shaped the geological evolution of the terrain. An interesting pan of the work is the comparative
analysis of the Tethyan sequence of the Spiti-Zansltar, Kinnaur-Kuniaon and Kashmir-Cliaiiiba-Tandi areas
and their broad correlation The volume is expected to evince interest in the geoscicntisls. Far and wide.
and those working in the l-linialayiis, in particular.
0
914,1/cf
( S. K Acharya )
Director General

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks are .due to the Director General,
Geological Survey, of India. for permitting to publish
these data.
SB figures illustrated in this publication havebeeri
fully or partly reproduced with kind pemiission of the
joumals in which they were published. These are:
loumal. Geological Society of India, Bangalore.
Figs 2.9, 2.14. 2.67. 2.87, 2.89, 2.90, 3.17, 3.18,
3 36. 5 6.
Journal. Palaeontological Society of India,
Lucknow Figs. 3.33, 3.35-3.40, 3.45, 3.51, 3.53,
3.56-3.59. 3.6], 3.62.
Bulletin. Indian Association of Sodimentologist,
Aligarh Figs. 3 58, 3.59, 5.26_ 5.27.
Current Science. Bangalore. Fig. 2.43.
Bulletin. Indian Geologists Association,
Chandigarh. Figs. 2.6, 2.~7l, 4.29.
Journal ol‘ Glaciology, London. Figs. 1.6. 1.7.
Tectonopliysics. Amsterdam. Figs. 4.32, 4.33.
Facies_ Erlarigcn. Figs. 2.22, 2.28, 2.29, 2.31,
2 84, 2.88. 2.90, 3 1|. 3.13. 3.11-3.19, 3.41-3.45,
3.47. 3.50.
A. K. Raina. Director, when posted at the Liaison
OlTice. Delhi. expedited clearance of maps by the
Ministry of Defence. B.K Alok, Director, got a speedy
clearance of maps from the Survey of India.
The line drawings and maps were drafted by
Gulshan Kuinzir Luihra and I-iarmesh Singli.
The initial draft of the text was painstakingly
typed by Rakesh Kumar. The final manuscript of
this write up was meticulously prepared by Dr. J.U.
Rao and S.C.Nagal and could be directly sent to
press.
Prof. I. B. Singh was kind enough to accompany
us to the Losar-Takche section during August, I990.
H8 provided a new insight in the study of broad
environmental parameters of the PalaeozoicAsequenoe.
Ho also kindly loaned us 22 figures (photographs)
illustrated in the present write up (Figs. 2.5, 2.18,
2.19, 2 21. 2.99. 2.100, 4.31, 5.1-5.5. 5.7—5.l2a1\d 5.16-
5.19).
Exciting discussions weie held with S.V. Srikantia
regarding facies and thickness variation of various
sequences in Zansliar.
R. N. Srivaslava and S.K Gadhoke helped ONB
in section measurement and petrography of the elastic
rocks. S Chopra, Des Raj. Inder Sirigti, A. Banerjee
and late B.M. Dutta and late AK. Chattopadhiiya
assisted UKB in various field and laboratory studies.
These colleagues, besides technical help, provided
excellent company in the field.
Timely meals were served by Mitler Lat, Bhim
Bah.-idiir and Bishambar La]. Logistics were efliciently
managed by Nasib Singh and Hiirdeep Singh.
departmental drivers and Norbu, Nima Rani, Hira
Singh and Suriridei, the muleteers.
Our wives Malti and Sushriui bravely put up
with our long absence in field and prolonged working
hours in oflice and laboratory at Chandigarh. Tl-int
they provided encouragement instead of nagging is
entirely due to their kindness and deep understanding
We are eternally grateful to them.

CONTENTS
FOREWAIID
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
[N’l’RODUC’l’lON
1.] I./OCATION AND COMMUNICATION
1.2 CLIMATE
1.3 1-lABl’l‘A‘I’l0N
1.4 PHYSIOGRAPHY
|..4_l Ranges
1.4.2 Glaciers
1.4.3 Dminage
1.4.4 lakes
l-.5 GEOTEERMAL RESOURCES
1.6 PRESENT WORK
STRATIGIIAPIIY
2.1 EARLY PROTEROZOIC
1.1.1 Jmri-Wangm Group
2. |.2 Rampur Cvmup
2.2 PRECAMBRIAN CRYSTALLINE SEQUEN CES
OF UNCEKTAIN AGES
2.2.1 Kulu Group
2.2.2 Julogh Gmup
2.2.3 Vhiktita Gmup
2.3 EOCAMBRIAN – PALAEOZDIC
2.3.l Hainulnta Gmup
2.3.2 Sanughn Group
2.3.3 Knnawlr Gmup
2.3.4 Kuling Group
2.4 MESOZOIC
2.4_l Lilang Group
2.4.2 Iagudani Group
2.5 QUKHERNARY
2.5.1 Glacial – Glacio-fluvial Dqpsiis
2.5.2 Fluviil Deposits
2.5.3 lacusirine Deposits
2.5.4 Thlus Dqsocils
2.6 (§1lAN11OlDS
2.6.1 Wangm Gmup
2.6.2 Kulu Gruup
2.6.3 Jqtogh Gimp
2.6.4 Vailaita Group
nnocnnnv
1.1. CLASTICS AND ASSOCIATED
VOLCANOCLASTIC aocxs
1.1.11 Hai|nn||l1GIfiIlp
l
5-.1-_|\1:~a>-v-rm

3.1.B Sanugba Group
3. l.C Kanawar Group
3.1.D Kuling Group
3.1.E Lilang Group
1 l.F Lngudarsi Group
3.2 CARBONATE MICROFACIES
3,2,A Hznmanla Group
3.2 B Sanugbn Group
3 2.C Knnawar Group
3.2.D Lilang Group
3 2.E Lzrgudnrsi Group
STRUCTURE
4.1 MANIFESTATIONS OF THE PRECAMBRIAN
TECTONIC EVENTS
4.1.1 Rifling and Unconforrmry
4.1.2 Folds
4.1.3 Regmnal Melamorphism
4.1.4 Basement Slrucrurcs
4.2 MANIFESTATIONS OF l’HE CAMBRIAN
TECTONIC EVENTS.
4 2 1 Unconforrnzly
4 2 Prc-Ordovician till and folds
4.2.3 Physiogmphrc features
4.3 MANIFESTATIONS OF THE EARLY CARBONIFEROUS
TECTONIC EVENTS
4.3.1 Bnsinal physiogmphy
4 4 MANIFESTATIONS OF THE CRETACEOUS
TECTONIC EVENTS
4.4 I Secondary Planar Slructurcs
4.4.2 Folds
4 5 MANIFESTATIONS OF THE TERTIARY
TECTONIC EVENTS
4 5.1 Folds
-1.5.1 Faulls
4.6 MANIFESTATIONS OF THE NEOTECTONIC EVENTS
4.6 1 Drrecl Evidences
4 6.2 Indirect Evrdcnccs
4.7 SEE~SAW TECTONICS
4 8 CONSTRAINTS IN THE DATING OF THE
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
BASIN KNALYSIS
5.1 FACIES AND ENVIRONMENT OF SEDIMENTATION
5.1.1 Harmama Group
5.1.2 Sanugba Group
5.1.] Karuwar Group
5.1.4 Kuling Group
5.1 5 Lilang Group
5.1.6 Lagudarsi Group
5.1.7 Quaternary
5.2 SHORE-LINE OF THE SPITI BASIN
5.3 BASIN MORPHOLOGY
5.4 PROVENANCE


515 PALAEOCLIMATE
5 5.1 Palaeozoic
5.5.2 Mesozoic
6. TIZTHYAN SEQUENCES OF SPITI – ZANSKAR, KINNAUR – KUMAON AND
KASHMIR – CIIAMBA – TANDI: A COMPARISON AND CORRELATION
7. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY
8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
9. GEOCIIEMICAL EVENTS ACROSS THE PERMIAN – TRIASSIC
BOUNDARY IN THE SPITI VALLEY
9.1 DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF RARE EAKFH ELEMENTS
9.2 IMPLICATIONS OF THE REE ANOMALIES
REFERENCES
LOCALITY INDEX
APPENDICES I-XX
Lilhoslraligraphic details of various sedimentary sequences
PLATES
Plate 1 (Sheets 1-4)‘ Geological map of Spiti-Kixmaurarea with stratigraphic column
and geological cross-sections in pocket.

1. INTRODUCTION
The Spiti Valley (Fig. 1.0) in geological litera-
ture was first referred by Gerard, A. (1827, 1841).
Since then this valley, which exposes more or less an
uninterrupted Eocambrian to Cretaceous sequence,
became straiigraphers‘ delight The geological de-
tails of the Spiti Valley in earlier years were fumished
by Gerard (1833), Hutton (1839. 1840, 1841), Everest
(1841), Cunningham (1344). Theobald (1862), Hlanford
(1863, 1864).Stolicz1<a(l864_ 1865, 1868), Davidson (1864),Godwin-Austin(l864. 1865. 1866)‘ Mallettlaos), McMahon (1879). Greisbach(1889). Dierier(l895_ 11197, 190J)andvonKrafl(l899, 1900) I-layden(l904)mapped and presented an account of various formations which till this day provides a sound edifice for any detailed work. Th: Palaeozoic fossils of this region were stud- ied mainly by Reed (1910, 1912) and those of the Mesozoic sequence by Mojsisovics (1899), Uhlig and Steiger (1903). D1ener(1912.1915), von Kraft and Di- encr(1909), Holdhaus(l9 l])and Spitz(l914). There was a lull in the geological studies in the Spiti Valley aher the publication of Hayden‘; Memoir, till .1 hingran er aI(l‘)50) traversed this area along with the Royal Danish Expedition led by Bet-thelsen (1951, 1953). metune N i I’ Lwl-/ennuacuioan N | _ ./-tn-st \ more \\ 0 A YIICMI LAGUDIISI v 2 i 4 I »l\|Il{ln LA ‘:.|_4″|| ’§* uni -mtteitm -i J- .“ \ L. O IO 2OKrn \ v IIIJ‘ Vii] q o PIIPII1-II (I 4 a p – OIJINIL at ‘~~,~+ ,~’..§2?.Z‘A » \ um ‘ -~’-“°”.”\* riuitie uc>uiii:_/ | . ”
\_~ta”.wvr:“”‘“ =~–=
HARD 4′
\ mm ovum lllliyll
.2“
Illtttll n +

. . R4058”
HE. 1.0. Map of the Spiti Volley showing important
localities

Besides Mallet ( 11165), the mineral investigations in
the Spiti-Kinnaur area were carried out by lyengar
(I949).1(ai1iia.iaandBhargava(l962. 1963). Kathiara
and Venugopal (1964) and Kathiara and Raina ( I965].
The mapping on modern toposheets (1:50.000)
of this terrain was first undertaken along the main
Spiti and Parahio valleys by Srikantia (1974. 1981),
who classified various sequences under standard
lithostratigraphic ‘subdivisions. These subdivisions,
Specially those er the Palaeozoic rocks, have been
found to be valid upto Lahaul-Zanskar in the NW
(Srikantia er of, 1978; Srikantia and Bhargava, 1982)
and also in Kinnaur in the east (Bassi, 1989)
The entire Kinnaur area lying to the east of
the Satluj in earlier maps was shown as a Precambrian
terrain. The Palricozoic and Mesozoic sequences in
this area were first reported in the Baspa Valley by
Bassipnd Chopra (I978) and in the Gyamthing and
Hojis valleys by Bassi el at’, (1983). The Palaeozoic-
Mesozoic sequence in Kinnaur shows elements
common to both the Kuniiion as well as the Spiti
areas. The Kinnaur pai1 forms the western limit of
the Kumaon Tethyan Basin.
Practically no systematic palaeontologtcal stud-
ies have been undertaken in this area after tltose by
Reed (1910. l9l1) Mid Dlener (1890. 1907. 1908,
1917.. 1915). Bhargava. and Kathiara (1969). Jain cl
rll. (1972), Jain and Gupta (1973). Jain and Mani-liken
(1975), Bhatt and Joshi (|97fla.b). Blialt el at. (lllR1a_
b). Shah and Paul (1987), Gncl (1977), Gnu] and
Srtvastma (19711), Clioprri or nl, (19112). Mehrotra
er al, (I982), Kato er al_ (1987), Gael er 12/ (1981,
1984. 1987), Pant and Azmi (1983). Bhargiita and
BHSSI (1985. l‘?t!fi. 1987) and Bliargava and Gadhoke
(1988) have provided local palaoontological details.
Bcstdcs these. there are numcroiis publications on
the palaeontology of Spiti-Zanskar and Kinnnur areas
by V 1. Gupta and his associates (Talent rt nl, 1988.
198‘), 1990 for detailed bibliography) Howe\‘t”r_ none
of these was found to be reliable during a rcvrcw by
the Geological Society of India (Anon, l~!‘Jl) and
Shanker er ul, (1993), hence not quoted here. The
biostratigraphic accounts of the Palaeozoic rocks
are not enough to permit precise fixation of the age
limits of several fonnations. hence unsuitable for
modern aonations.

I Mem. Geol. Surv. tint. v|]|. t2-t
1.1 DOCATION AND COMMUNICATION
Spiti and Kinnaur (Fig. 1.0) form the northenu-nost
out-posts of Himachzil Pradesh. Spiti is bound in the
west by Lahaul, in the north by Ladakh and in the east
by Kinnaur and Tibet. Kinnaur has a common border in
the west with the Simla district. in the north with Spiti
and in the east with Garhwal and Tibet. The NH-22
(Hindustan-Tibet Road) and the NH-2l (Manali-Leh
Rflfld) pass through Kinnaur, eastern Spiti and Lahaul-
Ladakh areas. These roads are linked by the SH-30
(Sumdo-Kant) and the SH-3 l (Kala-Kholisar) through
4547m high Kunzam Pass. The NH-22 between Simlaand
Narkanda is located along the physiographic divide
between the Indus and Ganga systems. Beyond
Narkanda, it descends to the Satliij Valley and passes
through Nirth, Rampur. Wangtu, Karcham, Morang and
Pooh, whereatter it follows the Spiti River and eoiuiects
Khab. Change. Shallrar and Sumdo. The NH-21 links the
l1’l|\3t1l Valley with Manali through 397Bm high Rohtang
Pass.
A few fair-weather link-roads connect Kaza,
the sub-divisional headquarters of Spiti, with Kibber,
Lalung, Guling and Dankar Gompha. The interior
of the Valley has to be negotiated on foot.
Not even welt defined mule-Paths exist in the
terrain where Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sequence is ex-
posed in the Kinnaur area. Most of the areas in
Kinnaur, except for a few roads linking Yangthang
with Nako and Leo, Khab with Namgiya, Shiasu
with Ropa, Spilo with Kanum, Morang with Thangi
and Powari with Kalpa and Kareham with Chitkul,
have to be approached on foot. The old Hindustan-
Tibet Road between Pcwari and Lippa provides access
to some pans of the sleep gorge of the Satluj.
1.1 Cl..lMA’]’l-I
The Spiti-Kinnaur stretch, situated to the north
of the Great Himalayan Range, falls in the rain
shadow zone. lt receives but scanty rains during
the monsoon. The annual rainfall in the area is less
than 30cm which qualifies it to be classified under
cold desert Like any other desertic area, there arc
occasional heavy showers in Spiti-Kinnaur also.
This area wiuiesscs prolonged winters between
October and May, with frequent and heavy snowfall
from Noi ember to Febniary. The annual averagc snow-
fall is 150cm, in certain valleys it even exceeds 600cm.
The avcragc humidity for most part of the year is less
than 30%: only during monsoon it locally touches 80%
in the lower reaches nfthe Kinriaiir district
The southern part of the area, forming venruri
between the broad Tibetan Plateau in the north and
the broader valleys flanked by the lower hills of the
Outer Himalaya, receives northerly winds. These,
whipping up sand and dust, have an average veloc-
ity of I5 knots during the summer and 25 knots
during the winter.
The snow starts melting around June. The
summer months arc, therefore, ideal for outdoor work.
However, being devoid of bridges, the Ciyundi (Hal),
Ratang. Ullah, Pin (all in Spiti), Gyamthing, Tidong
and Arsomang streams, due to melting of snow,
swell to urifordable levels. The working period in
these valleys is. thus, restricted between mid-Au-
gust to September, when the melting of glacier is
considerably arrested due to fall in atmospheric
temperature.
1.3 I:IABl”l‘AT10N
The villages in the area are far and few with
sparse population. Both the Spiti and Kinnaur ar-
eas find mention in ancient Hindu scriptures.
Hidimba. one of the wives of Mahabharat-fame
Bhinisen hailed from Lahaut-Spiti district. T-he
chiselled featured inhabitants of Kinnaur have been
described as Kinners in the scriptures. The Pandavas.
during their proverbial journey to heaven. possi-
bly, passed through this area, leaving behind the
tradition of polyandry.
The main religion in southern Kinnaur is Hin-
duism, whilc in the northern Kinnaur and whole of
Spiti it is Buddhism, Traditionally the eldest son
and daughter take to family life, the younger ones
become lama (priest) and chomo (nun). The Spiti
Valley has the pride of having a I000 year old
monastery at Tabo, which is now a protected monu-
ment. The Ki Gompha (Fig.l.2) in Spiti is a sort of
university where hundreds of lama: are trained. who
afler graduation, are deputed to difl’crcnt monaster-
ies in Lahaul, Spiti, Kinnaur and Ladnkh.
1.4 PHYSIOGRAFHY
The Spiti-Kinnaur terrain. ensconced in be-
tween the Dhauladhar and the Great Himalayan
Ranges in the south and the Zanskar Range in
the north. constitutes one of the most riiggcd
and inhospitable terrains in Himachal Pradesll
The Spiti and Kinnaur terrains arc dissected by
the mighty Satluj and its tnbulary, the Spiti (Fig.1.!)
The general altitude of this area varies from lfififlin
lo G770m above m s I.

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, Himaclnl Himalaya

Fig‘ I. A \|c\\ 0! Kl (inmplm. Fplll Vnlluy Hcsidw.-s lvcmp a |nnnu~:lcr) |\ also svtvcs as n emu of lum|1|ng Fig. 2
UIz|<|r|:< ~:m|lh of lhc Luisa l’ns.~:_ Spin-Ki!\|\aur d|\‘|Jc Fig. J. Bmary glaucr, G_\am|l||ng Vulluy Fig. 4. Hnngmg
Vnllvv plnucr Mnngsu I.u Fig, 5. Kcnncnrculnv cnrquc of n small gla\:\cr_ Baspa Vullcy Fig. 6. filacml lalvlv: Itili and
pcmlu-d |m\||\|c| (Pb). Hnspn glncmr

4 Mem. Geo]. Surv. lntl. Vol. I14
1.4.] Ranges
The crests of three mountain ranges that vari-
ably encircle the region retain a perpetual snow
cover. The twin Leo-Pargial peaks fall in the Zanskar
Range. These soar to 6770m and 6608m reqreetjvety
and represent the highest elevation in the area. The
Mariirang (6593m) and Kinner Kailash (64llm) peaks
are sited in the Great Himalayan Range. The height
of various peaks on the Dhauladhar Range varies
between 4t§77m to 579lm.
The main ranges SW ofthe Kinnaur-Spiti di-
vide trend in NW-SE direction with a gradual swing
to E-W towards north The trend continues upto
Losar on the right bank of the Spill River. On the
lefi banlt. beyond the Lingti .\’m’a_ the ridges re-
sucwe to NW-SE The northern stopes olthe moun-
lains are precipitous.
I.-4.2 Glaciers
The Spiii arid Kinnaur areas, specially the latter,
are abode oi‘ numerous glaciers. These glaciers
(Fig.l.3) mostly originate at 5500m or above and
extend down to -t700m-4300m The cirque floors, on
an average. occur at an approximate elevation of
50001ri. The Baspa. Gala. Hania. Chor Garland Lingti
are themost important glaeiersofthearea. All the gla-
ciers are ofthe valley type, with a maximum length of
Ill km (e g Haniit. Baspa) The larger glaciers have one
or more tributary glaciers. formingbinarjvor compound
glaciers respectively (Fig I 4). Due to general reces-
sion. several tributary glaciers have become stranded
and art: confi iied to hanging \ title) s (P g. Mangsii La.
Fig l 5] ln the zone ofnccumulation. the larger gla-
ciers are t irtually ice fields. hating well defined semi-
cirmilar cirqucs (Fig 1 6) The tributary glaciers are
mostly replenished by avalanchcsand only a [cu have
their oun cirque: Bergschninds are common along
ice-cirque l\flll contact
1 he ablation surfaces of glaciers from cirque
to <t!0tJl are replete Vlllh perched tables (Fig I 7}
as taigc as Jm it Ttm x lm. undisturbed morainic
cones. dust uells as wide as 1.5m and Jm deep.
cretiisscs and criglacial lakes (Fig.l.8). The gap-
ing and tapering longitudinal and transverse joints
in the g’acial body provide channel for surface
streams Some of these streams. due to greater
depth and extension of longitudinal jotnts. he-
cninc subsurface and re-emerge downstream along
some other joint Well rounded cluts found in
l\plC2ll morainic material are due to action of such
tntiu-izlacial streams
The snouts of most of the glaciers are in the
form oflflm-20m high steep walls(Ftg.l K). Theseare
largely covered by rock fragments. The ice forming
the snout face shows banding due to impregnated
debris. These bands. owing to varying movement of
different pans of snout. show conspicuous fold pat-
tems. The snouts have one or more tce caves (Fig.1 .8),
from which the subglacial streams emerge.
Seven temiinal moraines, extending upto 200m
downstream otthe present snout, are identifiable in
the Baspa Glacier. The lateral moraines‘ constituted
of angular clasts, occur along the flanks ofthe gla-
ciers. ln the Baspa Bamalt, undisturbed right lateral
moraine is observed for a couple of hundred metres
downstream of the snout. In the Tumur Glacier. a
three kilometre long lateral moraine ridge is pre-
served. Palaeo-lateral moraines occur upto Z()tlm
above the present glacial surface indicating the extent
of loss of ice volume. At the confluence of glaciers.
the lateral moraines, if present. merge to form median
moraine (e.g’Baspa, Arsomang, l-lania. Gara etc.).
The glacial movement causes extensive polishing
and grooving of the valley floor and the watts. tn the
present glacial valley, such polishing has been ob-
served upto 2.5 km downstream of the snout of the
Baspa Glacier. Features reminiscent of mche Ittnrtlrrnnre
have been carved over sandstone of the Kunrarn La
Formation by the Baspa Glacier. Polishing and striations
are well preserved over the outcrops of the Takche and
Muth Formations (Fig L9), exposed along the lefi bank
of the Spiti River at Takche.
A series of moraines lower don-ti l|lC present
day snout, stranded terminal moraines and glacial
tables reveal that all the glaciers are retreating The
lorya and Baspa glaciers have retreated at to.-isi hi
100m (Ameta and Swain, I982). and 75tlm (B-rssi
at nl. l98l) in 14 and 33 years respcctiicly The
average retreat rate. thus. works out to 20m pct
year This annual rate of retreat is, l10\\c\’et cumu-
lative and apparent. as the years of rctrcat are tntrr-
sperscd by glacial advance also
The present geomnrpliologv evolved with
remoulding olthc prccvistlug l0t10t;”iPl1.\’ hi” Elililelfi
tit the onset ol‘ the ice agc Horns, cirqut-<. serrated ridges and ‘U’ shaped tallcys dale hack to this stage Am”; am 5wfl|;| (Willi, based trn floor level of the cirques in the area. suggested the Htitcrlfiil Pl an active orographic ‘Firn Linc‘ at 500″ tn “I “W Western Himalaya The inflated and advancing (;m|q;y at Spifl-Kinnznr, Bimnchal Bimilayl S -_»_ __ .” Elplnnlllon 0|’ Figs. 1.7 – l.ll Flg. 7. Fnglncml l||k:_ Bnspn Ollmm, Kmnlur Fig. 8. Slccp fnccd Snnul wilh aw. Arsnmang Glacier. Baspu Vnllcy Flu. ‘1. Quaternary gllcusl minlmns on lhe counlry ruck, lcfl hunk oflhc Spni Vnllcy, near Tnkchc Figs. I041. Filled- up lmsil Vnllcy of the Sutluj (I0) nl Hojis conflucncc_ (ll) ll Murlng ‘ Mam. Gaol. Surv. mu. v»|. nu | Figs.|.|2~|_| w “_-__ nix‘ > ‘ .-J – . 1, .
;#!-“-Mir‘-1~:.4
– ‘- (.’a,_|1.\-| -1 __ —
L__ii..’_.
hpllnlflo of lip. LIZ Ind l.l3
Fl; I2. U-uhlpcd Spin Valley. nhowing wide llcullrine term.-ml. viaw from d
shaped Buy: Valley in lower reaches, ll Kuchlm
own mum of HI]. II; I3. Narrow V-

Geology of Spiti-Kinn
glaciers extensively scoured and transported the rock-
waste, thus, widening the valley. De-glaciation Yslrefll
in the lower reaches lefl large trails of morainitr
ridges, drumlins and hanging valleys.
1.4.3 Drainage
The Satluj and its tributary, the Spiti, consti-
tute the main drainage of the areal The Satluj rises
in Tibet and cuts across the Zanskar Range to enter
India, close to the Leo-Pargial peaks and the Great
Himalayan Range in the vicinity of the Kinner
Kailash. The Satluj has an asymmetrical and ob-
lique course as related to the Himalayan Ranges It
follows a N’E’§SW course,whereas. its tributaries flow-
ing in NW-SE directionjoin it at right angles form»
ing an orthogonal trend. The low order streams show
dendritie, whereas, the Satluj and its principal tribu-
taries fon-rt trellis patterns. The Satluj course is replete
with fossil valleys, some of which can be observed
at Pooh near l-iojis confluence (Fig. 1.10), at Morang
(Fig, l.l l) and Shongtong. These occur at 5 rn (at
Morang) to 300m (at l-Iojis confluence) above the
present day river bed. The fossil valleys mainly
occur along the left bank. The Satluj shows ero-
sional terraces along the eastem bank indicating a
westward shift of the river. Major nick points exist
between Pooh and Karcham.
The sharp elbow turn of the Satluj, at its
confluence with the Spiti at Khab, indieates captur-
ing of the valley of the latter by the former (Small,
I970) As the level ol” the Satluj bed is higher than
that of the Spiti, the piracy, possibly, occurred due
to headward erosion through some subsidiary tribu-
tary across the Zanskar Range. The observation tends
lo suggest that the Satluj,’perhaps, is not an ante-
cedent river in a classical sense,
The Spiti River rises along the eastern slopes of
the Kunzam Range, from where upto Hal it flows in E-
W direction, whereafter, it has a NW-SE course up to
Dttnkar. Beyond Dankar, it reacquires an E-W course.
From its source to Sonam (Soman)_ the Spiti occupies
a broad U-shaped valley (Fig, l. I3)‘ Downstream of
Sonam and upto Sumdo. it flows through a rather.nar-
row gorge. At Sumdo, near its confluence with the Pare
Whit, it takes an abrupt turn to south suggesting pi-
racy ofthe Pan: Valley (Ameta, I979). The nick points
tn the Spiti and llS tributaries. the Pin~Parahto and Ltngti.
Occur between 3500-3700m.
The Baspa is the next important tributary of
the Sattuj lt originates in the Dhauladhar Range
~ if s
\ 6 |// / ‘
‘%’ / //
\ ; P \ “~
T2\‘Ql>‘ * »
ttur, Himachal Himalaya 7
(/
Mr,
\\\
Fig. 1.14. Broad U-shaped Bnapa Valley in upper IHt=|’I¢I.
upstream of Dunthi (Stretched from a photograph).
and has a wide ‘U’-shaped valley in the upper reaches
with local braided channels and ‘V’-shaped in the
lower reaches (Fig.l. l 4). The other important tribu-
taries in Kinnaur are t.he Ropa, Taiti, Kashang.
Mulgaon, Yula, Wangar, Tidong, Gyamthing, Hojis
and Titan.
The main tributaries of the Spiti, in order of
docrmsing importance. are Pin-Pat-ahio, Gyundi. Stills.
Lingti, Rataog, Yulang and Lipak. All these have
‘U‘~shaped valleys, especially in the upper reaches
(Fig.l.l5). Several of these show fossil valleys
(Fig.1.l6).
1.4.4 Lake!
Though there are several palaeo-lake beds, only
two still retain water. The Yang Tso is located in
the Spiti Valley along the course of the Yang Nala.
Further down below, the stream en-suing out of it
leaps into a water fall. It shows evidence of consid-
erable shrinkage in the form of a vast dried lake
bed (Fig.l.l’l), Another small subcirctdar lake is
located at Nako village. Excellent lacustrine clay
bed is exposed at Ganfa (Fig.l.l8).
1.5 GEOTBERMAL RESOURCES
Numerous hot springs are known invthe Spiti
and Kinnaur areas. Those in the Kinnaur part are
lorxtted along the Satluj Valley and in the Spiti along
the Pare Chu. In folklore many of these springs are
considered to be of therapeutic value. Shankar and
Prakttslt (1977), Das (t9s2). Plalrashand Bajaj(l983)
and Jangi and Bajaj (I934) have examined various
hot springs of the area.
Various attributes of Lltese springs are sum-
marised in table l.l.

Mam. Gaol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
Fiqs. |.l5— l.I8
,». ”
-7‘
– ‘mi
~ _ -_ ‘
‘fin _ . _
__
Explnnllinn of Figs, I415 – LIB
Fig. I5. llqhapcd Palxhm V||IIc\_ upslrcnm nf Kaga Nulu cunfiucncc Fl], I6. hllcd up fimsnl Valley nl lhc Pun
Lungpa – a lnhmary of lhc Spun River Fig. I7. l)r|v:d up Ink: hm] uf lhc shnnkmg Yang I’so_ nlnng the course nl
lhc Ylng Nola Fig. Hi. Lucuulnnc cluv dcpmnls. lac (imfn

Table 1.1.
SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT SPRINGS IN KINNAUR-SPITI AREA
(Complled aflzr Shanker and Prakash_ 1977; Daé, 1982; Prakash and Bajaj, 1983; Jangi and Bajaj, I984)
Hm Spring R|\:r Valley Henglu fivm
Rlvcrbed
Rock Funnalwn
Tm» in pH Ducharge
“C
lillmls
Sails n
Onfice
mhns
‘l’DSmq;n-n;wnu:r 3 Sp. BIlGlElII|‘Ll|’l
um lype nfwntcr cmducuviiy eelcius
(N-.|<c.
Banl ,z|nc|-gas llrough on.-r
bu-dun
Pun-thhul Khad
(Suluj Valley)
150m
Gneum whim
(.|eori- Wunpa
Gncilic Conqzlex)
_4OAC _
711
25′
Tbél icon? 151′
I996
83.5: )
1
Tqrl (I)
fl?)
Snluj “=1 Tnpri
Snluj 2 km
upstream of Tlpn
1|:-|
Gmun, schln
(Isl!-Wl||§u
Cinziuic Conqzlen)
11°
400
S
8.1
E
l0-Z0
SulPimn:us
TDS 213
TDS Z6!
32$
310
91″
T’
Kflcham (=;
(ls)
Snluj awnm-m
of confluemz wnh
Ban”
lm
30m
Qu.u1zn.=_Sch\sl
(JIMQ1 ‘3\’°”P)
48°
400
7.6
1 9
50
15
TBS l2I0
TDS H03 NaCI
_’lP°
I781
I741
nslh

I.
Thbpun. slang NW-SE
jmnu
a, b §al1llj(righl
banx) our
c. d Tho7anDcg1
n rand level
l0mi.b\7vc|‘
kb
One-in(lG\aw
mm;
42°
8
100
(cumulu-
liv: for
four
SulPhuro¢.Ls
TDS 362 7 7
456
59“
5.’
Bamn
Rigllbnnk offinlluy
ncarBAnn Dogl
om. (Khan:
Gnein)
28°
8
Jfif’)
SulPhu1’ous
TDS 1575 \
c.-1-|co,¢y;-= l
Z113
I78“
6
Slxlbu. 0|rouy\ Qnuumuy
i sediments
I befi bank offiallu;
Sm
mm“;-um
50°
‘LS
75
TDS 671
$30
511°
7
Chuu (Sumdo ) scanned
over 18km. emerges
thmuyu overburden near
Knunk Fault
lug» mu of
Farcfhu
83
Schin (Mann;
Fcnnnlion)
29- 59°
7.1m
7.4
I000
(cumu-
htiw for
SulPP|u|ous
39554280
4990
S20 S
a4.4°
33
EEJPL
m(I[n|||!|; |‘Il,|JIll1lH ‘1nvuug)|-g1gdg_|0 flqoag)
~c

Table 1.2::
PRESENT WORK HAYDEN ‘ SRIKANTIA
DOMINANT U904 ,_|906) (I974 , I98!)
NANDA B SINGH
(I97?)
|_|m0|_0s~r \ ?
snoop FORMATION SYSTEM/SERIES E GROUP/FORMATION
FORMATION /MEMBER
—“— *_ * G U N G R I lLP) PRODUCTUS SHflLElP)
NG
(P)
GUNGRI M.
— _’__’, ‘7 |<u|_|nc ~~\-/\r-1 ’
– – ‘,_’_’ GECHANGIEPLCALCSANDSTONEIPI
KUL
Fm
GECHANG M.
RALQKUNG Fln
[PI
. /;,. _/ __’- _ _ __A__’ fa‘; _ \ fr iii ii
‘, . n _”‘ ‘ —
_ P E R M
CD FE I GANMACHIDAM ‘ “ N
=– ‘ – ‘J (LC—EPl
_ conmomsnns (P),
at
0
GANNIACHIDAM Frll
_”“c¢“”‘ ‘
P0156) PO u.c)
WAR
(C
PO Fm
U
~.»
MEMBER C
ZE
‘ ” KANAWAR 1
– D: :1: ‘
L1FAK(LD-EC)
_\’_ 332- |.|PAu lD—C)
_KANA
LKFAK Fm
TAN
MEMBERS fl—B
_. . . .- MUTH(LS-LO)
MLITH (LS?)
MU
TH mm-|.n) |<:n|.u~c Fm (0) cE2PcD,d3:z>- W
mucus (LO-L5)
—.%.i_—sAnucaA
THAN so 101
o 0 0 , ,, , 0
SILURIAN (S)
TAKCH E Fm (L5—ED)
TNANGO F|I\
Tnnrnz F15-(s) \
_— _‘ -__’—_ KUNZAM LA (E-m-2)
E-—’_—‘|-IAIMANTA “ii”
‘ I”. —_ T_ BATALlPn3 -4:)
_ ‘ _ —_ HAIMANTA u-:1
5|-nnsu:
Pfi “_1
I
A MANTA
(P€—E5)
H
BATAL Fm
(J
z === -’?’=F’*”””””‘“”“””””‘\_\,J ” ” ”| K A R § {zen .0,
KUNZAM LA Fm ‘
PHE Fml€)
|>++
H
P+
-+
+
\__ \_-qVAIKRI’Tfl MORANG SQLKHALA GR‘ SUHU
as-mm) E—-“”-‘-*‘ CRYSTALLlNElP€)
K H A R 0 nounuc <;NE|Ss|c
-4-Tsrromc ads: -1- -4- -L 4-* ii’ COMP“! ~ ‘
E—EAR|.v, M-MIDDLE, L— LATE
5
‘l”l\ ‘[“|l ‘-‘\-“’15 935) “-“W
Ill

Table 1.Zb
\ \ HAYDEN SRIKANTIA NANDA B SINGH
DOMlNANT PRESENT WORK U904 A908) fig|79*”V14,|9g|) (I977)
LITHOLOGY GROUP FORMATION SYSTEM /SERIES GROUP/FORMATION FORMATION/MEMBER
GROUP
E cn-unxmu (ex-uu cmnutm nu cmxxm rm
\
_. _. _|_mu°nsI \ snunm. IEIU cnumu. Sn nu j uuunn rm mus F’ \
(KI
__-‘ ‘— -—- SPITI (LJ—EKl SPITI SMILE ILJ) _ SPITI Flu
I
I
K83
T—LJ
_ ‘* ” v\,~,\,~_,\/~,-v»\,\A_~,-_-_-\,__, —
_* til: ‘-‘_ ‘_
_ ____ I Q =.,.m.1¢
-‘E11 ‘ ‘ ALAROR u_’r| mouons SHALE
‘ 3-;
____ D-
..m….¢m, coin. LII A»
– — * * “”‘*”° K iiciév TO H‘
;|:_ g_2’__ ja SANGLUN6 lL‘l’! Juvkvnes BEDS‘
ALIROR Fm
GROUP
ZAIIGLA F0
(1’)
,
LANG
NIIOLOISA rm ‘
\
_ _ _ ~ DAONELLA ” ” anus: rm
_ _ _ __ KAGA tun‘) “ML! 2
v-——-—-——-——-—–— ‘
CMOIULE (M-Ln “no.” “D \
uA0u:LLA Ln _ \
ordczansazos-J ‘
“”“ ‘E “T, “”“”°”“-‘“‘ 5
Lk
onscouronmwv “”“ ‘“”””-“‘ 7″ ‘ i
:- nan, M -mmm.s , L — LATE
ads J” flows
uh ll!!!” |c|pzlu!H ‘-‘“'”“¥7l’l

l2 Mem. Gail. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
L6 PRESENT WORK
The present publication gives the geological
account of Spiti and Kinnaur based on surveys camui
out by the authors. In this venture, R N. Srivastava
and SK. Gadhoke were associated in the Spiti Valley
during I982-83 and 1983-84 respectively. Both of
them can-icd out section measurements, while the
mapping was carried out by 0.N. Bhargava (Bhargava
fllld 5l‘iY6$l8\’a. I933; Bhargava er al, I984, I985,
I987. l99l; Bhargava and Gadholte I985, I988).
U.l(. Bassi. S. Chopra, B.M. Dutta, Late AK.
Chattopadhyaya, A. Banerji, l. Singh and Des Raj
(Year-wise details are fumished in mappers’ index)
were associated in Kinnaur and parts of Spiti and
Ladakh (see inset in Sheet No.2).
Despite construction of roads along the main
valleys. the tributary valleys and the divides in
between these still remain inaccessible or extremely
difficult to negotiate. With such physiographic con-
straints, the mappable stratigraphic sub-divisions
adopted in this work are such which provide colour
and/or lithologic contrasts. Of these, the latter is
excellently manifested in the physiographic expres-‘
sions of the area. Both these help in identirying
different lithounits of inaccessible areas from dis-
tant vantage points (eg triangulation points) and
also in the aerial photographs. The Spiti Valley is
sparsely populated, hence there are very few locali-
ties which can be utilised for naming the fumin-
tions. It is quite often that no geographical name
exists in the vicinity of good stratigraphic succes-
sion of a particular formation. Also some of the
well’known localities (Lg, Thango, Lagudarsi Pass,
Charana Pass) are not marked on the topographic
maps. These limitations have resulted in naming of
a few formations after the localities which do not
aflord their best sections. Tttltche. Gechang, Kioto
and Chiltkim Formations are such examples. For
lilhostratigraphic groupings, the tramgressive and
regressive cycles, with due emphasis on
unconforrnities, have been taken into consideration.
However, formations which show local overlap: or
qtteniondale breaks (e 3. base of Gungri Formation),
have been tentatively classified under the same
SWIF-
At the time the present authors commenced
mapping, at least three Iithonratigrapltic classifica-
tions existed (Table-1.2a A b). Nanda and Singh
(I976) used the names Phe, Karstta, Tltaple and
Kenlung for Cambrian. Ordovician. Silurian and wetl-
ltnovrn Muth Qiartzite respectively. No ltntigraphic
thickness of the newly proposed formations as re-
quired by the Code of the Stratigraphic Nomencla-
ture was furnished by these authors The Phe For-
mation, representing undifferentiated Halal Forma-
tion and non-calcareous part of the Kunzatn La
Formation, is ill-defined. The name Karsha in type
area rtpresents carbonate sequence of the Kunzam
La Formation of Middle Cambrian age and is not
mapable in Spiti-Kinnaur. Moreover, Karslza and
‘Silurian Limestone’ have been interchangeably used
The T_ltaple Formation of Nanda and ‘Singh (I976)
represents green, grey, red and purple slate with
partings of calcareous sandstone followed by con-
glomerate, red and purple, highly calcareous sand-
stone overlain by conglomerate. This, presumably,
represents a part of the Thango Formation of Srikantia
(I974, I981), though no reference IS made by Nanda
and Singh (I976) of the enormous thickness of
quartzite sequence found at this level. The Thaple
Formation is overlain by the Kenlung Formation
(!Mut.lt Fonnation) and no mention has been made
by Nanda and Singh (I976) of any sequence equiva-
lent to the Taltehe Formation, which is developed
between the Thango and Mulh fonnations. The name
Kenlung and Tame for well-known Muth and Lipalc-
Po formation! respectively are obviously superflu-
ous. Due to these ambiguities, the nomenclature
proposed by Nanda and Singh (I976) has not been
adopted in the present work. Goel and Nair (l971_
I982), in localised section, used Shian Quartzite,
Pin Limestone and Thanam Limestone for the
Ordovician sequence. The mappability of these units,
as required byithe Code of Stratigraphic Nomencla-
ture, was not established. Moreover, limestone is
only locally developed in the ‘Pin Limeslonc’, at
defined by Goel and Nair (I977, I981). Of late,
Ranga Rao n al, (I987) added a few more new
names like Losar Conglomerate for the Gartmachidatlt
Formation of Sriltantia (I981). This conglomerate
is neither exposed at Losar nor was there any need
for a new name. For the Palaeozoic sequence, the
lilhostratigrtphic nomenclature proposedby Srikanl-in
(I974, I981), the mappabitity ofwhich has been er-
tablished over the entire Spiti-Zanskar and Kintutur
basins have, therefore, been adopted.
The subdivisions of the Lilang Group, as pro-
posed by Sriltantia (I981), however, could not be
adopted as various formations proposed by him
comprise mainly the carbonates and, more or lets.
have identical lithology. No mention is made of
sequences which are predominantly argillaceous or
arenaceous (¢.g. Kaga. A and C Member! of

Geolog of Spiti-Kinnnnr, llinleltnl Himalaya I3
Sanglullg, Alaror and Nnnuluka ofthe present clas-
sification). Hesides being poorly defined, the thick-
ness of each formation seems unrealistic and diffi-
cult to match with the units actually mapped in the
entire Spiti Valley (Bhargava,l 987). The basal most
Talltba Khur Khnr Formation of Srikantia (l98l), for
example. is 500 m thick. With this thickness the
Tzunba Khur l(hu.r Formation alone shall swallow the
entire Milcin, Kaga, Chomnle Formations, and 2| part
of the Sanglung Formation (whole of Member A and
a part of the Member B)‘ However, the youngest
fossil in the Tamba Khnr Khur Formation is
Hedeni-troemia, implying that it represents only a
part of the Mikin Fonnation. Thickness-wise, the
Hanse Formation (350m) seems to represent part of
the Member B and whole of the Member A of the
Sanglung Formation but, as per fossil contents, it
includes pan of the Kaga Formation and whole of
the Chomule Formation. Likewise, as per thickness,
the Nimolokm (300m) possibly includes the I-langmng
Formation and I pal1‘of the presently defined Alalor
Fonnation, but the fossil contents indicate in it the
presence only of the Members A and B of the
Sanglnng Formation. The Alaror Formation (100111)
of Sritrantil (I981), according to thickness, include:
perhaps part of t.he present Alaror Formation and
whole ofthe Nunululra Formation, whereas, as per
fossil contents it includes the Mernber C (Sanglung
Formation), and 1-langrang, Alaror and Nunuluka
Formations Tl: Simokhambda Fan-nation cl Srilrantia
([98]) is same as the well-known Kioto. Thus, none
of the fortnational names suggested by Srikantiti
(l98l) can he adopted. However, due -to dearth of
locality names, the term Alaror has been retained
nfler redefinition. The classification of the Lilang
Group, suggested by Srikantin (1981), was informal
as he did not map various formations even in ll
small stretch. The formations. as proposed by
Bhargava (1987). thus, have been adopted in the
present volume. The present volume is mainly de-
voted to the Eocambrian—Cretaoeous sequence. Only
a passing rderenee is made to certain crystalline
fomiations which marginally crop out in the Kinnaur
part. However, the Vaikrita Group, which forms the
hasement for the Tethyarl succession. has been dealt
with in some detail.

2. STRATIGRAPHY
Table-1.2a and b and insets in Plates l (Sheets
2 and 4) give a generalised order of superposition
ofthe rocks ofthe area. The ages assigned to vari-
ous formations here, due to lack of precise fossil
control. are broad based. Of all the lithostratigraphic
units described here, only the Nugalsari and Kilba
Formations have been informally used.
2.1 EARLY PROTEROZOIC
1.1.1 Jeori-Wutgttt Group
The Jeori-Wangtu Group, which is a succes-
sor of the Jeori-Wangtu Gneissic Complex (Bhargava,
1982). is equivalent to the Bandal Granitoid Com-
plex. These complexes yielded Rb-Sr isochron ages
of 2025 1 86 Ma (Kwatra el al, I986), 1840 =t 70 Ma
(Frank el fll, 1977) and I220 s 40 Ma (Hhanot et al,
I982). lt is regarded as a basement complex (Bhargm/3,
1982), which has been reworked from time to time
during the Precambrian.
The rocks of this group are excellently ex-
posed between Jakhri-leori-Wangtu-Karcham and
are mainly represented by gnetss. This group is
divisible into two formations, viz. Nugalsari and
Kilba (Basil. l9B8a)
2.1. LA Nugalsari Formation
lt comprises migmatised greyish pelitic gneiss,
minor schist. quartzite and lenses of marble. The
gnciss is composed of quartz, K-felspat. biotite,
sphene and opaques with local zones of bladed
lryanite and radiating clusters of sillimanite Tremolite
and wollastontte are common in the marble. This
formation shows an intercalated contact with the
overlying Kilba formation.
2.l.l.B Kifba Formation
This formation is more extensively devel-
oped. It is made up of porphyroblastic gneiss.
The porphyroblasts are of felspar and quartz which
vary in shape from rounded eggs, augen to ree-
langular Lenticular bands of metaconglomerate,
reported from Jeori area (Bhargavn, I982), also
possibly form part of this formation. Near Cl-toting.
the gnciss encloses epidote~zoistte-hornblende rock.
Thin bands of quartzite and schist form common
xcnoliths. The schist xenohths contain staurolite
and kyanite.
The vein quartz in the rocks of the Wangtu
Group, as observed at Wangtu, locally contains
fluorite. Amphibolite occurs as concordant bodies
along the foliation plane and also as xenoliths in~
the Kilba Formation. Some of the xenoliths show
folded foliatlon plane (Fig_2.l).
The Jeori-Wangtu Group has been regarded to
form basement for the overlying Rampur Group
(Bltargava and Ameta, I987). The western contact of
this group with the Rampur Group is in the form ofa
reverse fault (mg. at Jakhri), whereas, along tlte east-
ern and NE contacts, the Rampur Group
stratigraphically succeeds it along a decoupled contact.
The presence of staurolite, kyanite and silli-
manite indicates acquisition of upper to lower
amphibolite facies of metamorphism by the rocks
of the Jeori—Wangtu Group.
1.1.2 Rampur Group
This group encircles the Jeori-Wangtu Group
and is exposed in the Rampur-Larji Window
(Bhargava er at’, 1972; Sharma, I977).
lt is divisible into three formations, viz. (a)
Bhallan (b) Green Bed and (c) Manikaran Forma-
tions (Sharma, 1977). Of these, only the Manikaran
Formation is exposed in the Kinnaur area, near
Karcham, The quartzite of the Manikaran Fon-nation,
in most of the area, is strongly cross-bedded and
shows variations ll’\ colour from white, pale white to
pale green and light pink, lt bears epigenetic
remobilised uraninite mineralisation, which has been
dated at I200 Ma and 700 Ma by Pb-U method
(Narayan Das zt ol, 1979). The volcanics
interstrutified with l.he Rat-npur Group. on being dated
by Sm-Nit method, have yielded a whole rock
isochron age of 2510 s 9 (Bhat, I990), The Jeori-
Wanglu Group, which forms the basement of the
Rampur Group, would thus be still o1der.The forma-
tions of the Rampur Group are characterised by
chlorite, biotite and rare garnet indicating green schist
facies metamorphism.
2.2 PRECAMBRIAN CRYSTALLINI
SEQIIENCES OF UNCERTAIN AGES
Under these are included the crystalline rocks
which enclose Precambrian granitoids. The crystal-
line rocks are certainly older than the granitoids,
but their exact age still remains to be ascertained.

Geology of Spiti-Kinrinur, llilnachal Himalaya I 5
1.1.1 Kulu Group
It rests over the Rampur Group along the Ktilu
Tltrust and, in turn is, followed by the Jutogh Group
along the Iutogh Thrust. These rocks were earlier
referred to as the Cltail and Julogh (langi and Gaur,
1975; Gaur and Ameta. 1979; Tewari er al, I978),
Salkhala (Srikantia and Bhargava. 1974; Bhargava,
1982; Bhargava and Ameta, 1987). However, dur-
ing a regional mapping reappraisal, these were found
to be different from all the aforementioned rock
groups and thus were classified under the Kulu Group
(Bassi, l9B9b).
The Kulu Group is divisible into (a) Khamrada
(b) Gahr and (c) Kliokan Formations (Shanna, V.P.,
1977). In the Kinnaur area, only the first two for-
mations are exposed. The Gahr Formation at Baragaon
has yielded a Rb-Sr isochron age of 1430 1 150 Ma
(Bhanot er al, 1978).
2.1.2 Jutogh Group
It succeeds the Kulu Group along the Jutoglt
Thrust.
The rocls of the lutogh Group include chlorite.
hiotite iit basal part and garnet, staurolite, kyanite
in upper part, indicating metamorphic facies varia-
tion from green schist to amphibolite. In the present
area, however, mainly biotite, gamet with occasional
staurolite are developed.
1.2.3 Vailtrlta Group
The name Vatkrita was originally suggested
by Griesbach (I891) for the schists overlying the
gneiss and underlying the Haimanta Group. This
term fell in disuse afier Hayden (1904) stated that
the ‘Vail-<rita’ along strike merges with the I-laimanta, of which it is a more metamorphosed equivalent. The term Vaikrita was later used by Sharma, K.K., (I977) in the Kinnaur area. it was during a revision mapping programme that an independent entity of the Vaikrila, separate from the Jutogh and the Haimanta could be established (Bassi, t989b) The tcrnt Vaikrita is used here in the sense of Griesbach (1891) and is being accorded a group status, In the redefined Vaikrita Group are included felspathic E”=i§S. ifihist, quartzite and migmatitic rock resting above the Jutogh Group along a thrust. lt is well exposed between upstream of Shongtong (Salluj WHEY) and Gillmdo (Lower Spiti Valley) and along the Pare (“hit gorge This succession incorporates “metamorphosed Haimania” of Hayden (1904). Mclibnr mid Mitngling Gneisses of Tewari et ril. H978) and ‘V:|tlrrita‘ ol’ K K. Sharma (I977). Granitoids of catrly Palaeozoic and Cretaceous ages occur within tltc Vnikrita Group. The Lower contact of tlic Vnikrita Group with the Jutogh/Kulu Group is defined by the Vaikriia Thnist, whereas, its upper contact with the Haimanta Group is interpreted here as an unconformtty. The Vaikrita Group in Spiii-Kinnaur has been divided into Kharo, Moraiig and Shiasu Formations. Z.Z.3.A Kltirru Formation It comprises schist. quartzite. local marble, gneiss and migmaiitic rocks with best exposures between Sltongtong and Khitro along the NH-22. The sillimariite, kyanite bearing biotite schist, interstranfied with dark grey quartzite, oocurs in the basal pan and is exposed near Shongtong. This ‘sequence is intruded by both basic and granitic rocks. The gneissic rocks are inter-layered with argil|o- arenaceous metasediments towards the base. in the Thopan-Kharo-Kharlra section, as well as in the Batserirtg section (Baspa Valley), the gneiss devel- ops migmatitic character. Local concentration of amphiboles around quartzitic tenses is common in this sequence. Marble and calc-silicate bands of limited thickness are exposed near Rarang and Kharo. ln its tectonic position and lithologic compo- sition, the Kharo Formation is correlatable with the Rohtang Gneissic Complex (Srikaniia and Bhargavit. I982) and Kulti Fonnation of Prashra er at, (l 988) of the Mitnali-Lahaul area. 2.1.33 Monutg Formation This name is suggested for ii sequence of schist and quartzite, which is exposed between Akpa and Spilo along NH-22, with best exposures at Morang, It is also exposed in the Spiii Valley between Khab and Giumdo (barring Leo and Ganta-Shalkar stretch) and along the Pare Valley. lts further extension in the tributaries ofthe Satluj is limited due to wrap- ping by the overlying sequences along the antiformal flanks.‘ These rocks were earlier referred to as the Maldi Formation (Bassi and Chopra, 1983). The term ‘Maldi’ is considered a misnomer, as this vil- lage is not only remotely located but is also not situated on this formation Since ‘Maldi Formation‘ has not found much usage, it is being dropped in favour of a better defined Morang Formation. ‘5 Men. Geo]. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124 Along its lower contact is the Rakcham Grartitoid occurring in between the Kharo and Morang Forma- tions Its upper contact with the Shiasu Fonnation is gradational. At Thangi, it is unconforniably suc- ceeded by the Haimanta Group of rocks. The Morang Formation cotnpri sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, gamet. hiotite. sericite schist, and grey quartzite and schistose quartzite with local catesilicaie, carbonaceous and pebbly rocks and tre- quent basic sills. Garnetiferous schist is particularly observed ‘lI‘l Morang-Spilo. Morang—Thangi. Jangi- Kanum. Titan Khad, Khab-Kah Dogri_ Namgiya- Tashigang- Shipki and Mating-Chango sections. Staurolite schist is exposed near Morang Fort, Tinutg, Khab and east of Change. A quartz-atlcite-staurolite vein IS exposed along the tract to Shipki La. four kilo- metres from Namgiya Kyanite schist is developed at Morang Ihoola. Jangi. Duba Khad and sporadtwlly between Khab and Kah Dogrt. The kyanite blades, as obsened two kilometres north of Dabling along NH- 22. have been affected by the Fl folding. Sillimanite has restricted development. ll is exposed at (i) 500m south oflihitb along the road cutting as radiating clus- ters COIlSltlUtil’Ig about -10% ofthe grey coloured schist (ii) t.5km SE ol’Nako associated with calc-silicate and hornblende rich rock Tourmaline is profusely devel- oped in schist near Khokpa and Dabling. The calc-silicate lenses occur in Nako and Morang Nllltl Sections. Khab Dogri and cast of Mating. Carbonaceous schist lenses crop out at Khokpa. Kanum and Milling. Small leniicular peb- bly rock occurs within the schist north ol Thangi. near PWD Rest House at Pooh. Dataling, Khab. three kilometres south of Khab Dogri and three kilome- tres north oi” Shalkar. The clasts are flattened and are of vein quartv. quartzite. schist, chlorite schist and gneiss 1.2.-LC Shiasu Formation An arcnaccous sequence. exposed between Telingkyii and Dabling in the Satluj Valley and between Shiasu and Giabong in the Ropa Valley is designated as the Shiasu Formation This formation occurs in the core of an ovcruirnetl synfornt and has limited exposures. Towards NW as well SE. it gets overlapped by the rocks of the Haimanta Group due to an unconformity The Shiasu Formation comprises grey and greenish. fine grained quari1_ite with thin biotite schist intcrbands The quanzite. specially along the l=fl banlt of the Titan Khad, shows extensive cross- bedding. The cross-beds are about five to eight centimetres thick and show low angle torrential and asymptotic types of cross-beddiugs. Near Hojis Lungba-Salluj confluence, the croti-beds have a thickness of 50cm. The ripple marks preserved in the quartzite are oscillation, current and interfer- ence types (Fig.2.2). The rocks of the Vaikrita Group, especially those of the Morang and Shiastt Formations, show common occurrence of light coloured hornblende garbenschiefer, which has varied mode of occur- rence (Fig.2. 3 & 2A). At Tirurig, these occur as two to five centimetres thick stabs within the kyantte schist. Normally the hornblende gtrbenschiefer occurs as 15 cm to live metres discontinuous lenses along the fnliation plane (Fig,2.3), more or less at the same stratigraphic level. At a few places (e.g. near Shiasu), hornblende garbenschiefer occurs along the cross beds. The Vailtrita Group of rocks enclosing biotite, garnet, staurolitei lryanite and sillimanite show lower to upper amphibolite facim mctarnorjphism. The grade of metamorphism in the Vaikrita (iroup of rocks, unlike that of the Kulu and Julogh Groups, falls towards the physical top. which is also the stratigraphic top. The metamorphic minerals in the Vailrrita Group are at least of two generations imply- ing two phases of metamorphism. A brief descrip- uon of these minerals and their relationship with the rock fabric is given below : a) Quart: : It occurs as (i) granulated and aligned parallel to the S1 foliation plane (ii) as porphyroblasts oblique to the 5| plane. b) Biutite : It is found parallel to S‘ as well as S1 planes. Some biotitc occurs as porphyroblasts cutting across the S, foliation and are possibly patnllel to S, plane. The biottte of the later generation does not show much alteration. e) Garnet : lt is found as ta) =Xl¢Il§i”l)‘ granulated and aligned parallel to foliation. (B) 5119′”- ball showing continuous Si and Se planes with re- speci to S, foliation and (c) itlioblaslic. inclusion free and heticitic grain as rims over snow-ball gar- net and also as independent grains across the SI plane. The first two types show extensive altern- tion. white the last one is only marginally altered. d) Stnurnllte : It is found as anhedral grains showing inclusion of quartz, biotite and garnet along the cleavage plane. lt.s relationship with the folialion Geology of Spit!-Klnnaun Himachnl Iliuulnya I 7 —7 4—_-w i Explllnllon of Fly. 2.] – 2.6 Hg. I. Rafl of amphiholilc uhowing foided folillion plane, near Umi Fig. 1. Ripplc marks in the Shiuu Formation, Dnbling Fig. J-4. Hornblcndc gllhenschicfcr in lh: Vlikuiln Group 3 eye-shaped nl Dabling. 4, inlerslrllified, lcnliculnr Ill Jung: Flg. 5. Ripple bedding and law angle lruncalion in the Bllul Farmltion. Pnlseo suction (Lahml), Fig. 6. Plngingmus sp. in basal pm of the Kunum La Formation, Loc Plruhio Valley, opp, Moppo (Bur anal: u I0 cm). I” Mem. Gcnl. Surv. mu. Vol. 124 IO 2 SON ‘ ‘-4″ / i-=|_\LM°°‘*‘@‘,F”~–~v~ \ °*’ M “‘-* _ 7|‘, /K 0* — 00 ‘\ ‘*‘ {|| \4~\-9-~+. om “‘“ + O O O O. 4; s , 5 ‘ A 4:“ .._._”1 V , _A~_–_‘ ><§ >‘_.”- ‘.3’, ION!‘ §
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:= * , Q ~<; fr mun. Fig. 2.7. Gcneraliscd sketch geologmal map of the Ehrnaehul Hnmnlnva (modified nficv Bhnvgava er cl. I’J‘)la). Iixpl. I. Jwn-Wanglu~Bandnl (‘mc|ss|c Complex (Early Pmlcmmw). 2 Kuln Gmup. J Julngh Gmup; 4 Va|krila Group (2-4 of unceflam Proterozoic age). S. Plrlulflflhlhonuux Prccnmbnan-curly Camhrlun Lcaser Himnlayan Sequenccn. 6 Ball] (E Munjir-Kalnrigali) Formntwn (Euc.ambrmr|)_ 7 Tclhyan (PaIaeum|c-Mzsomm), R Subalhu-Kanauli I-‘or’ manons (Pulucogcne) and 9 Siwalnk Gmup (Ncngcncl Geology of Spiti-Kinnnur. llimlchnl Iiimllayu I9 is not clear. It occurs parallel to S2, which at places due to transposition, has become parallel to S, plane. It also shows helicitic structure. e) Kyanite : Its relationship with the S, plane is also not clear. It has two habits (i) parallel to and also folded along S2 foliation and (ii) in clusters, commonly bluish coloured associated with quartz veins and having haphazard relationship with the foliation. I) Sillimanitez It occurs as clustered pris- matic grains (Fig.3. l) often warped along the biotite associated with garnet. The mineral-foliation relationship indicates following metamorphic episodes. a) First (M, ) metamorphism : Chlorite, granu- lated and snow-ball garnet, biotite defining S, plane were formed. It varied from early to Syn-F, folds (D, deformation). h) Second (M2) metamorphism . ldioblastic inclusion-free porphyroblasts of garnet and quartz, biotite parallel to S2 and possibly staurolite and kyanite, which are certainly post-S, plane, were formed. This could be pre – F2 in a static phase between Fl and F2 or early F1 as suggested by Naha and Ray (1971) 1l’l case of the Jutogh Group of rocks. c) Third (M3) metamorphism I Porphyroblasts of biotite seem to be related to the development of S! planes. Along with this phase possibly also oc- curred the retrogressive metamorphism. It lelt biotite phorphyroblasts unaffected 2.3 EOCAMBRIAN — PALAEOZOIC. 2.3.1 llaimanta Group The term I-lailnanta, originally suggested by Gtfliibflfih (1391). was adopted by Srikantia (I 98l) in his lithostratigraphic groupings, He classified the Halal, Kunvam Ln and Thango Formations under the Haimanta Group. As the Thango Formation has been found to be separated from the Kunzam La Forma- tion along a regional unconformity_ it has been separated from the Haimanta Group. The presently defined l-latrnanta Group thus includes only the Batal and Kunzam La Formations. In the present narra- l10l‘t, only those fossils which have been detected during the present survey or those which have been utilised in palacoenvironmental or stratigraphic in- terpretations have been mentioned. For a complete checklist of fossils, already known, a reference may be made to Pascoe (I96!)- 2.3.l.A Burn! Formation tt derives its name from a place at the toot of the Kunzam Pass in the Chandra Valley. Its basal contact with the Vaikrita rocks has been variously considered as gradational (Srilrantia, 1981) and tec- tonic (Gaetttni et al, 1985). The Batal Formation along a tow dipping contact overlaps the steeper contact of the Morang and the Shiasu Formations one kilometre upstream of Spilo and near Pooh. This relationship clearly brings out a regional and angular unconforrnity between the Batal Formation and the underlying Vaikrita Group (also see struc- ture). Tectonic contacts do exist between the Bstal and Vaikrita rocks. These are both due to original basinal structures (see basin evolution) and also to post-depositional deformation of the sequences (e g. in Batal type area). The upper contact of the Batal Formation with the Kunzam La Fomiation is interca- latcd. The Batal Formation is identifiable from a distance by its darker shade and well developed bedding with reference to the underlying lighter coloured Vaikrita rocks and the overlying Kuttzam Ln rocks. This formation is developed throughout the Spiti Valley. Towards SE, the Batal Formation, has been cut ofl” by the Kaurik Fault Complex near Leo in the lower Spiti Valley East of the Sailuj. in Kinnaur. it is exposed as a crescent-shaped outcrop between Shipki in the north to the Jadhganga Val- ley in the southeast lt maintains more or less a uniform thickness except in the Baspa Valley where its basal part has been digested by the Rakcham Granitoid. The rocks belonging to the Batal Formation were earlier referred to in Kinnaur as the Hilap Formation (Bassi 21 al, l983), which in fact also included the Kunmin Ln Formation. In Lat-taut, rocks earlier mapped as the Batal Formation between Tandi and Jispa (Srikantia and Bhargavn, I979) are pos- sibly the equivalent of the Morang Formation. Possibly only small thickness of the Batal Forma- tion exists below the Tandi Group; towards north- west the Batal Formation is exposed beyond Darcha (Fig.2.‘I). The Batal Formation comprises a thick sequence oi‘ carbonaceous slatelphyllite, meta-sittstone and 2° Menu. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24 slate. interstratified with white to greyish white lo- cally boudinaged quartzite, local grit/conglomerate. calcareous bands and basic volcanic rocks. Pyrite is sporadically disseminated in the dark grey slates. The base of the Batal Formation is mostly defined by a carbonaceous bed. Its upper contact has been delineated where greenish-grey slate/shale, siltstorie predominate The basal part is dominantly pelitic while the upper part has psammitic component. The rocks, towards the upper part. gradually become less carbonaceous and are lighter coloured. The carbonaceous slate/phyllite are, at many places, interstratified with siltstone and chert bands. The conglomerates in the Halal Formation, in the Spiti Valley. are developed mainly in the basal and middle parts. whereas. in the Tidong, Baspa, I-lojis and Gyamthing sections, these occur persist- ently in the upper part as discontinuous lenses. The clasts in gritlconglomerate are mostly rounded and _flat and made up of quartzite, vein quartz, slate and schist, embedded in an argillaccous matrix (chloritic). Locally the clasts are as large as 70cm (e.g. 1.5km north ofGiabong). The clasts ofphyllite and schist show folialion oblique to the matrix. A schist clast at Murmur Dogri shows tight folding. The matrix- clast ratio is around 3:1. The calcareous rocks iii the Batal Formation are exposed near Mumiur Dogri (Hojis Valley). The basal part of the Batal Formation in the Parahio, Wangar, Raura, Tidong and Baspa Valleys is intruded by the early~midd|e Piilaeozoie Rakcham Graniloid which contains xenoliths of the country rock. Large root‘ pendants of the roctis of the Batal Formation occur in the Tidong and Baspa Valleys The country rocks near granite contact show quartz veins, recrystallised biotite and tourmaline. The carbonaceous rocks have developed hornfelsic tex- ture with carbonaoeotis matter segregated around subrounded quartz grains. The Batal rocks show a few metres thiclt fin- ing upward cycles: where the cycles are thiclt. the sand-shale alternations are conspicuous. Major sand beds are only a centimetre thick; within the cycle. ripple layers (Fig.2.5) are arranged in decimetre- scale and show low angle truncation (Fig.1.5). Len- ticular bedding is found in shale-rich part. which also shows layered rhythmite of silty-fine sand and silty shale. Besides these. several one to six centi- metres thick graded layers, stacked one over an- other, are present. These internally show prolific sub-parallel lamination and sporadic rippled lamina- tiont Low angled cross-bedding, which is quite common in decimeire-thick unit, shows an inclina- tion between 5° and lO° along the discordant sur- faces. The fine grained sandstone units are 20-40cm thick and are separated by one to two centimetres thick rippled drapes. Towards the stratigraphic top. the cycles become thicker and show coarser sediments as compared to lower units. Petrographic studies of rocks across the Vaikrita-l-laimiinta contact by Bassi (19882) revealed existence of three metamorphic episodes in the Vaikrita rocks and only one in the Batal rocks. lt is, however, not clear whether the retrogressive meta- morphism of the Vailtrita Group was a prograde event in the rocks ofthe Batal Formation. The cyclicity observed at Batal bridge is shown in Fig.2.8A and Appendix-l. Age : By virtue of its position below the low early Cambrian trace fossil horizon of the Kunzatri La Formation (Bhargava eta], 1982), the Batal For- mation can be assigned a Vendian age. 2.3.1.3 Kunzam La Formation This name was suggested by Srikantia (I974, 1981) alter the Kurtzam La Nartda and Singh (1976), during their traverse to Zanskar, included the Batal and a part of the presently defined Kunzam La Formation in their Phe Formation; the upper part of the Kiinzam Ln Formation was referred by these authors under the Karsha Formation These terms are not properly defined and cannot be adopted. The type section suggested by Srikantia (l98l), however, is structurally complicated, hence is not ideal for stratigraphic work Better sections are available near Moppo (Parahio Valley) and Tariya (Pin Valley). The Kunzam La rocks. together with the Batal in the Jadhganga Valley, were mapped as Nelang Formation (Puri, 1982) Further east, these rocltsiorm upper-most pan of the Martoli sequenoe. The upper-inosi part of the Kunzam La Formation is also described as the Suti Formation (B859 find Chopra, 1978). The Kunzam La Formation could be easily differentiated both in the field and also in aerial Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, I-limaclial Himalaya 2| photos due to its greenish-grey colour and softer topography with respect to the dark~grey Batal Formation and red coloured Thango Formation lts upper part weathers to a brown colour. This formation comprises greenish-grey siltstone, shalelslatc, sandstone, dolarenite in the upper part and locally pebble beds. ln the Kinnaur area‘ it contains an acid volcanic suite of rocks (Magnetite tuffs) at Mangsu Ln in the Lungslio Khan’. Its lower contact with the Batal Formation is intercalated while its upper contact is marked by the appearance of maroon coloured arcnaceous rocks. ‘ In the type area, the succession of the Kunzam Ln Formation, as described by Srikantia (1974, I981). is divisible into following six members: f) Pinkish brown quartzarenite, shale. slate and dolomite (400m). e) Dolomite, quartzite with current and in- terference ripples (750m). d) Slate, flaggy quartzarenite with dolomite lenses, load casts, ripple marks (750m). c) Flaggy quartzarenitc with slate partings (950m), – b) Shale, slate. siltstone and qiiartzarenite interbeds (500111). a) Grey quartzarenite_ quartzite and slate (750m). The Kunzam La Formation,‘ according to lithologic assemblage, is divisible into five units in the type section (Fig 2.Bb, Appendix-ll). The carbonate beds at \ll‘lll ‘e’ in the Kl,ll‘lZilIl’t Ln section have sharp and erosional contact with the underlying clastic rocks. The upper contact with the clastics is also sharp. Within this unit, each terrigenous cycle begins with a silty Unit and termi- nates into a sandy one. No cyclicity could be ascer- tained in the remaining units and various lithologies occur randomly. ln the Paraliio section. Kumar el al, (I984) classified the Kunziim La Formation into two mem- bers, viz. Debsa Khad and Parahio. However, on the basis of vertical facies zoning, four units are identifiable (Fig.2,tlc, Appendix-ll). Trace fossils Phycodex, Plagiogmus (Fig,2_6) and Rusophymls were reported from the Kunzam La Formation, exposed on the right bank of the Parahio River (Bhargava er al, 1986). On the basis of strike and structural attitude. the fossils from the right bank were interpreted to represent a horizon lower than that of the Moppo level (Bhargava e! at, 1982), According to this correlation, Plugiugmus occupies stratigraptiically a level lower, as compared to Diplichnires etc. (Hhargava el al, I982) The Kunzam La Formation in the Kinnaur sub-basin is also represented by a lithology similar to that encountered in the Spiti area. ln the Pin, Baspa (Logurgur Thach) and Tidong Valleys (Brati Thach), there occur lenticular pebble and gritty beds.’The pebbles are subrounded_ well-sorted and made up of quartzite Some of these are as big as 20cm across. The clasts are set in an arenaceous malrixi ll]- prcscrved current crescents are observed in the sand- stone exposed on the left bank of the Arson-tang Gad, about 250m upstream of its confluence with the Haspa Rivet. In SE Kinoaur (Cl-iorgad Valley), Phyconles pedum (Fig.2 .9) and Lingulella occur over the acid volcanic suite of rocks. The elastic sequence of the Kunzam La For- mation shows more or less identical distribution throughout Spill-Zanskar. The ca.i‘bonate rocks, form- ing the upper part of the formation show prominent variation. Between Patseo and Padam, the carbon- ate rocks predominate and show algal mat and col- umn (Fig.2 l0) mainly made up of Epiphyton. SW of Patseo, the thickness of carbonate rocks is con- siderably reduced. In the‘ Losar section it is negligible, whereas, in the Pin-Parahio it has 8 lim- ited development. lt is only between Charting and Nakurche and Hojis and Titan Khads in the Kinnaur area that the dolomite is again developed. The present variation in thickness of the Kunzttm La Formation is possibly due to erosion in pre-Thango time. It is because of the pre-Tltango erosion that, in the ar- eas where the thickness of the Kunzam Ln Forma- tion is least, only the lower part of this formation is preserved In the NW Zanskar, the Kunzam La Formation is overlapped by the Phe Volcanics of the Permian age. At Phalong Danda, pegmatite/granitoid and in the Zanskar, the Gumboranjan Granite (Sn’kantia H nl, 1978a) are intrusive in the Kunzam La Funnation. ln the Racho Khad suction (Tidong Valley), these rocks are intruded by quartz-specularite veins, The rocks of the Kunzam La- Formation are 31 Meni. Geol. Surv. lnd. Vol. I14 traversed by malachite stained quartz vein right from the Baralacha Pass to the Jadhganga Valley Age : The trace fossils in the basal part otthe Kunzam Lu Formation indicate an early Cambrian age (Bhiirgava er al. I982), whereas, the trilobite fauna recorded in its upper part suggests middle Cambrian age. Middle Cambrian age is also sup- ported by a lone conodont (Bhatt and Kumar, 1980) reported from the Parahio Valley. The Kunzarri La Fflrmflllflh ii. thus. Considered to range in age from early Cambrian to middle Cambrian. 2.3.2 Sanugba Group This term was suggested by Bhargava e1 iii, (l99lb) after the Sanugba stream, a tributary of the Ratang Nrrfiz Since a probable break is envisaged between the Takche and Muth Formations in the present work. the latter is being delinked from the Sariugba Group and included in the Kanawar Group. Z.1.2.A Tlwngu Formation This name was proposed by Srikantia (1974) alter well-known Thango locality (not marked on the toposheet) in the Parahto River section. It was Originally included by Srikantia (I97-t) under the I-lairnanta Group However. due to a major plane of unconformity now identified between it and the underlying Kunzani Lo Formation. the Thango For- rnation has been separated from the Haimanta Group. The Thango Formation has also been referred as Shian Quartzite (Goel and Nair, I977, i982) without ta) properly defining the type section, (b) providing measured lithostratigraphic details and (c) proving its mapability Similarly, the Thaple For- mation o! Nanda and Singh (1976) lacks these very details. Since these terms have not taken roots. whereas, ‘Thango’ has been frequently used in the literature, we have opted for the latter. ln Kinnaur, it was earlier referred to as Tiwri and Yttmrang La Formations (Bassi et nl. 198]). The Thango Fomiation is one of the most char- acteristic formations of the Spiti area. Duo to its deep crimson/rnaroon colour and rugged topogra- phy, it is recognisable Irom a distance (Fig.2 I5) and easily picked in aerial photos due to distinct tone. ln the Tariya section (Pin Valley), it has lost its characteristic red colour. At Phalong Danda (Lahaull also, the Thango Formation has been decolourised due to ‘intrusion of granitoid. Decolourisation effect is observed also in the area north of 1-lango. This decolourtsation has been ai- tributed by Hayden (I904) to metamorphism. The Tl-tango Formation rests over the Kunzam La Formation along a sharp contact. tn the Spiti, Pin (Fig.2. ll) and Chorgad Valleys, an angular discord- ance exists between the two. The upper contact of the Thango Formation with the Taliche Formation is gradational and partly intercalated. Its contact with the latter has been delineated at the appearance of first carbonate bed and/or brownish coloured cal- careous sandstone. The Thango Formation is essentially an arenaceous sequence which, tn most of the sec- tions, begins with a conglomerate bed (Fig,2,l2- I3), The conglomeratic sequence in Kinnaur, ex- cept between the Charang Gad (Tidong Valley) and Arsomang (Baspa Valley) where it is absent, is unusually thick (25-40m). ln sections where two prominent conglomeratic horizons are developed, the lower one shows clasts mainly of grey-green sandstone, siltstone, shale, dolomite and vein quartz of the Halal-Kunzam Ln affinity. The upper con- glomerate, in addition to above mentioned clasts, also contains clasts of red sandstone, siltstone and shale ol‘ Thai-igo parentage. [rt the Gyamihii-ig Gad section, the conglomerate contains clasts derived from quartz-speculririie veins. In the sections where only one conglomerate is present, it is invariably the upper one. East of Shushin Tlmclr, the conglom- erates in the Thango Formation are lenticular and do not form the base. ln the Zanskar area, the clasts are mostly from the dolomite of the Kunzam La Formation (Karsha Formation of Nanda and Singh, 1976). The clasts in the conglomerate are in the size range of boulder (5%), cobble (5-t0%) and pebble (80-90%). but the medium size pebbles pre- dominate. The olasts are moderately to well-sorted, rounded to well-rounded. having a sphericity oi‘ 0.3 to 0.4. These are embedded in an arcnaceous ma- trix in the ratio of 60/40 1 40/60. ln general, the clasts dominate in the upper part ofthe conglomer- ate sequence. The size of the clasts in the conglom- erate in most cases decreases towards the stratigraphic top. However, in a few sections (r.g-. Pin Valli?) ill the basal conglomerate, the clasts size first increases and then decreases. In the Chorgad section, three upward–fining cycles are recorded in the basal conglomeratic horizon The sequence in between the conglomerate is haematitic, which is conspicuous in the Pin. Pflfllhlfl Geology of Spiti-Kihnaur, Himflflifll |'[iIT”l|fl3 I E] @ E 33 22 ~ |m‘1Q l\?;l’= [M W – —_¢\_¢\4 – \;-¢ RB – \¢\/\.¢ 5m lay’ O w\.. .~I\.: non-‘ ‘.{‘.r° H ;:§}f’@,\5 511$ H9 A BATAL Bil |’!!| L ‘ msmuu _ .. ,,\1~_¢ .,..- 0 &’$/’._,\_, \¢’\/ “&l\J ‘~.f\/_~/1, \ FB ‘Fa 1’5 I”, lm |5,_8[,7 [calm [ea ‘us \ CYCLTCITY |N THE emu ronmmcm KUNZAM LA 055 PARAHIO THANGO Fomumou Om FINE sum .32: ” ’ ~ _ ] Tnmso ronmmou L :>’~‘€§Fa ->9)-\’-’
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The sequence above the conglomerate is largely made up of tine grained sandstone with a few silty and shaly partings, The shale intercala- lions I1’l the Kinnaur part are more pronounced and contain excellently preserved trace fossils tFig.2.l4). The upper part of the sequence in Spiti also shows layers of red shale which are rich in trace fossils. The sub-facies of various sections are de- picted in ,Fig.2.l7. the details of which are pro- vided in Appendiir~lII. The sequence and subfacies in the Parahio Valley are more or less identical to those exposed in the Pin Valley except that there are two con- glomerate bands. separated by a 8-l0m thick sand- stone bed in the former. In the Takche section, there is very limited development of conglomerate The absence of con- glomerate is possibly due to a strike fault which has also caused shearing The generalised sequence otfacies in ascending stratigraphic order is (a) several tens of metres-thick line. medium and coarse grained sandstone (Fig.2. 18) showing common herringbone cross-bedding (Fig 2.19). rare low-angled cross- beddrng. planar cross-bedding (Fig.2.20) and tidal brrndles. This also shows zr few centimetres thick ripple layers with thin mud drapes and ripple marks with bifrrrcating crests (Fig.2 I6); (b) sandstone se- quence with lenticular units of low angle cross- bedding showing channel and discordance surfaces (Fig.2.2l) and rare high angled (Z5″) Plflmlf and festoon cross-bedding. A few centimetres thick rip- pled layers with mud drapes and bifurcating lingunid round-crested ripples and mudcraclts are also present. Thicker sandy units show hummocky Cross-stratifi- cation In the Hango section, along the Hango-Kirasang Jhonta track. a few calcareous lenses of bioturbated mudstone enclosing totally recrystallised érinoids are present. The bioturbatcd parts are filled with darker material along with some quartz grains. At the Dipgyainba Gad confluence (Tidong Val Icy) and the Gyamthing Valley also there is a crinoidal cal- careous lens. In the Gyamthirrg section, the Thango Forma- tion is intmded by chalcopyrite-quartz veins, and in the Arsomang, Mangla and Gyamthing sections, by the quartz-barite-galena veins. Very fine scales of gypsum are associated with the upper red shale in the area SE of Charang and Arsomang Glacier snout. Numerous small sills of gabbro-norite affinity are observed within this formation in the Tidong and Gyanrthing Valleys. A dolerite sill is observed in the Tariya area. The Thango Formation in the Kinnaur Basin is fossiliferous, showing ubiquitous presence of gastropod Raphistama sp. At the Loechhutongsa Khad confluence with the Tidong a dip slope of the Tliango Formation is crowded with casts of pentamerids. The Thango Formation shows a gradual re- duction in thickness towards the SE in the Spiti Valley. ln the southeasternmost part. it is cut ofi‘ along the Kaurik Fault Complex (KFC). Towards east in Kinnaur, it maintains a uniform thickness. Further cast in the Jadhganga Valley, it was found to lirtk up with the conglomerate mapped in this section as the ‘Ralam conglomerate of ‘Precambrian age‘. In the-Zanskar area also, it maintains the uni- formity of sequence showing conglomerate (2-20m) in the basal and red shale in the upper parts. lts thickness decreases towards NW, least being at Tanzc Yogma. In the north-western pan of Zanskar, the conglomerate is practically absent. The following body and trace fossils, mainly from the Kirrnaur area (Bhargava er al, l984a), have been recovered from the Thango Formation. Body fossils : Raphislo!rn1,peri.tumerids, Trochorrema, Trace fossils Pliycoder sp., P. circmurum, (Fig.2.l4) P. palnralirm, S|rolilho.i’_ Planolites, Sinusires, Arenicolires, Teichichnus, Ru.rophycus_ Rouaullia, Mononiarphichnur. Isnpodichnus, Bifungiles, Spimphycus, giant burrows and other indeterminate fossils. Age : The paucity of index fossils makes it difficult to fix the age of this formation Phycodes circmatum, one of the rare trace fossils which is considered as an index fossil for early Ordovician, occurs 650m above the base of the Tl-tango Forma- tion. The lower age limit of the Thango Formation. thus, may be latest Cambrian or earliest Ordovician, The upper age limit of early Silurian for this tor- mation was determined on the basis of Penromerid-I present in the Thango Formation. However. Gcotugy of Spiti-Kirtmur. 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Mam. Gcul. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
Figs2.l5-2.16
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of the Tlungu Fmmnlmn Lm: Thnngu

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, Bimaclial Himalaya 27
Ordovician, as upper age limit of the Tlutngo Famin-
tion, is more probable.
2.3.2,]! Takclle Formation
This tithosiratigraphic name was suggested by
Srikaritia (1974, 1981). Goel and Nair (1977) used
the term ‘Pin Limestone’ without defining it prop-
erly or proving its mappability, Khanna er nl, (I983)
proposed the term ‘Pin Dolomite‘ for the rocks bound
by the Muth Quartzite towards the top and the ‘Shian
Quartzite’ towards the base. The rocks in the Pin
Li mestone/Pin Dolomite are neither exclusively lime-
stone nor dolomite. Besides, in well-developed see-
tions. these together constitute only about 30% of
the Sequence. Neither of the term is thus suitable.
At the Takche type locality. however. the sec-
tion is not well-developed. Best section of this
formation is exposed at the Manchap Thach. Since
the Manchap section requires at least six days of
arduous trekking to reach, the present authors pre-
fer to retain the term Takche. The name Manchap
Formation (Bassi el nl. 198]). however, may be re-
tained as ajunior synonym after the most impormnt
reference scction. The Pin and Parahio Valleys also
show good sections of the Takehc Formation.
The Takche Formation. being rich in carbon-
ate. is easily recognisable from a distance by its
earthy brown appearance. sandwiched between the
purple Thango Formation below and the white co]-
oured Muth Formation above.
With the intcrcalattons of a few calctircotls
sandstoncl arcnaceous dolomite and brown shale.
thc underlying Thango Formation imperceptibly
passes upward into the Takche Formation How-
c\’cr_ in the Guimdo section (eastern-most Spiti
Valley). the Takclie Formation rests unconformably
over the Prccriml-iriaii schist of the Morang Forma-
tion. tn the upper part. the Tanchc Formation in-
clndes matrix-rich sandstone intcrbeds over which
ilic matrix-poor/frcc \\i1llC clean sandstone of the
Mnth Formation appears abruptly. The contact of
Tnkchc and Muth Formations. thus, is only appar-
cntl_\ conformable. This contact. which is marked at
the first appearance ofuhile sandstone bed ll’l the
Tiikchc scctton. is gently undulatory However, in
\tc\\ of strong dcforinntioii suffered by thc rocks,
ll is difficult to decide \\-‘ilClllCl’ this undulation rep-
lL’\tIlllS an original depositional surface or struc-
llltili dcforinntion.
In lhr Spiti Vn||c_v_ the Takche Formation has
a sizeablc arenaceous component towards its NW
end (i e., the type locality). The carbonate content
gradually increases towards SE. being maximum in
the Pin Valley. ln easteni Kinnaur, It is being essen-
tially a carbonate sequence showing sudden varia-
tion iu thickness due to its bioheriital nature. The
sequence comprises several cycles commencing
mostly with carbonate and ending with clastit-75. The
details of the sequences in various sections are
illustrated in Figs.2.25-2.26 and Appendix-IV
The Takche Formation has protean characters
and Includes small reefal buildups (Bhargava and
Bassi, 1986). The corals reported in the Takche area
are slrepteplasmids Chonophy-IInm_ small colonies
of F at-miles, Halvsires, and Plasmaporella (F ig.2.Z2)
(Bhargava and Bassi, I986) and Heliuhres. Orrliis
and A/rypn are frequent in the middle and upper
parts of the sequence. Apidtum indtcum. thought to
be an ostracod (Reed, III Pascoe. I965). has been
interpreted by Kato er al, (1987) to be an algae. It
occurs in the middle part ofthe sequence at Talrche
The identification of Uionopiiyllum and
Plasmrrporelfa by Bhargava and Bassi (I986) are
still tentative.
The Gecl-tang section yielded strepteplasmid
and Tr_vpIn.ima from basal part and C‘honop!iyIIum
from the upper. Small colonies of Thamnopora,
F(ll’DSflf’-T, Heliolitcs (Fig. 2.23), Halysiles (Fig_2.24),
Strnirmmporriid (Fig.2.27-28) and ‘7ProIamea oc-
cur in the carbonate beds (Bhargava and Bassi, 1986).
The fossils recorded by Bhargava and Bassi
(I986) from Muth-Sliian section are . Srmumropora
eon:-entrica Goldfttss. HaI_vsi!e.r catenulnria var.
kannurensis Reed, H. walfichi Reed, Favorites
.tpir/‘en.\’i.r, Reed, 7 Propnra, .7 Parrirhneleles, Orthis,
(llirmelcs, ?Alr1t/prz, a few Teritriculites, Pleurotnmnria
and rare orthoeeratids. The identification of Calymene
and Chetrurus as based on fragmentary remains are
tentative.
The fossils collected from Leo are Rugose
coral ‘FF/ivnophylluni and strepteplasmids. Both of
these arc mildly to strongly recrystrallised and
fen-uginised. These are common in the upper part
of the sequence. Tabulate corals Hrtlysites cnlenularia
var, li’anrttn’t’rist.i’ Reed and ll. wallichi Reed art:
most common. A fcw colonies of these corals are
almost 30cm wide. These are associated with sphe-
roidal colonies of Fevostres. 9Pmmmea lcanauruisis
(Reed) is present in the basal part.

3* Mem. Geol. Sun”. lnd. Vol. 124
PIN SECTION
TAKCHE FORMITION
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‘I Sillstone, 4 Shale. 5 Burrows. 6 Fcsloon cross-bedding. 7, Low angled cross-bedding. K Tidal bundles, 9 Ripple
cross-bedding. I0. lluernnlllic quafllrle. ll Mudcncks. I2 Trace Fossils, I3 Mud dmpe_ and I4 Ripple marks.
Stromatoporoids are highly recrystallised and
dilficult lo identify. These are mainly laminar. low
domal (Fig 2 27). extended dornal and rarely dendritjc
types (classification afler Kershaw and Riding. I978).
The form. previously identified as clalhrodiclid
(Bhargava and Bassi, I986), is possibly Ecchmadicryon
(Fig.2 28) which ranges in age from late Ordovician
to Silurian
The bryozoan Hallnpora (Fig.2.29) is a com’
mon genus in the Takehe Formation. In addition to
it. bifoliated forms. Ieneslellids, ?FisIuli‘pm-a and
coral (‘neniles have been reported (Bhargava and
Bassi_ l9ll6), Algae are represented by nodular
colonies of ?I‘amehaer¢1e.v, which also occur as
binder Amongst braehiopods are Choneles and
Orrhrr Crinoids, though rare in the Leo section.
are of larger dimensions as compared to those in
other areas Molluscs are represented by orthoceratids
and gastropods Echinoderm spine and other frag-

Geology of Spili-Kinnaur. Himachal Himalaya 19
Figs. 218- 2.24
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30
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Fig. 2.25. Lnholugs of lhc Talche Furmuhon Expl. I. Sandstone, la. S|lislon:. 2. Llmcslonc, 3 D0]Ol11lY|C Iimesluncf
dolurmlc, 4 Nodulur bcddmg II1 lhc carbonales, 5 Slromlloporcud, 6 7.PsiIuphylon. 7. Shells-branhiupod/lamclllbranuhs,
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Getting of Spiti-Kinnaur, lliiliachal Flhnallya 1 I
menu are sporadically found. A few carapaccs of
ostracodes were encountered iii thin sections.
I
From the Manchap section, Bhargava and Bassi
(I986, 19st) have reported stromaloporoid (Fig.2.3O).
s/repleplasmids, Tryplasma. Pfychophylfum,
Holysites, Favasiles. Plasmoporella. Radiustmea
(Fig_2.3l-32), calcified lithistid sponge (Fig.Z.33),
Coenires, Hallopara and other bifoliated bryozoa.
and algae Vermiparellu and Girvarielfa. The
codiacean algae (Fig.2.]4) of Bhargava and Bassi
(I987) is possibly same as Apidium iridicum iden-
tified by Kato e! 0!, (I987). The identification of
Psilophyron (Bhargava and Bassi, i986) was based
on external resemblance though nu vascular struc-
ture oould be seen. Kiimar and Kashkari (1987) seem
to interpret all Psilophyton like forms in the Takche
Formation as trace fossils Clioridrires. Though
Cliondrires does occur in the Takche Formation
(Bhargava. er al, 1984a; Bhargava and Bassi, 1986),
the forms referred to as Psilophymn are certainly
distinct from Chondrites.
The Takche Formation contains trace fossils
Arenicolires, Arlhrophycus, Chandriles. Plariolilet‘.
Skolithos and Rusophycus (Bhargava et ol, l984a
Bhargava and Bassi. 1988). Palaeodiciyon. described
by Kumar and Kaslikan (1987), most probably [S a
cast of ll Favorites colony (Fig.2.35).
Khanna er al, (1983), have reported acritarchs
and chitinozoa from a sequence equitable with the
Taltche Formation. Mehrotra el al, (i982). in addi-
tion to the ncritarch assemblage recorded by Kliamia
cl al, (i983), have reported Anguchitina cupillruu,
Bursachitino sp_, Ereniochilina sp., Desmocltilina
sp. from the Takche Formation of the Pin Valley.
The Talrche Formation, as mentioned earlier.
becomes more calcareous towards SE in the Pin-
Parahio and Tidong Valleys. its further extension in
Kuitiaon has been described as the Yong Limestone
(1-Gianna er ul. I985} and also as Variegated Fonnn-
tion which show massive siromatoporoid colonies.
Towards NW of Spiti, the arenaceous content in the
Talrchc Formation increases and it becomes difficult
to distinguish it from the underlying Thango Fomta-
lioli. However. in the Sarchu area, though the Takche
Formation has ll limited thickness, it shows ii distinct
carbonate facies. Thickness-wise, the maximum de-
vcloprnent of this formation is at the Taliche type
area, which is maintained upto the Ratang Nah:
(5-itillgbn Confluence), thereafler the thickness de-
creases towards SE. Similarly, the thickness decreases
towards NW also. The Takche Formation is intruded
by small transgressivc sills ofdolentic afiinity in the
Tariya and Manchap areas.
Age : The Takche Formation was assigned an
Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian age by Srikantia
(l98l).Based on the occurrence of Pentamerus in the
underlying Thango Formation. Hhargava and Bassi
(1986) suggested an early to middle Silurian age to
the reefal part of the Takche Formation. Kate e! al.
(I987). on the other hand. advocated an Ordovician
age to their ‘Pin Limestone‘ (;Takche Formation) on
the basis of algae Coelasphaeridium and Apiditmi
fndicum, the former being so far known from
Caradocian only.
A review of fossils described -from the pres-
ently defined Takche Fomiation. which includes beds
regarded in age to as Ordovician and Silurian se-
quences by Pascoc (l96ll), reveals (Table-2.l) con-
tradictory ages. For example, bryozoa Plilridictyn,
brachiopod Hirtdella, trilobite Cali/niene, ostracode
Leperdiiia and Beyrichra. which as per Moore (1956-
l964) do not occur below the Silurian, coexist with
lrilobile II/aenus, Asaphus and ostracoda
Leperditeiln. which are confined lo Ordovician. Still
more puzzling is the occurrence in the overlying
unit 3, of coral Lyopara and Mesoirypa and in unit
4 of Slreplelosmn and cephalopod Ganioceras ex-
clusively of Ordovician age along with chain coral
Htdysiles cufefltalarifl. btachiopods Slrophonella and
Camerotoechia of Silurian age.
Of the fossils described in earlier literature,
the identification of Halysires catenrifaria and
Pentamenir indicating Silurian age has been doubted
by Talent er al, (I988). The identifications of Silurian
fossils Chonoptiytlum. Coenites. Froiaraed and
Tryplnsma, reported by Bhargava and Bassi (1986).
were from unoriented sections and thus, are provi-
sional. Even alter eliminating these forms of doubt-
ful identification, there are several taxa which are
characteristic of Ordovician and Silurian respectively
(Thble-2. la – c).
Obviously, either the age ranges of these fos-
sils as given by Moore (1956-I964) have undergone
modification and a mix-up of fauna of different lev-
els has occurred or identifications of some of the
fossils are not correct.
Before any firm conclusion regarding the age

32
Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
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I– — <- __¢g£;’ I snip – _ \\\ , EIJEHITI THAN00 roauun /; (ICJ i..~?~ / ‘ B A ON Fig. 2.26. Lithnlngs of lhe Takchc Furrnalion lndcx same as for Fig 225 Geology of Spili-Kinnaur. Himachal Hinulaya 33 f I \§’ Elpllnnlinn of F||1!. 1.27 – 2.19 Fig. 27. Slrnmnlopmnld |n lhc Takchc Fnrmnpnn Loo Gcclmug Fig. Z8. Ercllmadrclyvn sp cncrusnng I coral fnkcluc Fnrmulunu I,oc Manchnp Fig. 19. I/allopnra sp Takrh: Fornmlion Loc. Mnnchap (Bar scalc ls 2 mm) 34 Mam. Geol. Sun‘. lnd. Vol. 124 of the Takche Formation is deduced it is necessary to critically re-examine all old fossils and also the collection made by the present authors during 1984 Till such an exercise is accomplished. late Ordovician to middle or even late Silurian age seems most plau- sible, especially due to occurrence of corals He/tnlltes and ?R¢m’iastraea. in the upper part of the Takche Formation. latter being of middle Silurian age Such an age broadly tallies with that of the Nowshera Reef ofPakistan (Statifier_ 1968), indicat- ing a widespread favourable reef building palaeoenvironment over the Indian Plate during Silurian. 1.3.3 Kanawar Group The term Kanawar was suggested by Hayden (l908). The original Kanawar ‘S)’stem’ included only the Lipak and Po ‘Series’ Srikantia (t974_ l98l)_ redesignated it as the Kanawar Group and enlarged its scope by including under it the Lipak, Po and Ganmachiclam (5 Pemiian Conglomerate of Hayden. I90-l) Formations. In the present work, the three fold classification, as proposed by Srikantia (I974), has been further enlarged to encompass also the Muth Forlnation as ll forms a conformable sequence with the Lipak Formation and is separated from the Takche Formation by an unconformity. 2.3.J.A Muth Formation The name ‘Muth Series‘ was suggested by Stoliczka (1865) after Z1 village in the Pin Valley, which is spelt in the modern topographical sheet as ‘Mud’. This has also been referred in the literature as Muth Quarlzttc (Hayden, 190-1) and also Muth System (Hayden. 1908). Srikantia (I981) redesignated it as the Muth Formation. The strike extension of this well known formation in Lahaul and Zanskar was described as the Kenlung Formation by Nanda and Singh (I976) The Muth Formation is the most conspicuous sequence of the Tethyan Himalaya. having more or less similar characters right from Kashmir-Zanskar to Kumaon This formation. due to its white colour, can be recognised even from a great distance (Fig. 2.36) and easily picked on aerial photographs. The Muth Formation comprises’ white to white mottled quanzarenite with rare light grey shades and local thin dolomitic sandstone and conglomerate interbeds. The lower contact of the Muth Formation with the Takche Formation. as stated earlier, is undulatory and abrupt. It has been marked at the first appearance of white/mottled quartzarenite bed In the Spiti Valley near Guimdo. it 01/etlaps ttw Tam-,¢ Formation an_d rests over the Precambrian Morang Formation Along the upper contact, it is variously oierlapped by the Lipak. Gechang and Gungri Formations. lts contact with the overlying Lipak Formation in fully developed sections is intercalated and has been delineated at the first appearance of dolomite/limestone or rriatrix»rich sandstone in the upper part of ts sequence. The contact between the Muth Formation and the Gechang and Gungri Formations is sharp everywhere. At Jongchen it shows an undulatory erosional top below the Gnngri Fomtation. The quartzarenite 1n the basal part of the Muth Formation is largely mottled and friable. It is succeeded by an alternating sequence of siliceous white quartzarenite and friable quartzarenite. Plnnolites, Palaeophycus rubularrs, Arenicolites, SkoIt’tho.r and anhropod trackways (Bhargava and Bassi, I988) are known from the Muth Formation. Ameta and Gaur (1980) reported poorly preserved orthoceratids and corals from a rolled boulder of the ‘Muth Quartzite‘ in the type area. From the Khimokul La section, Bassi (l98tlb) reported mould of Orfhis a_/I ru.r.rica.. The sequence ofthe Muth Formation at Takche (Spiti Valley), Mud (Pin Valley), Hango-Tumlum Thanga and Khimokul Lo (Tidong Valley) sections are presented in Figs. 2.38-39 and Appendix-V. The entire sequence of the Muth Formation is composed of fine to medium grained white sandstone. The Muth Formation has more or less uniform thickness in the main Spiti Valley. On the lefi flank of the Ropa Valley it shows conspicuous thickness variations, ranging from Zrn to 50m iii short stretches of barely 250m. It is altogether absent south of the Hangrang Pass. Beyond Kirasang Gad, it shows a thickness varying between 90m and 2ttt)m In the Kinnaur basin, it is uniformly developed with thick- ness varying between 80m and l20n1. NW of Spiti towards Zanskar, the thickness ol‘ the tvtuth Formation decreases ln this stretch the passage beds developed between the Muth and the Lipak Fonnations, conspicuous in Kashmir (WI?-“YB Formation of Srikantia and Bhargiiva, I983) and also partly in Spiti, are lacking. and as a result, the contact between the Muth and Lipak Formations is sharp A dolerite dyke is observed in the Muth Geology of Spili~l(innnur, lliuuchnl Himalaya 3 5 i F o s s I L S T31: cmlauk =lk‘#; 35%?‘ iéggggg-I l ___ lil!IlIHIII’IHl’\!ll’I V El/rychilino monriculaidll R006 Krounllu lllianulufs Rqld Prinlilia ovunli R||d P. glrordi Rlld l Lapudihlh Nmalniea Rue ‘ l Luparairin :94 Blyrichio lp. I lllaanul puncfulolw Sulfur I.sp|’1|’nnsil Rn” = ‘I. brachyonileus Solllr .9;¢|-won, wnarus Billing: Asapbu: nnodirnilomaniis find \ ‘ Licha: ffbclenua Salli! Calymcna nivolir Seller Chairurlu mi‘!!! Seller i Ccmuliin up. – l Mophalpira urrvlula Rand — ! i Pruinaqa Manamanu‘: Rand ‘ ‘ ‘HIYIGIHO sp. ‘ ‘Zygaspi/0 lp. lfiaflna-squirm mulhansis Rnd Slrophnmonn chnmaornps Sullqr S. blucin Seller |$’0wIrby|.Ila nfmalnylnsis var. rcpdnda Sullur : ummalla Sullnr l Liptatna rlochaalil Snlllr ‘ ‘, ‘Tripbcin unsafe Sulfur — Orlhi! (Fllclarlhll) llraciuyl Raul – ‘O. ffilblrhfial tf llhlnnl Hall ‘o. (flalmnnolfa) Infudinaria Oalmnn vo: himnlml-a Rnd O. (Dinorlhh) Ulakil End var. Oubdlviln Sultur 0, .’D.) Inaki! Rud vannriaiocoala Sclm 0. (0.) purcala Me Coy var. plnprlnn = Pfilodir:-lya hrnd SOIMI ‘ lflianuliln yol Solhr 2 Orfhia (Dinorrhh) fhahil Solflr flqllnnsquinn crallrn SUIYII‘ I-fchas sp. Pannnrua flalllllvcun Sulhr. l \ \ e l Table Lia. Tile fauna of unit: c and l‘ of Hayden (I904) of ‘Ordovician S:quem;¢’_ nur Shim, Pin Vfllgy (in ]>um¢,
1953) Ind lhclr age nmgcs aflcr Moor: (I956-64)‘

1° Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
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Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur. I-limachal Himalaya 3‘?
as Members A and B of the Tanzc Formation (Nnnda
and Singh_ l976; Nanda er al, 1978).
The Lipak Formation, clue to its dark carbonate
rich lithology, in contrast to the underlying white
Muth Formation and the overlying shale dominated
Po Formation, is easily identified from a distance in
fully developed sections.
The Lipak Fomtatiou shows extensive factes vari-
ation. lt Comprises dirty white to grey, locally cross-
bedded sandstone in basal part, grey to ash grey shale
interbedded with limestone and sandstone in middle
part and limestone, local shale and lenticular gypsum
bed in upper pan. Gypsum is present near Loser,
Hurling-Shalkar, Chango, Yulang and Yangthang.
Hardgrounds (Fig.2_37) and coral-algal input is also
present. By and large, the sequence of the Lipalr For-
mation is made up of multiple cycles commencing with
carbonate and ending in clastics represented by shale.
siltstone or sandstone.
The Lipak Formation. to the east ofthe Kaurik
Fault Complex in Leo-Yangthang sector, has been
thermally metamorphosed into pyroxene~hornt’ets
tacies. lt has a mineral assemblage 0|‘ caleite+
diposide+ \vollastonite+ epidote + sphene. The gyp-
sum has been transformed into anhydrite. The
carbonate rocks show flowage causing ‘chocolate
slab‘ boudins Thermal metamorphism. leading l0
the formation of marble + wollastonne, has also
been recorded in the area NE ol’ the More Plain
Fault, south of Rupsliu in the Phirsc Valley and east
of the Syarma Fault Complex near Phiphuk in the
Lingti Valley.
tn complete sections. the Lipak Formation
has a conformable contact with the underlying
Muth Formation and also with the overlying Po
Formation. The lower contact in such sections is
marked by the first appetuattee of dolomite] limestone
band. Disappearance of carbonate rocks and
predominance of shale-sandstone sequence has
been taken as the beginning of the Po Formation.
ln sections where the Lipak Fonnation rests above
the Morang Formation and is succeeded by the
Gechnng Formation. its both the lower and upper
contacts are sharp and abrupt.
The lithologic details of the Lipak Formation in
various sections are iitustrated in Figs.2.4t‘t-4] and
details furnished in Appendix-V1
The rocks of the Lipalt Formation are mostly
fossiliferous. At Takche. Lipak Gad and Yiilang
sections they are unusually rich in fossils.
The Lipak Fomtation has an unexcn distribution
throughout Spiti. In the NW tLosor section) and SE
(Lipak, Yulang and Hurting sections), it has maximum
thickness. In these parts. it rests over the Muth
Formation and is followed by the Po Formation.
In central part of Spiti. the thickness of the
Lipak Formation is highly variable. tn these parts, it
is overlain by the Kuling Group. ln the Lingti Valley,
near Phiphuk, it rests over the Morang Formation
and is unusually thick South of the Pin Valley. upto
north of Hango. the Lipak Formation is absent. In
Sanand Nola, where Hayden (I904) categorically
mentioned the absence of lhc Lipak Formation, it is
represented by a 60m thick sequence enclosing
Syringnthyris (Kumar and Duttu_ I984) North of
l-Iango, it is insignificantly present. but three
kilometres beyond. its thickness increases to 600m.
Together with the Thango, Takche and Muth
Formations. it forms an inverted sequence in the
Yulang Valley in between the Kanrik and Na Faults.
ln the south-easternmost part of the Spiti area, (i.e.
Yangthang, Chango and Shalkar). only upper part of
the Lipalt Formation is developed and like Phiphuk
section, it rests over the Morang Formation .
In the Kinnau: area. this formation or its equiva-
lent is not developed. but further SE in the Kumaon
area, similar rocks are referred to as the ‘Kali Series’
by Valdiya and Gupta (1972) and Mamgain and Misra
(1989). Towards NW and in the Lahaul area, it has
a considerable thickness. In Zanskar, it displays a
transgressive nature about two kilometres NW of
Tanze, where it overlaps the Muth Formation as well
as the Thango Formation and rests over the Kunzam
La Formation. ln turn. it is overlapped by the Phe
Volcanics in the Thid=l Nola section. Only for a
short distance does the Lipak Formation reappear
near Marlung.
Rocks of doleritic attiniry occur in the Lipak
Formation as sills at Tariya, Shalltar and WNW of
Yulang Dogri.
Age : The basal part of the Lipak Formation
was regarded by Hayden (I904) and Pascoe (1968)

40 Mom. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
1.0 be of Devonian age. Tenmculites (Fig.2.43), which
is not known beyond Devonian, occurs in the basal
part of the Lipalt Formation of the Yulang section
(Bassi, I990) and confirms such nn age interpreta-
tion, Syringnrhyrt.r cuspidnm tn the lower part and
Phiflipsia efcltflordt in the upper pan of the Lipak
Formation indicate an early Carboniferous age. The
Tenrnculirzs levcl resting conformal-tly below the
Syringolhyris yielding beds in the Yulang section,
therefore, represents a latest Devonian age. ln thc
Takche section. about 80m above the Muth-Lipak
Formations’ contact, the present authors have rc-
corded Litharrrolian (Figs.2.42, 3,30), that-nt-topoyiti
(Ftg.J.25) and hcxagonarid (Fig.J.fl l). Of these, the
first generally is not known in pre-Carboniferous
sediments. whereas. tlte latter two do not occur in
post-Devonian. However. anomalously at Takche.
Lilhosrrolion was found at it stratigraphic level lower
than those of the thamnoporid and hexagcnarid. No
tectonic discontinuity or overturning could be no-
ticed to explain relative anomalous position of these
fossils. The entire sequence is upward younging
and conformable. lt is. therefore, suggested that
this part of the Lipak sequence containing these
fossils represents inter-mixing of Devonian and Car-
boniferous elements. The stratigraphic boundary
between Devonion and Carboniferous is possibly
located either in this part or in slightly a higher part
of the sequence, while the basal part of the Lipalt
represents a late Devonian age. ln view of its fauna
being identical to that of the .5)/ringothyrls Lime-
stone, following Savage (i982). Toumaisian may be
assigned as the upper age limit ofthe Lipak Forma-
tion. The age ofthe Lipalt Formation is. thus, inter-
preted lo range broadly from late Devonian to
early Carboniferous.
l.3.J.C P0 Formation
This formation was named by Hayden (I904)
alter the village of the same name (spelt as Poh in
the modern toposheet). The Po Formation is mainly
developed in NW and SE corners of the Spiti Val-
ley. ln NE part, it is exposed in the Sumkhel Valley
and Welt of the Syarrna Fault in the Lingti Valley.
ll is entirely absent in eastern Kinnaur. As a rule.
though the Lipak Formation is developed indcpcndcnt
ofthe Po Formation. the latter is always found Only
in tbose sections where the former is developed
Due to alternation of light coloured quartzite
and dark shale, the Po Formation forms stepped
topography and is recognisable in the field and also
in aerial photos (Fig. 2.44) lt has conformable con-
tacts with the underlying Lipak and the overlying
Ganrnachidam Formations. ll comprises alternation
of dark grey. pale green shale, siltstone and white
and grey sandstone, with shale predominating itt
the middle part of the sequence. Pebbles appear in
uppertnost part of the sequence.
The shale-sandstone succession forms one cycle
(Fig.2.-15). In the Losar section. the cycle begins
with dark grey shale with silty streaks. The bur-
rows in this zone are -millimetre thick. This is suc-
ceeded by dark grey silty shale with millimetre
fine silt to silty fine interlayers with intense
bioturbation. ln the upper part, l-3 cm thick fine
sand layers become common. These show abun-
dant sole marks in the form of burrows. The lower
part of these shows sand layers parallel to undula-
tory laminalions while the top part shows rippled
‘beds. Surface trails are also observed. The third
unit is represented by grey siltstone alternating
with fine sand layers which are intensely bioturbated.
A few centimetres thick fine sand layers are inter-
calated in this unit. Some of the thicker sand beds
represent amalgamated layers showing internal
erosional surfaces. The next succeeding unit is grey
siltstone alternating with rippled fine sand. This
unit overall shows low degree of bloturbation, though
a few intensely bioturbated layers do exist. This
shaly-silty sequence is topped along a sharp con-
tact by 5m to l0m thick low angled festoott cross-
bedded clean quartzarenite with a thin horizon of
rippled bed. This shale-quanzarenite cycle is re-
peated five to eight times (Fig.7..-M). Each sue-
ceeding cycle is thinner and is coarser grained as
compared to the underlying cycle. till it is overlain
by the Ganmachidam Formation.
The shale is thinly laminated to fissile, spe-
cially in the upper part. ln the Mardang Nola sec-
tion. shale in upper part of the Po Formation con-
tains cherty nodules, one to eight centimetres size,
enclosing pyrite and also pyritised nautilotd.
orthoceratid_ Fenesrella (Fig.2.-16), Pleurolomurm
and crinoid. The dark shale at most of the places is
pyrilous.
Near Tabo, on foot track to Angla. the Po
Formation contains plant fossils. Plant remains arc
also known near Losar( Ranga Rao ct al, I987) and
at Shalkar and Thibda (‘Bassi_ 1988:!) (Fig 2,47). The
plant bed at Tabo is followed by a bed full Of 51!”/if/10-Y
tilted with femiginous material. On the basis of the
presence of plants in the basal part, Hayden (I904)

Geology of S|)i(i—K|l‘Illl\lI‘, Hlmachnl Himalaya
HINGO-TUUTUII
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1 Mcm. cm. Sun‘. Ind. Vol. 124
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Fig, 2.40. Lilhologa of the Livnk Formation Exp]. l. Limulnne, 2 Dolomite, 3 Cnlnreoua component, 4. Sandstone
S Sillflont, 6 Shlle, 7 Hnnlgmund (HG), B_ Cross-bedding, 9_ Rippk mill. ll) Bioturhnlinn, ll and I3. Solitary
corlls, I2 Oolue. I4, Crinold. I5. Gnslvopods, l6. Brachiopods. l7. Brnnclnnglwlonnll corlls, Ill. Algal bedding, I9
Strurnelulilic structures, 20. Chlnncl and leg, 21. Shell huh/coquinl, 22‘ Syn-depositionll slumps, 23. Truce fosslll.
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H¢.|-agvrmria. 30. Lrlhaurotnnn And 3|, Thumnupond. (23 la 3] gwen |n Fig.2.4l).

(_;t-iiltigy til S|iiti-Kinnaur. Himarhal Himalaya -l l
subdivided the Po Formation into the loner ‘Tabo
Plant Stage’ and upper ‘Fenestella Stage’
Lithologically, however. there is no distinction
between the two.
The Po Formation, in its upper part, shows
sporadic presence of pebbles at several levels
Gradually the frequency of the clasts increases and
this formation grades into the overlying Ganmachidam
Formation. Such a sequence is well developed in
the Pomorang and Kurig sections.
The Po Formation, northcusi of the More Plain
Fault, is thermally metamorpliosed and shows
development of biotite.
There is no measurable section exposing the
entire sequence of the Po Formation. A feu
partial sections are presented in Fig 2 50 and
Appendix-VII.
The rracc fossils .4.rrr-riaciier (Fig 2.-l8)_
,1uIichni‘!r-.r (Fig 2.49)‘ 7CncIiIichnu.r (Fig.2 51).
Gyrachnrte, Phi/codz_r_ PlanoIi|e.r_ Rusophyciis,
Rhizocnmlllu/ii. and Slrolilhos have been reoorded
from the Po Formation. The body fossils known
from the Po Formation are listed by Pascoe (1968)
The plant fossil Lepiduimgillnrin (Fig.2 47) has
been recovered from the Mardang /Vnln Dhar r-r
ul. (i983) reported lepidendroid from Losar section.
Jairi er ul. (I972) recorded several osiracodc taxa
from a dark grey limestone alleged to form part of
the Po Formation of the Takche section Neither
the Po Formation contains any limestone nor is
ll’tlS formation exposed in the Takchc section. Thus,
the report by Jain et nl, (I972) has riot been
considered by the present authors.
The Po Formation in NW and SE corners ofthc
Spiti Valley has uniform thickness, \vhercas_ its
thickness decreases towards the central part, first
gradually and then rapidly For example, the thickness
of600m in the Na-Shalkar section. is reduced to a thin
shale band at Liwa Thuch (Lipak Gm!) within a distance
of about three kilometres. Towards east in Kll’ll’Iltl.tL the
Po Formation is not developed. The F€!IP.\‘|€”(l’ Beds
reponed from the Kali River section by Mamgain and
Misra H989) may be the possible equivalents of this
Formation in the Kumaon basin.
From Losar towards NW in Zanskar area, there
is not only gradual reduction in thickness. but also
prominent local variations in thickness. The Po
Foroiaflon is dcvelopod only upto Thidsi in the Zanskar
illfia
The loner-middle part ofthc Po Formation, in
the SE part ofthe Spiti Valley. is intruded by dolerite
and olivine-dolerilc transgressivc sills varying in
thickness from lm to 25m with 0.5 km to 5 km lateral
extent in the Tlubda-Sumra-Shalkar-Po-Pomorang and
Yld5l7l-Kiln-Kt1l’lTl0 areas In the vicinity of these
sills. shale of the Po Formation shows baking effect
and specks of arsenopyrite.
Age: Though based ori plant remains, Gothan
and Sahni (1937) assigned a middle Carboniferous
age to the Po Formation and the overall invertebrate
fossil assemblage suggests a lower to lower middle
Carboniferous age (‘.‘./atcrhouse. I985).
2.3.3.0 Ganniachldam Formation
The ‘Permian conglomerate‘ of Hayden (I90-t)
was renamed afier the Ganmachidam Hill by Srikantia
(197-t, l9Bl). Better sections, however. are exposed
at hill north ofPoh and Pomorang. The Ganmachidam
Formation is developed only in those sections where
the Po Formation is present. ln sections where the
Po Formation is absent, the Ganmachidam Formation
is also absent.
By and largo the Ganmachidam Formation forms
rugged topography, In aerial photo and also from a
distance it is diflicult to distinguish the Ganmachidam
Formation from the underlying and overlying
formations
The Ganmachidam Formation is not wholly
conglorneratic as its original name ‘Permian
Conglomerate‘ seems to suggest. lt comprises
pebble conglomerate (Fig.2.52), mudslone. pebbly
siltstone. pebbly sandstone. conglomerate. sandstone
and pale grey to brown shale alternations. All
these lithouriits being lentieular, the characters of
this formation vary even in a small area. The
conglomerate, too, has protean characters. Overall
the sequence comprises cycles commencing with
sandstone and ending in gritty/coriglomeratic unit.
Eight such cycles arc recognisable in the
Ganmachidam Hill. Like those of the Po Forrrtation,
each successive cycle within the Ganmachidam
Formation is thinner and coarser grained as
compared to the preeceding cycle.
Thcugh Hayden (1904) described a perfect
gradziliorial and conformable sequence between the

44 Mern. Geol. Stlrv. Ind. Vol. I24
Po and Ganmiichidam Formation (ile. the Permian
conglomerate). the contact between these two was
regarded as unconlormablc by Pascoe (1968) and
Rangallaoi-tril. (l987) Srikantia(l974, l98l), however,
considered it as a terminal phase of the Po cycle of
sedimentation having a normal stratigraphic contact.
Ranga Rzio ei nl. (I987) considered the Gaiunacludain
Formation (their Losar diamietites) to rest oonforn-iably
Ot-Cl‘ the Po Formation. but along it sharp contact.
The observations in various sections during the
present mapping reveal that in most of the sections
(c g. Ganmachidam. Mandaungsar. Po, Angla, upper
reaches of the Yulang Gad and Kurig) the litho-
units in the upper part of the Po Formation show
presence ol‘ pebbles whose frequency gradually
increases towards the stratigraphic top. providing
almost a passage to the Ganmachidam Formation.
This feature is best documented in the Kurig.
Poniorang and uppcr reaches of the Yulang Valley.
Hoiiever, in the Sumkhel and Pare Valleys. the
Gzinmachidam Formation shows a sharp and abrupt
contact with the Po Formation. Its upper contact
\\lll’l the Gecha ng Formation is sharp
The clasts in the conglomerate of the
(ianniachidzim Formation vary in size from granule
to cobble trnrci nith 4-lonim pebbles being most
common The matrix clast ratio varies from 30,70
to -ll! (itt The clasts are moderately sorted and
l1lU5l|_\’ subzingular to suhrounded, though the
rounded ones are not iinC0mmon. The rouridness
is around sis and sphericiiy between l’our and
SI\ [Power’s Scale. l95.1). in general, granule
forms 15%. pcbblc 63% and cobble about l-|.5%
The clasls are of grey sandstone (21-51%). white
sandstone (I3 ti-22 50%). brown sandstone
Ill 75=l 9%}, grey limestone (7 6-19 6%). black
shale (4 5-9%), granite (0.75-2.9%). and vein quartz.
tl 5-2%) .l2A62mm clasts arc mostly composed
of iihite sandstone and sporadically of green sand-
stone. shale and limestone. I6-32mm size clasis
zirc of isliite. purple. grey green sandstone. clasls
smaller than l(imm are represented by all the
rock types enumerated above. The sandstones are
oi‘ lno ty pcs. gritty sandstone and lithic wackes
The sequence of this formation. as exposed in
\ill’|Ul|S sections. is illustrated in Fig26t) with
details in Appendix-Vlll.
The Ganinnchidzim Formation. exoccpt for ill-
prcscn-ed fossils is. by and large. unfossilifcrous
The Ganniachidani Formation. as stated ear-
lier. is present only in the sections where the Po
Formation is also present. In the Spiti area accord-
ingly. it has best exposures in NW and SE corners
and also in the Lingti-Sumkhel—Pare Valleys in NE.
ln eastern Kinnaur and Kuiriaon areas, it is totally
absent. Towards NW, in Zanslrar, the Ganmachidam
Formation extends up to Thidsi.
Age : This formation was assigned a Lower
Permian age by Hayden (I904) and Range Ran e1 al,
(1987), whers, Srikantia (1981) considered it to be
of Upper Carboniferous age. The upper age limit of
the underlying Po Formation is certainly late lower
Carboniferous. if not younger. whereas, the basal
part of the overlying Gechang Formation has yielded
Eurydesmn conlntum (Srikantia et al. 19781:), E.
Ifttrlteric/rflgarh¢’!i.ri.s and E. hasdoensis (Bhargava
er al, 1985a) of Asselian age. The unfossiliferous
Ganmachidam Formation, thus, is likely to represent
mainly middle to late Carboniferous age possibly
extending into early Permian also.
1.3.4 Kuling Group
The term Kuling was originally proposed by
$tOliC7.ka (I865) arid later revived by Hayden (I908)
as Kuling System, It was redesignated as the Kuling
Formation by Srikantia (1981). In view of dilfereni
and distinct lithologic units within the Kuling
‘Formalioif and their proved mappability, it is
proposed to raise it to a group level. This group is
divisible into the Gecliang and Gungri Formations.
Z.3.d,A Gechang Formation
This name was proposed by Srikantia (I974,
I981) alter a village in the Parahio Valley for a
sequence described as ‘Calcareous Sandstone‘ by
Hayden (I904). The Gechang section. however. ii
least representative of this Formation, its best sections
are cxposod in thc Lingti Valley. around Lalung village.
along the left bank of the Spiti River between Poh
and Tabo, Khimokul Li: and in the Ratang Valley
The Gechang Formation, together with the
Ganmachidam Formation, form steep slope and is
indistinguishable from the latter from a distance and
in aerial photos lt comprises light brown to grey,
pale grey. mostly coarse grained to calcareous cross-
bedded sandstone with local 5-Z0 Cm lilicil
conglomerate at the base as lag (Fig 2.53) and 1063″)’
shale towards top (e.g. Poh and Poniorang. I0″!
thick) Slightly above the base. it invariably encloses
coquina hands which. when coarse (Fig Z-54), TOY”!
it sort or basal lag. Commencing from lag at bass it
shows coarsening-up sequence and then in WNW
sections followed by fining-up sequence.

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_¢.r-v‘ ,’,, ” , V}.-~–‘ ».’-‘ ‘- 2
>- ~ai.;.,. -. , -‘
‘ 2.,‘-;= .4-2; L‘=”_£;?:-fi,q’ -. ,_;-_,-_’-;_f_5§-;’,_,g_;’_q»f_,;’.;: I ;–_.
‘_ .1~ – -;’;_¢~,‘{‘*<.>’. -=-j:§,_\ fig V.-1;
-’ ~>-‘1:£.@ =§§=*;~ ,§‘ 4:
.. —-aw .”_ ” :1‘ _ , -‘
” A ‘.\‘ ‘ ~ ~‘ T25?“ . _
.3 -‘L – ‘ I .-‘f~'< _.v. _._
’71‘? -7.. “4″‘1:l!’-‘.4 ; ¥;=-“1 ‘ .”
-6- ‘_P’;< ; =’-’_;\=-04¢;-.”S¥” ms K i. l‘ “Q 1’4 M‘ _, ,l i _ _€€V,__.- > “..– _ -_~.
Explanation of Figs. 2.42 – 2.49
Fig. J2. Coral Lfllloslmllfln colanv. lnpak l-nnnnnon Tukchc scclmn Fly, 43. Shdc prml of n wlckcslnne lhowing
Tmmrulurv Lu: Yulang Vnllq Fl; -H. Hull oppmulc lmnr shmung urulnonc-almlc nllcmnlion of Pn Fonnnuon In lown
pan succtrdrd by lhc Ganmnchldam. Gcchang. Kulmg (dark) and Lllnng Group (lughl mlnunxl |n uppcr pan), the precipilmls
pun us constituted of lhc Kiolo Formnllon Ply, 45. A pmgudlng cyrk Ind! wuh I sandstone and u followcd by another
c_\clc with clay-shllc bed whlch coorazns up lummnllng |nln nllllnm:-nndalonc had ll lh: Glnmuchidlm Hill Fig, 46.
I~’enrsl¢’Iln ln uhllc of lh: Po Formalnon Hg, 47. lzpidomggllanu sp Po Fofmnhon Lot Thlbdl. Fl; ll. /Lvlerincilrs
uuung lrnce of mrfish). Po Funnlhon. lnc baa: of Glnmnclndam Hill Ilg. 49. /lularluulu with Plnnnlimr nnd Skolilhm,
Po Formnlmn Loo. Glnmnchudam Hill (Bu sale us I cm)

Ggolqpgy of Spili-Kinnaur. Hilchll Himalaya
5Aunncn|on| FUIIATION
1?»
I
=3-__
“E4
$<.a
U Z
\_.,
\
T’ j5o’|’§zc1’|oI ma urn)
\
GANMACHIDAM HILL
F {IN PART)
GANMICHIDAM FORMlTlON
g
W
U
_____ __ —i
(__?_ _ —‘
. . . . E _ _ _ B
_ q_7_’ 2%] . ‘:.t-P
– -i __-_’,
‘ . . ‘ A
B
___. ..|
__ _ l PINGLUNGIIN PIRT)
‘ GANMICHIIJAM FORHAYIONO
_‘ //C zoom}
” -X /’4; QI?
Q f_ _ 2’ ii;
+E~\,~
__– ___\___
1
/’f’
*
M@RDlNG NALL {IN PlHT|
$lNMACN|D-QM FORMATION
\., §….
Fig. 1.50 lnllvnlngs nf lhc Po Formnllon Expl: I Pcbbles – grii – conglomenale. 2 Sandslcme. 3 Sl|l5l0|\: 4 <hale
5 Nodnlcs cuuclmiug fusslls. 6. Hlolurhalinn |n Dulornvllc Sa|1ds\0nc. A-B ell: Sedimentary cyclcs. IC Incnmpleic
cycle

4 3 Mam. Gent. Sun-, llid. Vol. 124
The lower contact ofthe Gechang Formation with
the Ganmachidani Formation, specially where it is
oonglomeratic at base, looks apparently gradatiorial
However. the conglomerates of the Gechang
Formation are mostly clast supported and their
matrices are cleaner in contrast to the Ganmachidam
whose conglomerates are mostly muddy and matrix
supported. ln sections where the Gaiimachidam
Formation is absent (in such sections Po Formation
is also absent), the contact of the Gechang Forma-
tion with the underlying Lipak, Muth or Takche
Formations is abrupt and unconformable. Its upper
contact with the overlying Giingri Formation is also
sharp, abrupt and most possibly unconformable
(Gaetani e! al. I990; Bhargava er ii-I, l99lb). The
uppermost beds of the Gechang Formation are
crowded with vertical burrows (Fig.2.62). Details
of its succession in various sections are given in
Fig.2.6l and Appendix-IX.
In addition to the fossils check-listed by Pasooe
(1968). Srikaotia el af. (l918b) recorded Ellrydesma
mrduinm and Delmpecren. Bhargava ei al (l985a)
reported Eurydesmu manendragarhensis and E
hasdoensis and Chopra e! al, (1980) discovered coral
Waageriopiiyllum. Eurydesma cordafimi (Fig.2.5S-
56) has been found at Liwa Tliach 12m above the
base of the Gechang Formation Neorpirijbr (Fig.2.57)
was recovered from the upper part of this forma-
tion exposed in the Khimokul La section.
The thickness of the Gechiing Formation var-
ies from five metres in Kidul to about l50m in the
Ratang Nola. ln some sections of Spiti and Kinrtaur,
the Gechang Fonnation is totally absent. ln Zanskar,
according to Srikantia er at. (l978a), wherever the
Phe Volcanics are developed, the Gechang Forma-
tion is absent. Gaetani er nl, (1990), however, re-
port the Chumik Formation (§Gectiang Formation) in
the Zanskar area which is associated with the
volcanics.
Age: With Eurydemra (Fig.2.$$-56) in basil part
and Waagenophylliim near top, the Gecliang Formation
is‘ interpreted to range in age from Asselian to
Sakmarian, possibly extending to early Artinskian also.
2.3.4.8 Gungri Formation
Named alter the Gungri village near Pin-Parahio
confluence (Srikantia, 1974, l9tll), this sequence
was originally described as the Productiis Shale
(Hayden, I904). lt forms a subdued gentle topogra-
phy and due to black colour is easily identified in
field from a distance and also in the aerial photos
(Fig.2,36).
The Gungri Fonriation mainly comprises black,
calcareous, silty shale and shale. phosphatie, cherry
and calcareous nodules with 0.5cm to more than
l00r;1n diameter (Fig.2.5t$-59), thin siltstone and
ooquina limestone lenses. Some of the nodules enclose
fossils. The cherry nodules are largely phosphatic.
The silty shale mostly occurs in the basal part,
whereas, the upper part is made up of shale. The
transition zone from silty-shale to shale is charac-
terised by Zoophycos (Fig.2.67) in several sections
(Bhargava er al, 1985b). The sequence includes
millimetre to centimetres thick shaly siltstone and
calcareous siltstone intercalations. Overall, the Gungri
sequence shows two to three cycles coarsening
upward.
As stated earlier, the lower oontact ol‘ the Gungri
Formation with the Gechang Formation is sharp. In
the Kinnaur area, at Jongchen, the Gtingri Forma-
tion rests over the eroded surface of the Mutli For-
mation, the former filling up the eroded portions.
The upper contact of the Gungri Formation with
the Mikin Formation (Lilarig Group) looks appar-
ently confdrmable. However, at the base of the Lilang
Group occurs a 0.5-lr5cm thick ferruginous bed (silty
shale) with more or less sharp boundaries with both
the underlying and the overlying rocks (Fig.2.63).
This band was interpreted by Bhatt er al, (1977) to
represent a sub-aerial break. On the other hand,
Bhargava (1987) considered it to signify a sub-marine
hiatus. This question may be kept open at this stage.
The lithostratigraphic details of this formation
in various sections are given in Fig.2.65-66 and
Appendix-X.
The Gungri Formation is the most persistent
stratigraphic horizon in the Spiti and Kinnaur ar-
eas. In most of the sections of Spiti, this formation
maintains a thickness between 35-50m. However, it
is 25m near the Hangritng Pass. In the Kinnaur area,
where ii generally rests unconformahly over the Miilh
Formation, grettt variation in its thickness is no-
ticed. The thicknesses are markedly less towards
north Near J0lIgCll€II (Oyamthing valley). it isbmly
five metres. Towards east in the Kumaon area also.
the Gtlngri Formation is extensively developed ll
is observed throughout the Zanslrar area where it
rests over the Phe Wtcanics and is mostly W17 “ti”

Geology of Spiti-Kinnlur. Himaclnl Himalaya 49
»+, »:< ‘A1 _ v, ‘ 2:» _ >~ _ , ,: /,”~. ‘_._
“’ Q \ \
‘— -Id \’\
~¢ —.
llxplnnnion of Figs. 2.5! – 2.59
Fig. 5|. ” (‘0!/|Ilrhn||.€, P0 Formation. Loc Na Dugn Flg. 52. Pebble conglnmcrale enclosing u grumte pebble,
(innmnchudnm l~orm:\lmn L01: IUOIII casl nf Slngmg Hui, Change Fig. 53. Conglurncrnlc forming basal pan of (he
ficclunng Fnnnnlum nl Gnngri Hg. 54. Coquinn lug at lhc base of lhe CI€€hlI\Q Formnlion. Loc Lulung. Fig. 55-56.
I:’urwi-‘_rnm rnnInI|m|_ Gcchnng Formnlion Lac Lfwu Thanh, SS side: view, 56. lop view, Flg. 57. Neospirj/er sp.
Grchnng Fu|n\n\|nn I.nc Khnmokul La sccfion Fig. 58~S9. Nodules in the Gungrl Formation. 58. Al downstream of
/\|nr§w-
–<b
O I I
‘W
0
\\¢P
D
C
50:11.
B Q 0 0
GQNMACHIDAM HILL ‘_ 0
QM
mun
@@@
@zm@
4 s
LINGTI —sH|c|-||_m:
GECNING FORMATION
O “ 0 -0 ”
o 0
°o‘0’0 0
*7-a-0-a
D – 9 .
– – .
Q19
Ii: ‘ _ -.10
1-til

. ‘ . . – A
/“Q
9 .
4’5‘
A
-v._ iii
ff
P0 FORMATION PO FORMATION
/‘CA
D
B
l
dslnnc. 4 Shale: wllh
Hg. 2.60. LHIIOIOQ nf the Gnnmach|dan\ Formation F-lxpl I Conglomerate, 2. (71-11. .1 fifillfi‘ 95″
n few pehhlcx. 5, Grilly shale. 6 Slulc, 7 Cross-bcdding [unc|nnil’|:d)_ 8 Tnrlenlml v:r0us—hcdd|ng and ‘J Ilcmnghune
cross-bcddmg. A — H Scdmcmary cyclcs.

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur. Himaclial lliinalilyii 5 I
and contains thin calcarenite bands. The limestone
beds reported by Ganesan er all |95 I) in lhe Kllliflll.
Formation are considered as the tectonic slices of
the Lilang Group (personal communication S \/.
Srilrantia). Similarly, the Triassic of Frank er al, (I977)
in the Indus Suture Zone, according to S.V. Srikantia.
is mostly Gungri rocks tectonieally involved within
a schuppen zone.
Age : The fossil assemblage of the Gungri
Formation suggests an age ranging from Djulfian
to a part of Dorashmian. The uppermost Dorashmian
elements have not been reported so far,
The age analysis of the Gechaiig and the Gungri
Formation indicates absence of Kungurian to Midian.
thereby suggesting a break between the Gechang
and the Gungri Formations (Gaetani et ril. I990;
Bhargava el al, 1991b).
2.4 MESOZOIC
2.4.1 Lilang Group
A thick and mainly a carbonate rich sequenee
was named by Stoliczka (1865) as the Lilang System
afier the village ofthe same name (spelt as Lalung in
the modern toposheet) in the Liiigti Valley. lt was
subdivided into nineteen biostratigraphic subdivisions
by Diencr (l9l2, 1915). The terrn Zangla suggested
by Nanda and Singh (1976) for the Lilang sequence
is superfluous. Srikantia (I974, l9Bl) redcsignaled it
as the Lilang Group and subdivided it broadly into
five forrnations ofunprovcn mappabtlity The names
suggested by Srikantia (1974, 1981), save Alaror,
could not he adopted for the reasons stated in the
introduction. During the present mapping, it has been
possible to divide the Lilang Group into nine units
(Bhargava, 1987). all oi‘ which are mitpable in large part
Of the area on I 60,000 or l:]00_O00 scale, These do
not coincide with ‘he subdivisions suggested by
Srikaritia (1974, l9Bl). The fomiations adopted here
have been mapped all over the Spiti Valle; (Bhnrgava,
i987). but not dilTerent.iated in the Kinnaur area, where
mapping had preceded that of Spiti. Description of
these formations is as follows;
2.4.l.A Mikin Formation
This is the oldest diagnostic lithounit oi the
Lilaiig Group. named aflcr a village in the Pnrahio
Valley, where its excellent section is exposed lt is
ubiquitously well-developed specially near Guling.
north of Lalung village, on the right bank of the
Liflsli. \’I01’lh of Felt. Tabo. in the Pinglung Valley
and north of Mandaungsar,
lt forms a steep l0p0gf’l|J|Iy over _the gentle
slopes of the Gurtgri Formation and can be recog-
nised from a distance (Fig.2,64 and 2 7]) However,
due to distortion caused by steep topography. this
formation is not always decipherable in aerial pho-
tos The Mikin Formation represents the
biostratigraphic zones of Oloceras. Ophrceras.
1i/Ieelmcernx Zones, Hedcnstrocmin Beds, Basal
Muschelkalk. Nodular Limestone, Lower Muschclkalk
and Upper Muschelkalk.
Below the Gungri-Mikin contact occurs 1 to
l5cin thick ferrugirious bed having sharp contacts
with both the underlying and overlying rocks(Fig.
2.63).
The Mikin Formation is made up of thick to
medium bedded, grey to dark grey dolomite, which
is clierty at places Dark grey to ash grey, cherty
shales having limited strike continuity are sporadi-
cally present in the sequence The sequence shoti-s
sedimentary cycles commencing with pure carbon-
ate and ending in a carbonate-shale unit. A network
of ferrtiginous veins along and across the bedding.
imparting a nodular character, is the most diagnos-
tic feature ofthis formation (Fig Z 68). Nodular and
wavy bedding sporadically minor subaqueous slumps
and ophiceratids shells (Fig.2.69) are prominent
features of this formation. li has disconformablc
and coriforinable contacts with the underlying Gungri
Formation rind the overlying Kaga Formation re-
spectively.
The lithological details of the Mikin Forma-
tion in the Lalung section are furnished in Fig 2 76a
and Appendix-Xl.The Mikin Formation is uniformly
developed in Spiti and Kinnaur. Its extension in
Zanskar has not yet been established. though rocks
having similar stratigraphic position and rniciofacies
arc known from Kumaon
The following conodonts, foramiriifers and
ostracodes have been recorded from this Forma-
lion‘
C0n0d0nt5* 2 .’lnchignai‘hoa’i4s eff Iyplcalis
Swaer’,CelslgondoIeIIa walzrmueri Kozur’
(‘rarugndlhodus lmchi Huckriedc”. Cyprimlolella
lnlll/€r‘l2, (‘.scm’o.rcu{plure7. Dfplvdode//0 .rp.’. D.
magriidentrrraz, Ellisonia Irinsslcn Muller’-7, Elfisomri
gradala Sweet”. E. nevadem-is Muller‘, E. Ieichern
SWei:l1’7 Ermntiognathux Z!€gi'(‘f!:, Giadygondofe/Ii:
I¢’”l’_l’rlI.Y2, Hndrndonlia sp.3. llibbzirdella of
.i’ub.\’ynmu.’lrra Muller’, Hindcridella (IM’r.’tapri’0no|’de.r)

5 3 Mem. Geol. Su rv.
»\’_I”t’P1g/criz. H (ill). pelratri-irrfixz. ll. fill/‘
trmllthnmnlrr, H.(.lI) sur:i’|cn7_ H (M). pectemfurltttr’,
lmnchortlnn .rp 1, L. /tungartcn-’, I, aeqirinrcualn
Muller’. I,. pn.rIero_ennlhus7, I. utu/left’.
Ncngorirlolclla plnnalirj, N cnr’in(1In”3, N fl(1\![[|l|’fl’7’3‘
N. nt0mbergr2n.sl.v’, .\’ crmstricIa3, N. sl’einbergeIt.w.tJ,
N. brfurcnrn’, .\’ httlgartcrr’, N. jubalnl. N.
shnshoenstsz, ;‘\-‘ prrkrmtnieli‘. Neohindcoleiln
nevadensisj. .’\/ensprtthodus rliertert”-“, N.
r10\’rt(*}t0!lnnriiIc.v-‘, N. labia!u.r”-3, N. sp/‘tlansts’, N
tvnngenr”, N. Ozarkmlinn lD7|t”i.\‘Z, Parugundolelfn
sp.2, P. IIIIIO/‘£I7Si.\J. N. ktmmtelli Sweet’, N kr|.r.r11gnlIi
l-luckriede-’, N. dESC!‘It’MS2, N. kuc/eel’, ,V.
pnktstanensisg, t\’. hntuertz, .\-‘ rm-mguInrt_w9_ ;\’,
jheluml-” N .rritIn.\’t’m’11t’3, .\-‘ gertrtrmlcusl. N. xpathl-‘.
r-xc’c’I.wr7. P/alyi-tlIn.tu.< co.rInl’us7, Prirmiode/Ir!
prmrrtorlellides Talge’. Prmniodella .r/tr’. P.
c!ennide.r3,P. njf proud’. P zxcatrnln-’. 1′.
ntngrttrtenltr’. P. mu//orig, P. spertglcrtg. Runnrtwr
.-(3, Rnurmtit/ct B2, Rnurtd_\’t1 (‘3, Rotmdya D3, Ratmdya
utebnerr”’_ Spa!hr1gnnl’hodus’ Sp), .\’nnl’ugnm’hu.t
curvnlus S\|*eeI’, ,\’, deflectens Sweet‘
Foraminfera” : Ammnbuculftes mconspicun
Cushman and Waters’. A. rndslndensix l(ristman—
Tollamn]. /-imn|0rIi.\c0ide.\‘ sp. 3. A/numdi.»’cu.s i.’rugrrlu.t’
Crcspinl. .-l. parrtprrxcus H07. Antlttnrirscus .rp.”’.
.-hmrtrrverrcllu spr‘, .4. Inbyrtnrha sp. Ireland‘.
A prodigrrlis Ireland’. A. undulnta Galloway
and Harltan’, Bo/h_v.\’t’ph0n .\‘p 3, Holivina Irrlhetica
Tappanl. Cilharinelfn clmpmrmi Marie’. D;-mnlinzi
hucculenru Schwager’, D. Cll.tsinm7 Gumbel’, D.
co/Ir.t‘a Sch“-ager’, D. Irtlfqvephnrn Gumbel’.
Earlandintta .rp.’, Frondtcu/rrria sp.’, Glolrtaspirn
sp.’, Glomorptrelln 111.’. Ltluotuha sp.””.
Lituatubella gIlII7ll).\‘pi!‘UIdt?S Raus::r~Cernous0va.
Memrdrnsptrri .s‘p.2, Nodnsnria cushmani Paztlzow’.
.-V. decnrtlr Cre5pini’, N bamburn Chapman’, N.
crassulu Crespinl, Schiznmimra .tp.’, llzhekistanin
xp}.
o!ll’ICOd€8c : Bnirdm sp/’7, B. me.rot’rIrrs.ricrt
Gocl er G/I‘). B. mach’, llurtgcrre/la spr’, Hurtgarella
u.rsuriens|’s Grarnm’, Pnrabernunelln oertillii Kozur’.
Pnlellncylhere .rpiIien.ri.r Goel at. a!,’.
I
Age: The fossil assemblage suggests an age
ranging from Scythian to Anisian for the Mikin
Formation.
Ind. V0]. I2-l
Z.-LLB Kaga Formation
This formation is named alter the stream Kaga_
a tributary of the Parahio River_ where it shows
excellent lithologic and faunal dCVe|()pmr;I1l_ Good
sections arc also exposed along the right bank of
the Lingti river, north of Lalung and Angla villages
ln between the precipitous slopes constituted of
the Mikin and Chomule Formations. the Kaga
Formation forms gentle topography (Figs.2 6-1, 2.70,
2.73). On account of earthy colour on weathered
surface and softer topography. it is recognisable
from a distance and also on aerial photos. lt has an
lntercalatod and gradational contact with the Mikin
and Chomule Formations respectively
The Kaga Formation ts constituted of light to
dark grey. green calcareous shale and sporadic thin
lenticular beds ofgrcy limestone and dolomite. The
shale and carbonate alternation constitutes a cycle.
There are several cycles of shale-carbonate alterna-
tions. This formation is rich in eephalopod fauna.
ln the Kaga section. the cephalopods (Bhargava e!
0!. 1984d) occur as ‘organic dropstone‘ crowded
along limestone-shale interface in the basal beds
(Fig.2.7l). The lithologic composition of the Kaga
Formation in the Lalung section is depicted in Fig.
2.76b with details given in Appendix-Xll.
The Kaga Formation is well developed through-
out the Spiti Valley. In eastern Kinrtaur I00, it is
consistently developed and well exposed in the
Tidong and Gyarnthing Valleys and on the Dunthi
Peak in the Baspa valley. lls mapping so far has
not been extended in the Lnhaul-Zanskar area.
Age : The Kaga Formation corresponds to the
Daonella Shale biostratigraphic horizon. Whiflh ii
regarded to be of Ladiuian age (Diener. I911)
Z.4,l.C Cllomule Formation
Named afler a locality along the lefl slope of tltc
Spiti Valley, near Tabo, this formation shows good
development throughout the valley, specially along
the left bank of the Lingti, opposite Lalung village
and the lcfl hank ofthe Pin-Parahio, opposite Guling
village. It corresponds to the biostratigrapl-tic subdi-
visions ofthe Daonelln Limestone and Halobta Beds
(Diener, I912). Throughout the arca this formation
fomis precipitous s1opcs(Fig_2,64, 2.67, 1 74) and is
easily identifiable from a distance (Fig.2,77). It has a
conformable contact with the Sanglurlg Formation
* (I Bturt Ind Jochi. tom»; 1 Bhugavl no Gudltokl. rm-. 1 owl. \9″I’t. 4‘ Bl-=11 =1 -II. 1911’»! – ” -M ‘ tl. Owl -1| at. I”I=
Z Blllrglvl Ind Gadlmke, I981. ll. Bhlll Ind Iorhi. l97llb)

.. suing utspucinivm. Hiqxhll us–am 4 .- as
<1‘ . 5′ Q
4 =‘ “Y flq.
‘ _,.‘ ‘() <6 “*”\\J ‘ . 2: \\-~ \g‘ V%~ §@nw *> 555$
>4 Q E1
cnuxvnuuc INCH
GuuGR| ronnuflon
” V. V’ sumuulonl
‘cl:
‘ . . . “1;
5m
. – 1 U13] l
I v. ‘. . O –
[ ‘ YAICHF FQRN/l7i°u
] Q Z
0
GUNOGI FORMATIOI
Q EUUMG QEHIND POM IN
.i_____ A 5|;~5;;\ pQflMAY|Q[| GL4-NGFII FORMATION
‘Om : – 3713:‘:
_ . / J V v ii“ 1; <94» jc
\_ ” Z O – “_ we ,’ 1 _/ 4r::;-5-1* ,1″—”.;.:.L /
_ -~’~»~ ~-—~~ ~ – 5
rnncus Form.-mow UP“ HJRMMMN E __ 2&7 F.‘ _,..
c.:o;:~!2AFlAu(; PASS F0″ __ ;___
GU,,¢,;, mam-|-,0″ sun-=m FORMATION GANMACHX4“
1-.
– ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘1‘: i KHAN
V V r;u~m\| FORM1
F ‘c ‘ 1:’ – -A – ‘ B . ,._ I ‘
+——–‘ D , “Q. ZDrr\ – I I W;
. ‘“ I Q ¢rc‘:“ 1 yd‘ 5‘,/’
\ ———-———— .
‘ am 1 I‘ yr‘ i JAO ll, . //4 B
i _ cmmcmonu ronumou I H’ l
o – ‘ c
‘ LIPAK FORMIYION
GHUNSARANG NILA
‘ ‘ ‘ cuncm FORMAYJOH Sm,“ CH“
\ . V’ . M _v_ A r I
/‘ Zn’ ~.{ V V | GuN0R|FoRlM1″ON
. . I A
__M._M /< _ c- c I, . | _ _ ___ -jg ,, _ . . I’ ggm-liE—’lf_’_—# _/B(|C =1 m /’~’- W”, ~’ ~ TAICIIE FORMATION TAIICHE FOIHlTl0N |_|PAfl FORMATION Fig 1.6l Lllhnlng 0|‘ lhfl Gcclmng l’r\rmal|n|\ F-xpl I Plami |’nss|l_ I ZO0[PI[\'(‘0J’. J Brachmpnd. 4 Skolllhns. S Il|uluruhlmns‘hl|rrowx, 6 Snrldslunc/M-|mca\:|:m|x. L‘-calcuwnus. F.F.urydcsma IL‘ Incomplcle cycle. Anuvxs indicate S|IL|HllCI1Hll\’ cvclcs, 54 Mem. Gaol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I14 Figs.2.62— 2.64 L “‘ ~11- -1 62 I ‘ – v I ._ -9 I I — -Q‘ ‘\ ~ . 1 »~ _ f _ ‘ 2‘ » __ 5» ” ’ ‘ M ‘.~ “‘ ~ ‘ s» . , ‘ ” ‘ u – ‘ *5, . ‘ . ~F~’~~ ~” . ‘r ~ — 7“.-¢’~ __ .. _ 1.. ;: “_ ‘_ 1,. ““’~’ . .1: -~ §- – I ‘ u- :~.._ ‘ V. ‘ ._~ r >‘.
._- . ,-~# – . ~ – -‘*’ –
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Fig. 6}‘. Verhcul burrows nlnng lh: upper suvfncc oflhc Gcchnng Formnhon Inc fiuugn Flu. 6.\ A I-:1rngmu~-a
hnnd nlnmz Ihc (iungn-Mulun cmmn,-I 1.0: Llnglu (Amrgnn) scclmu Pig‘ 64 A \.-mu uf n pllfl m lhr hhmg
(imnp nppnulc Lulnng vnllugr: Lnwu mos! sleep [need beds urn of III: Mnhn lurvlmlmn, Iullownl In (hr: gcmlc
slupzd kaga Furnminn 1h: sleep !|(|[\L‘ shove nl us nl‘ lhc Chnmulc Furmalum fullowcd bv lhc A – ( Mm-hrn
of the Snngluug Fulmnhnn (B11 scale ll -I cm)

Geology of Spiti-Kiiiiiaur. llirriachal Himalaya 5 5
The Chomule Formation comprises evenly bed-
ded (Fig.2.72), light grey dolomite iii the basal part
and dark grey dolomite in the upper with local sub-
ordinate calcareous shale and marl. The unifomt bed-
ding thickness. nodular and wavy beddings and
large subaqueous slumps (Fig.z.74-75) are charac-
teristic features ofthis formation. There are four to
five sedimentary cycles commencing from pure
carbonate and terminating into shale or argillaceous
carbonate. Some of the cycles are incomplete and
truncated by the next cycle. The detailed lithology
ofthis formation in the Lalung section is furnished
in Fig. 2 76c and Appendix-Xlll. ln view 0! dis-
covery of abundant radiolarian and calcispheres
remains (Bhargava and Gadhoke, 1988) in samples
around l4m above its base, it is necessary that the
entire Chomule Formation he closely sampled for
micropalaeonlological studies.
The Chomule Formation more or less main-
tains its thickness throughout the Spiii Valley and
is consistently developed in the Gyamthing Valley
on a spur two kilometres east of Manchap Thuch
and on the Dunthi Peak in the Baspa Valley.
Age : The Chomule Formation corresponding
to the DflI)flt‘llt1 Limestone and Halobln Beds is
interpreted to range Ilt age from late Ladinian to
early Carnizin
2,~l,t.D Sanglung Fnrmalinn
Named alter a locality in the Lingli Valley (inad-
vcrtently referred to as the Pin Valley in Bhargava.
1987]. the Szingltilig Formation shows equally good or
better exposures in the Piii Valley. This formation has
been Stlbdl\‘lllCd into three members czich ofwhich. iii
tact,-cotild be raised. to formationril level. l-loivcvcr. due
to rugged tcrrain and complicated folding. it li:is not
been possible to map thcst: nicinbcrs in rill ttic sec-
tions. ln sections \\’|ICl’C the middle calcareous tlllll
pinches out. it becomes difficult to distinguish be-
l\\CCl\ the lower mid nppcr units Moreover. tlioiigtt
lllC pinching of any of these tinits can be viewed in
SL‘\Ct(!l sections. it has not been possible to closely
c\:iminc whether the pinching is scdiincnlologic or
tcclonic. Duo to such constraints. it has been thought
tudicious to accord member status to thcsc subdivi-
sions Tlfld ditterentiate them on map. whcrcvcr possi-
blc. To avoid Illltlll|)llCll§ of names. these members
linvc been designated as A. B and C.
2.4. l. l)1Mt-mire! A ‘ It is well developed rt Stinglung
and also in the Pin, Pare and Giu Valleys. ll corre-
sponds to the Grey Bails ofDiener (l 912). The Member
A constitutes gentle to steep slopes (Fig 2 76) and
selectively can be picked in aerial photos [t has an
intercalated contact with the Member B
The Member A comprises grey shale which,
on weathering, acquires ash grey shade. Limestone]
dolomite, earthy dolomite (marly) and siltslone
interbeds occur in specific sequential arrangement
at different stratigraphic levels. forming pan ofdif-
fcreni cycles. Each cycle initiates with pure carbon-
ate and terminates into shale/siltstone unit Some
cycles are incomplete. Nine such cycles were iden-
tified in the Lingli section. Cephalopod wheeling
traces are known from this member (Fig.2.tl7). its
sequence. as exposed in the Lingti Valley, is given
in Fig 2.78a and Appendix-XIV 3
Age : The Member A is regarded to represent
a middle Carttinn age corresponding to the Grey
Beds (Diener. l9l2).
2.-t,1.Dz Mzinlier B : li is also well exposed at
Sanglung, opposite Lalung village and in the Pin
Valley. lritricately folded, it forms precipitous slopes
(Fig.2.73). Due to steep topography and vertical
distortion it is selectively picked up in the aerial
photos. The Member B is the lithostratigrapliic
equivalent of the Troptlex Bed. lt has an interca-
lated contact with the Member C
lt is made up of bedded grey litncstone. dolo-
nlilfi tflhcrly in upper pat1).subordinnte shale, sittstoiic
and sandstone. These lithounits are repeated at sev-
eral stratigraphic levels forming pails of different
cycles Each cycle begins with carbonate and cul-
minates in :1 shale/sandstone bed Bliargavii and
Gadholte (I988). have reported conodont
Glmligundnlvlln It-Ihydi.r and foraniiritfers
(Jp/rrlrn//riiriiurrl Iriudicri/ii (Tollman) and
.-lr<‘m>\’irinIinr: chialirtgchinngerni-i’.r Ho from this
nicinbcr. The details of sequence of the Member B,
as exposed in the Lingli Valley, are depicted in
Fig 2.7tlb and Appendix-XIV b
Age : It has the same age as that of the 7’mpiie.i-
Bed r.e. late Carnian (Dinner, l‘JlZ)_
2.-t.l.D, Member C: lt is well developed along the
Atargoo-Giiling road and in the Hal Nata forming

S6
Mem. cm. Surv. ma. vu’|. 124
‘2m
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GE C Ml HG FOQMflT|ON
SUMNA (ROFL)
MIKIN FORMATION
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\.. _:\ -a
5.5m
_—- —— _ —- C
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6 ‘5 3 ‘
Q
1‘, r, ‘
‘5’” suunsuuuo PASS
MIKIN FOIMITION
__. —-H
GECKAIIG FORMATION GICHIIIG FOIMITIDN
Fig. 2.65. Lnhnlogu of the Gungn Formation Fur Index sec F\g. 266.
/
_ ._ B
M |) “l A
I M l

Geolug of Spili-Kinnaur, Ilimachnl Himalaya 5 7
LALUN6
MIKIN FORMATION
_— _=
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ascunac Fonmmou —M – 2 ”
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MIKIN FORMITION
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szcnnmz FORMATION 3
‘rs
Fin, 2.66‘ Lflhologi of the Gungrl Formalion‘ Exp]: 1 Nodulcs, 2 Micaccous shah, J Calcareuus shala, 4 Shula,
S. Brlchi0pnd_ 6 Shclls, 7 Lnmmimnlgus hnnalnyensis‘ 8 Zoaphycos,9 BioIu|bnI|cmrhurmws_ IO Snndstone
lens and ll‘ Sillslonc lens. IC – Incomplete cy¢lc

53 Mem. Gcol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
Fis.2.67—2.73
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“<‘.’-5‘ ‘ / .1 ‘ f ,- ‘-_r¢»,,..;:-1’» _ v ’ ‘ — ‘_Z_— w- . “‘ A-“2, _. – .1 _. . E! llxplnnalinn of F|y,s.1.!v7 – 2.73 Fig, 67. Znnphywn |n lhc (inngn Fnrmnlnnn Lo: lmgh scclum Fig. 68. Nodulnr hcddmg and fcrruglnnus nnlwork III lhc M|L|n I-ormanun Lnc Cvulmg scclmn Fig. 69. Ophnccnulids m lh: Mlkm I-ormulmn 1.01: (iuling scclinn‘ Fig. 70. Mnkm. Kugu. (‘hum\|lc_ Snnglung Fuvmalmns nn hill bchlnd lhc Mud villagc Th: rcmnnung fnrmnlmns of lhc Lllang Gloup arc exposed In llu: dnxllml hull Fig. 71. Ccphalnpnd occumvlg as dropalnne-S, m Kagn llormalion, Loc. Kaga Nnln Fig, 72. liven-bcddcd Chnmulc Fmmallon l.oc uur Rama, (Llngh Valley) Fig. 73. A ucw of purl OT the Lnlung Group Loo Lingli nghl hunk. Lnlung Ggq[q§t |;f5|1iti-Kinnaur, Himachal Himalaya 59 sicq; to gentle slopes (Fig.2.73). It corresponds to the Juvawtes Beds. The Member C has a sharp to intercalated contact with the Hangrang Formation. The Member_ C is constituted 0-f shale. ferru- ginous cross-bedded sandstone and breceia with angular to subangular boulder to cobble size frag- ments of limestone and sandstone (cg Hal Naln section). The shale and sillstone on weathered surface are of brown to greenish in colour. The sandstone shows low-angled cross-bedding. Interference ripple marks are present in the dolomite and sandstone beds. I5 to 29 cycles are present in the Member C, each cycle commencing with carbonate and temiinating in shale, Hhargava and Gadhoke (1938) recorded ostracodes Hairdio mesorrmssica Goel er al, (1984) and Himgon-Ila sp. from this member. Com- plete sequence of this member, as exposed at Atargoo- Guling and Lingii sections, is presented in Fig. 2.78c and Appendix-XIV c. Age : The Member C (Q Juvrivires Bed) repre- sents early Noriari age (Dierier, l9l2). In eastern Kinnaur, the Sanglung Formation is exposed in the Gyarnthing Valley. Z.4.l.E Hrmgrang Formation Named after the Hangrang Pass, this forma- tion. besides at the type locality (Fig.2.82), shows good development at Tapuk (Kinnaur), Giu Nrzlri, Chidang, Pin-Parahio confluence, Lalung section and Rangring (Fig. 2.83, spelt as Rangrilt in the latest toposhcct). Occurring in between the Sanglung Formation (Member C) and Alaror Formations. the Hangrang Formation provides a steeper face and can be recognised from a distance (Fig. 2.82). This formation is equivalent of the Coral Limestone. lt has an intercalated to sharp contact with the Alaror Formation The Hangrang Formation comprises light to grey‘ massive dolomite. In most of the sections, it shows abundance of coral and hydrozoan in hand specimen. Corals in ‘in-growth‘ position indicate tccfoid nature (Fig.2.84-86). The dolomite in between such reefoid structure varies from coarse ooidal to (inc micritic. ln the Hangrang area, below the main coral colonies, there occur large solution cavities filled by material mostly having ferniginous contents. These possibly provided hard substrate for coral growth. There are numerous microfacies in the 1-langrang Formation which inter-finger within short stretches. Thus no sequence of microtacies can be built. though reefat Pin-Spitfconfluence (Bhargava and Bassi, 1985) and I-langrang do show some zoning. The reefoid structures vary in size from a few square metres (tag. Lalung section) to about one kilometre (at l-langrang). its outcrops at Haugrang occur at different topographic levels and localities due to structural complications (Fig 2 79). ln general, the sequence commences with a zone of solution cavities of various sizes having a horizontal floor and an irregular roof filled with femiginous, micri tic. qtiartrose and sparitic materials. it is followed by a solitary coral zone. Two to three such cycles of reef growth are identifiable in different sections. The reef part of the Hangrarig Formation at the type section was studied at tlirec places, viz. A, B and C‘ (Fig.2.79) The details of these sequence are given in Fig.2.8O and Appendix-XV. The Hangrang Formation shows wide thickness variations. ln most sections it shows both sedimentological pinching as well as tectonic pinching (e.g. Hangrang Pass) Though present everywhere, it has been plotted in map where actually examined. Age : The Hangrang Formation . equivalent to the Coral Limestone. represents Norian (Diener. 1912) or early middle Norian age (Bhargava and Bassi, 1985). 2.4.l.F Alarnr Formation This narne, suggested by Srikantia (I974, I981) alter a locality between Kioto and Lagudarsi Pass. has been adopted in the present work. The Alaror Formation, as redefined here is , however. different in the lithologic assemblage from the one defined by Srikantia (I981). This formation resting con- formably over the Hangrang Formation is excel- lently developed along the Atargoo-Guling road. about one kilometre upstream or the Pin-Spiii con- fluence and forms gentle to steep slope. However, its resolution is not very clear on aerial photos. lt has a normal conformable contact with the under- lying and overlying Hangrang and Nunuluka For- mations respectively. It corresponds to the biostratigraphic subdivision of the Monotts Shales. The Alaror Formation consists of dark grey to brownish shale with subordinate limestone and dolomite. ln the Lalung section, it shows tempestite layers of shells, followed by low angled cross-bed- ding. ln sections where the Hangrang Formation its not developed. it is dilfieult to distinguish it from 50 Mem. Gcol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24 the Member C tSanglung Formation), hence in the map it has been given same colour as the Sanglung Formation. Three complete sedimentary cycles are identifiable in the Alaror Formation of the Atargoo road section. The lowest cycle is incomplete and begins with shale and terminates in shale with nod- ules. The next cycle commences with shale and limestone and ends up with shale The remaining cycles begin with argillaccous limestone and end in clasiics. The detailed sequence is illustrated in Fig.2.8la and tabulated in Appendix-XVI The Alaror Formation is more or less uniformly developed in the Spiti basin and in the Gyamthiiig Valley of the Kinnaur basin. Age : The Monaris Shale, which is the biostiatigraphic equivalent of the Alaror Formation. has been assigned a-Norian age (Diener, I912)- possibly late middle Norian. 2.4.1.G Nimuilulur Formation The best exposures of this formiition are avail- able along the Atargoo-Guling road Since no lo- cality name exists in this section, this formation has been named afler Nunulrlta, which is a local- ity nearest to its best section. The Nunuluka For- motion has ii gradational, intercalated and coril’onri- able contact with the Alaror Formation and also with the overlying Kioto Formation. This Forma- tion is equivalerit to the Quartzite Series (Hayden_ l904) In several sections it acquires yellowish colour on weathering and can be recognised from dis- tance. lts resolution in aerial photographs is, how- ever. not apparent. The basal part of the Nunuluka Formation com- prises gritty. grey to pale white sandstone showing low-angled cross-bedding, sub-parallel bedding with low inincation surfaces and ripplc marks Upward, it is followed by coarse argillaceous saiidstorie. Sub- ordinate iriterbeds of grey shale and arcnaceous dolomite occur within this sequence. Rare pebbles. along with broken shell in the upper part. are rc- Corded along Atargoo-Guling road. In this section three main cycles, each beginning with carbonate and ending with clastics. are identified. The se- quence of this formation, as observed along the Atargoo-Guling road. is presented in Fig.2.Blb and Append.ix—XVll. Hayden (I904) regarded the Qiiartzite Series (2 Niinuluka Fomiaiionj asa marker bed ln the present mapping, this formation was [oitnd to be absent in several sections. This absence was explained by Fuchs (I982) as due to tectonic elimination and by Bhargava (1987) by sedimentary overlap. ln the Kiniiaur basin, it is exposed at Tapuk in the Gyamtliing Valley. _ Age : The Quartzite Series (E Nunuluka For- mation) has been assigned a Norian age (Diener, l9l2). 2.4.1.!-I Kiora Formation This name was suggested by Hayden (I904). lts sequence, especially the lower part, was also referred as Megalodon Limestone by Diener (l9l Z). Srikantia (l9lll) proposed Simolrhomda for the same sequence. ln the present write-tip, the name ‘Kioto’ is being re- tained. The Kioto Formation occupies a major part of the Spiti Valley, mostly forming precipitous slopes. Due to this reason, it has not been possible to meas- ure any complete section of this formation. lt forms steep topography and can be recognised in field from a distance and also in the aerial photos (Fig.2.44). In fully developed sections. the Kioto Forma- tion rcsts conformribly along a grridational contact on the Nunuluka Formation. In other sections, it rests abniptly over older formations (rug. over the Alaror at Lidang and over the Lipak in Phiphuk section). It is divisible into two members, VIZ. the Para and the Tagling Members. These members, on the basis of their broad lithologic characters, can he mapped in most of the sections. 2.4.1.!-ll Para Member : It is a successor to the Para Limestone of Sioliczka (I865) and Para Stage of Hayden (I904). lt forms conspicuous and steep topography and is excellently exposed along the Atargoo-Guling road and above the Ki village. The Para Member is made up of grey, pale. creamish. sporadically chcrty, massive to thick bedded ooidal and pisoidal dolomite and limestone. Pisoidal structures are visible along the Ki-Kibber road (Fig. 2.88). Rectystalliscd, whole as well as fragmented. mcgalodontid shells are abundant in must Of the sections. There are innumerable cycles commencing with ootiiic or coarser material. ending into ii msditlllt to fine grained carbonate. Small representative sections of the Parii Member, as exposed near the Ullah Nnlri and near Rangring, are presented in Fig.2.9l. Gmlogy of Spltl-Klnnlur, lllrnclul Himalaya 61 \ SK €pW\ )1/\ \ F -I /_ Flg. 2,74. Subaqueous gravity slumps in the Chomule P confluence with the Sprti. 2.4.1.]-I1 Tagtlng Member : Nomenclaturally, this member corresponds to the Tagling Limestone (StoIiczka, 1865). The presently defined Tagling Member, however, is broader based and has lithol- ogy rather than fossil contents as basis of its defi- nition. ll is excellently exposed near Sakti. Giumal and Kibber areas. ll forms somewhat sotler to- pography and is recognisable in aerial photos It has an imperceptible conformable contact with the Para Member and a sharp contact with the overly- ing Spili Formation. The Tagling Member comprises dark greyish blue, fine grained, cherty dolomite. shell hash lime- stone. lenticular conglomerate, nrenaoeous limestone, oo|dal_ pisoidal and peloidal limestone, dolomite and marl. All these units are lerruginous, which on weathering. acquire an earthy brown colour. The conglomerate bed in its upper pan at Sachihang has an uneven contact with both the underlying and Ol‘|’1lI|lOlI. Loc. Hal Nata section. about 3km upstream of its overlying units. It shows wavy and parallel bedding and large cavities filled with arenaceous material and clasts in the Sachibang section. The upper pan of the Tagling Member is rich in clam shells and Belemnlres fossils, which at places show hash tex- ture. In Tengmor section, shell bash limestone shows several coquina bands and sub-parallel to low an- gled cross-bedding. ll is conspicuously bioturbated in Salache-Sakti area. Locally occur 30cm: to lml sized reef knobs mainly made of Thecos-mrlin colo- nies. Bhargava and Gadhoke (1988) have reported foraminifers Drplorremira Sp, (Fig_2.89), Endurhyva sp._ Teflulnria sp., Term-taxis sp. and Thocbanlinu sp. and some biserial form (Fig.2.90) from this mem- ber. The Kioto Formation is ubiquitously developed in Spiti, Kinnaur (Gyamthing Valley), Kumaon and Zanskar. The Tagling Member, as defined here, is possibly an equivalent ufa part of the Laptal ‘Beds’ of Kumaon. 62 Menu. Geo]. Surv. litil. Vol. 124 N a’J\1 J s\ ‘-‘\ \ I . _u!:::\ \ F.’-~\\\ |__I~ \_ éilr / , !–._~~..–;>– _ .
“I ‘iuli “l “‘-__“”|’ ‘ t
’ / ‘I ‘N | P’~”~ N ‘I
/ “us N. llll |! s‘ I‘
/ / ls. ‘|~.’l||||’,|’ __§|,
t, in tn.-v ,tI’e.__ _ It
‘ll ‘.|l|u” 1″” ‘–‘ \;
, ,\/ / /” \
S
gl-
\£i /
/ \
m2 O 2m
i Lei] ‘J
Fig. 2.75. Subequeoua gravity slumps in the Chornule Form
Age : The basal part of the Kioto Forma-
tion was assigned at Rhaetian (Stoliczka, I865;
Greisbach, I891) age. later a Norian age was
suggested (Pascoe. I968). Lower Kioto (5 Para
Member) was assigned latest Triassic age by
Gaetani el al, (I986).
Its upper age limit has been defined as middle
Jurassic on the basis of fossil resembling
Srephanacerax eoronnrum, which occurs ab0ul lllm
below the base of the Spiti Formation (Pascoe, I968).
Late Liassic to early Dogger age was suggested by
Gaetani 21 at’. (I986) Bhargava (I987) suggested
Rhaetic to Dogger age l’or_ the Kioto Limestone.
However, the fossil control is not unambiguous and
the age range of the Kioto Formation certainly needs
ation Loc in I Nah: section about Zlrm west of Kinmo.
refinement [t may possibly represent an early Rhaetic
to Lias age, as was originally suggested.
2.4.2 LAGUDMIS1 GROUP
The Spiti, Giumal and Cliikkim Fon-nations were
earlier classified under the Kibber Group by Snkantia
(l9t5l). Kibber village is situated over the Kioto
Formation near its contact with the Spiti Formation.
The Giumal and Chikkim Formations are nowhere
exposed in its vicinity. The name Kibber is, therefore.
inappropriate. Since this name has not been
subsequently used. the present authors propose a
new group name afler the Lagudarsi Pass. situated
on the Spiti Formation near its contact with the
Giumal Forrnation. The Chikkirn FOt11’lElti0n is exposad
about 500m west of this pass.

Geology of Spiti~Kin|nur, Himlchnl Himnlnyn
63
In
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I ,
1.76, Lithologs of the (1) Mikin, (b) K050 and (c) Chomule Formation. Exp]. I. Nudullr bedding, 2, Argilhceous
fiméswne, 3. Cherty limestone, 4. Lirneumne, 5 Dolnmutc/dolornilic limestone, 6 Celeueuus shale, 7, Shale. Arrow:
walh A, B sedimentary cycles. and LC‘ Incomplete cycles

64 mm. Gcol. §||l’\’. tint. Vol. 124
RGO‘!
MEMBE R A
ISANGLUNG Fntl
\. ‘ \
‘\§’\\\\k \ i‘
\\\_‘\\§Qt\ :{\
\‘ \ \§?¢\yt\\s
i Mg;
\ is the
CHOHULE Fm
//
1/’
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MIKIN Fill
GUNGRI Fill
GECHANG Fm O
GANNACHIDLH FIII
77 7 7″ —P
-/ /
/ \
KAGAF /1 I
\” ‘1 / / \ / // _. %_ l
4 / “\.
1-i\
l
/// I
//
Fig. 2.77. A view ofthe Ganmacliidam, Gechang_ Gungn,
Formation) from the Lulung village
1.4.2.A Spili Formation
Tlte name Spiti Shale was proposed by Stoltcflra
(I865) for a sequence resting above the Kioto ‘Lime-
stone’ and below the Giumal ‘Sandstone’. Srikarttia
(I981) redesignated it as the Spiti Formation. The
Spiti Formation is exposed in Isolated synclinal
outliers. lt forms a subdued topography, which
can be easily deciphered in aerial
photos. Due to its black colour it can be recog-
nised from a great distance. The Spiti Formation
has a sharp contact with the underlying Kioto
Formation and an mtercalated contact with the
overlying Giumal Forrnationln the Lingti section
(¢.g. near Sachibang). the sequence of the Spiti
Formation commences with grey. non-carbonaceous
lenticular, ferruginous. fine grained sandstonel
siltstone, varying in thickness from one to two
metres. ln Salaclie section. its thickness is 2 cm
to I0 cm Within this bed occur dark grey
ferruginous oolitic bands which, for considerable
distance, occupy the same stratigraphic level This
pan is rich in Befzrnniles which occur alrgted parallel
to the bedding. This oolitic sequence has a gra-
dational contact with the Kioto Formation of which
it is considered to be a part. It is succeeded along
a sharp contact by a sequence of micaceous shale.
This part encloses Astarle shells. The nodules in
this sequence are mostly cherty. oval to spherical
and vary in size from four to eight centimetres. ln
Mtlrin. Klga, Chomule Formations and Member A (Sanglung
the adjoining section, there occur small lenses of
shelly limestone in the basal part of the Spiti For-
mation, which have a sharp contact with the un-
derlying Kioto Formation. tn the upper reaches
of the Phiphuk Nala, the contact between the
Spiti Formation and the Kioto Fonnation looks ap-
parently conformable. In this section, fine grained
sandstone bands occur in the middle part of the
Spit: Formation. Local boulder bed exists in the
upper part of the Spiti Formation in the Giumal
Section (Bhargava er al, I987). The matrix, as well
as the clasts. are of fine silty material Phosphatic,
cherry and calcareous nodules, varying lfl size from
a few centimetres to Z0 cm. are distributed throughout
the sequence. Several nodules enclose fossils as
nucleus The shale locally includes fine laminae
of ctiert. Large ammonite shells and occasionally’
shale have formed hard ground and are encrusted
by burrows. The lamellibranchs are both thin and
thick shelled. The siltstone and sandstone beds
in the Spiti Formation display rare parallel and graded
beds of limited thickness. The shale of the Spiti
Formation weathers easily, hence outcrops are rare.
Only gorges show good outcrops. As gorges are
difficult to negotiate, no full section of the Spiti
Formation could be measured. The thickness
mentioned in the map is computed from various
crosssections. hence approximate. Jain and Mannilrert
(I975) reported ostracode from the ‘Chidamu Stage‘

Gculug of Spiti-Kinnaur, Hillllthfl Bimnlaya
20
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2. Silutone, J. Shale (C) when cherly, 4. Limeflone, (I) where ngillnceuus, S. Dolamilie limenone (C) where nheny
7. Herringbone emu-bedding. Arrows indienle ecdnmenmry cycle; l.C Incomplete eyole.

6° Mern. Geol. Surv. lllll. Vol. 124
l T‘
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Fig. 2.79. Sketch map to show outcrops of the Hangrang
Formation near Hangrang Pass. (Nor to the scale) I
Sanglung Formation, and 2 Hengrang Fonnation
-.\_. ._
——+-
of the ‘Spiti Shale‘ ‘exposed near Kibber‘. The
outcrop of the Spiti Formation in the immediate
vicinity of Kibber occurs as a huge landslide. This
report. therefore. probably has no stratigraphic value.
The Spiti Formation is developed from Zansltar to
Ktrmaon in isolated synclines with identical lithology
It is exposed in eastern Kinnaur at Tangpa Dnk in
the Gyamlhrrtg Valley
Flows/sills upto 30 cm thick are observed within
this Formation in areas south of the Spiti River.
Age : The Spiti Formation was assigned an
age between Oxfordian and latest Jurassic (Krishnan.
l982) to earliest Cretaceous Helm and Gansser (I 939).
on the basis of their work irt Kumaon, suggested a
Porllandtan to Tilhonian age for this Formation.
Based on ammonite remains. Jaikrishna (I981) in the
Kumaon area assigned an age ranging from Oxfordian
to Valanginian. Since the Spiti set-up is highly
comparable with t.l1at of Kurttaon, the present authors
suggest the same age range for the Spiti Formation
of Spiti-Kinnaur area as well.
1.4.2.8 Girmra! Formation
This name was suggested by Stuliczkrr (1865)
after Giumal village (spelt as Domal in the modem
toposheet). lt was redcsignatcd as the Giumal Forma-
tion by Srikantia (1974). It shows good exposures at
Dcrual, Lagudarsi Pass, Lartgja and Salni The Giumal
Formation forms conspicuous topography amt on
aerial photos shows darker tone. It has an intercalated
contact with the underlying Spiti Formation and a
rather sharp contact with the Chikkim I-‘omtation.”l’he
Spiti Fomtation develops sandy beds in the upper pan
and passes into the Giutnal For-tmt_i°;|_
The Giumal Formation comprises sandstone,
Eillitflnfl. silty shale and shale with local conglomer-
ate lenses. In the basal part, it is interbedded with
black shale forming a sort of transition between the
Spiti and Giumal Formations. The transition is best
exposed at the Lagudarsi section. The sandstone in
the basal most pan is calcareous (Domal section) and
ts sporadically oolitic in Kinnaut (Fig.5.28)_ This
horizon contains body and trace fossils. in the upper
pan, the sandstone is medium to coarse grained and
glauconitic. The sandstone varies in colour from pale
green, maroon, ofl‘ while to grey. Both the clasts and
matrix in conglomerate are composed of quartz.
ln Latarse section, the Spiti Formation in its
upper part contains white to pale white sandstone.
which in top most level has lenses of fossiliferous
limestone. It is overlain by carbonaceous siltstone
with sandstone bands. which are locally glauconitic.
Upward it is followed by glauoonitjc shale which
in the upper part has several gritty hands contain-
ing black shale pebbles. The overlying sequence is
coarse to gritty, occasionally micaceous sandstone
having variable glaucortitjc content. The uppermost
unit immediately-below the Chikltim Fomtation has it
persistent gritty-rnarl horizon enclosing complete shells
in clusters.
Near Tanglangba (Domal type section), the
Giumal Formauon has too many black shale bands in
its basal pan. The sandstone in the basal part is pale
white, pale green. reddish grey. highly crystalline and
is locally gritty. The basal part is rich in trace fossils.
Just below the Chama Pass and near Domal Pass, the
conglomerate has a few clasts of boulder size The
clasts, as well as matritt, are arenaoeous. Shelly calmn-
eous siltstonejmarl is present in this section as well.
The entire sequence represents tour mega fining-up
cycles. The succession of the Giurnal Formation in
the Lagudarsi-Chichim section is given in Fig.2.92n
and Appendix-XV1ll.The Giurnal sandstone is ex-
poscd in eastern Kinnaur at Tnngpa Dolt.
Age : The Giurnal Formlliott it considered to
be not older than Valangininn or Lover l-lautervian
or younger than the Alhitrn. (Kriahnan, 1982).

Geologi of Spiti-Kinnaur, Himnchal Himalaya 6 7
1.4.2.C Chiklinl Formation
The nomenclature of Chikkim was suggested by
Stoliczka U865) afler the Chikkirtt peak (spelt as
Chichim in the modem toposheet) in the Spiti Valley,
where it is well-developed. This formation is divisible
into two mappable members (Srikantia. 1981), viz.. (a)
Limestone Member and (b) Shale Member.
2.4.2.Cl Limestone Member: Earlier, this was re-
ferred to as the Chikldm Limestone. The oolour contrast
with the Giumal Formation makes the Limestone
Member stand out in the field. However, due to
limited thickness in a high relief terrain, it is not
easily noticeable in aerial photos.
The Limestone Member, conformably rest-
ing over the Giumal Formation, comprises grey-
isli blue dolomitic limestone. At its base occurs
an argillaceous limestone with broken shells. NW
of Chichim village, Sriltantia (i981) reported a
2m metres thick carbonaceous shale with 20~]0cm
thick quartzite bands along the Giumal Forma-
tion-Limestone Member contact The upper part
of this Member is well-bedded and argillaceous.
Within the carbonate sequence, there are a few
thin siliciclastic hands and sporadic dark grey
pyrttous limestone. Three complete and one in-
complete sedimentary cycles are recognisable in
the Chtchim area. The earliest cycle begins with
sandy carbonate and ends with shale through
argillaccous limestone with shale partings. The
subsequent cycles begin with marly limestone and
cnd up in shale. Sequence of the Limestone Mem-
ber. as exposed at the Chikkim peak section. is
shown in Fig. 2.92b and Appendix-XIX. The units
‘f‘ to ‘i‘ form a transition from the Limestone Member
to the Shale Member.
Age : The age of this Member may range from
Cenomanian to Turonian (Kohli and Sastri, 1956).
2.l.2.C: Shale Member : This member in earlier
literature was referred to as the Chikltim Shale. ll
forms a subdued topography and is at once
identifiable in field and aerial photos.
The Shalc Member rests conformbly, along a
transition to intercalatcd contact, over the Lime-
stone Member. This Member. having a thickness of
about 254m in Chichim section, comprises grey_
ash grey silty shale, shaly limestone/marl, and fine
slltstone bands. It shows parallel to poorly devel-
oped graded bedding. Iain and Gupta ([97]) have
recorded a fonttniniferal assemblage from the Chiltkim
Shale without assigning it to any stratigraphic level.
The Chikkim Formation in the Spiti Valley is devel-
oped at Childtim peak and Sakti area. lt is absent in
Kinnaur. lts equivalent is exposed in Kumaon, which
has been referred to as lhangu Fonnation by S.Kumar
at at, (1977). lt is also known from the Zartskar area.
where it is succeeded by the Palacoccne-Eocene
sequence.
Age : lt has been assigned a Campanian to
Maestrichtian age on the basis of various species of
Glabarruncana recovered from these sltales.
2.5 QUATERNARY
The Quaternary sediments are present through-
out Spiti and Kinnaur and provide useful material
for Quaternary sedimentological studies in a young
mountainous terrain, which selectively still retains
first order topography However, except in a few
isolated Sections, no detailed study of the Quater-
nary sediments was carried out during the present
mapping. ln the present study, the Quaternary
sediments have been classified under four major
subheads, viz. (a) glacial to fluvio-glacial depos-
its, (b) fluvial deposits, (c) lacustrine deposits and
(Cl) semi-to unconsolidated screel fan ftalus.
2.5.1 Glacial-Glaeiofluvial Deposits
These deposits are mainly confined to the higher
reaches of the slopes and valleys. True glacial de-
posits are found only along the present day glaciers
as lateral. terminal and surface moraines. Elsewhere.
these have been reworked by fluvial agencies. These
deposits comprise erratics, boulders, cobbles and
pebbles with total percentage of clasts around 10%
embedded in I rock flour varying in size from sand
to clay. Many of the clasts have been well rounded
by subglacial streams. These outcrops are discon-
nected and lenticular in nature.
2.5.2 Fluvial Deposits
The fluvial deposits are present as terraces
within the Satluj and Spiti Valleys and also along
the tributary valleys. Mainly three levels of terraces
have been recorded.
The fluvial deposits present a complex history
of sedimentation. These deposits can be subdivided
into (i) tnie fluvial deposits, which were and are being
deposited along the river course, between river bed
and flood plain (Fig.l.l2, 2.93), (ii) the fan material
which was partly reworked and modified by the axial

Mom. Genl. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
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Gcolngy of Spiti-Kinnaur, I-limnchal Himalaya 69
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Geologi ofSpiti-Kiiiliiiur, Hiiniichiil Himalaya 7|
mainage and (iii) partially reworked lacustrine depos-
its A typical fluvial sequence I5 shown in Fig.2.94.
The fluvial deposits occur as moderately sorted
to well sorted layers having clasts of various sizes.
Each individual layers within itself is moderately
well sorted and shows fining of sediments towards
the physical top Within the coarser clastic layers
occur syridepositionally deformed clay layers A good
section of the fluvial deposits. exposed at Rangring.
shows clasts mainly of quartzite (ivhite-Muth l9%l
pink-Thango I7“/ii; green-Kunzam Ln l5.5% and buff
7%), limestone (cherty 17%, grey 14, earthy 2%),
conglomerate (5%) and granite (3.5%). These elasts
are contributed mainly by the Kunzam La-Thango
(45%), Muth (l9%), granite (3%) and remaining
33% by the rocks from the Lilang Group. The clasts
are roundfid (18.4%). subrounded (59%). subangular
(20.5%) and angular (1 5%) The composition-wise
rounding is as follows
Fink Ureeii White Carbonate
Quartzite QllIfl7|lfl Qiiartlile
Rounded 20% 43% 10%
Stihroiiiided sun 4.1% son. 16%
Stihnitgtilar 20“ii l4″~a $U”n 15%
– | 0.5%
Angular
Most of the clasts of quartzite falling in rounded-
subrounded category belong to the Kunzam La For-
mation (green quartzite), followed by pink quartzite
(Thango Formation). The Kunzam La Formation is
exposed farthest from Rang-ring while the Muth is
nearest, with Thango having an intermediate posi-
tion. The roiindness of quartzite clasts, with all other
factors remaining constant, seems lobe directly pro-
portionate to the distance travelled by the rock. The
carbonate rocks. though exposed in the vicinity. also
show high degree of roundness. This can be related
to the hardness of the rock involved
The present day sediments occur along vari-
WS bflri. islands in braided channels and partly
overbanks. Along the first two. it is mainly the coarser
clasts. while sand and grit occur along the overbaiilr
and the silt along local ponds/pool of water. Sand
and finer fractions are also present in fossil valleys.
Erosion takes place all the year round while most
of the load is transported on the onset of the melt-
ing of snow and excessive melting of glaciers, which
supplies enough energy to the stream water. As the
mfiliiiis Wises towards September, the carrying
capacity of the rivers is reduced and most of the
coarser clastics are deposited and finer material is
carried down stream. It is only during local flood!
ponding that finer sarid is deposited in valleys of
the torrential rivers of these areas
2.5.3 Laeuslrine Deposits
These deposits are present along the Satluj-Spiti
and tributary valleys. The wide terraces occurring
along these valleys, as a rule, are made up of
lacustnne deposits (Fig. 1.12). These are excellently
developed at ta) Kioto, (b) Phaldhar, (c) Atargoo
(Fig.2.95). (d) Hurling. te) Sumdo (Fis-196). ti)
Shallrar, (g) Charigo (F1g.2.97), (h) Garifa (Fig. 1.18),
(i) Shiasu and (j) Kupa (Baspa Valley). Besides these.
the lake deposits occur discretely within the tluvial
deposits (Fig.2.98). The lacustrine sediments near
Atargoo rest over a poorly sorted rudaceous zone.
This coarser clastic zone occurs as a prism and is
traceable up the hill with a reduction in the thickness.
The overlying lacustrine sediments at Atargoo are
composed of loosely consolidated, varved, fine sand,
silt and rare grit and pebble beds. Locally. these
sediments show syndepositional slumps.
The Sumdo lacustrine deposit extends in the
Spiti as well as Pare Chu catchments. In Spiti, the
sediments extended at least two lulometres upstream
of Sumdo. These show coarser lenses aligned in
NE-SW direction with size of clasts increasing to-
wards NE. Locally, coarser elemcnts are N-S ori-
ented with increase in Size of clasts towards north.
There are at least three major sedimentary cycles
between Sumdo and Kaurik in the Pare Cliu catch-
nienr. The main lake mud is, however, not exposed.
The coarser material, comprising grit, pebbles and
coarse sand invariably shows cut and fill structure
within the finer unit (medium to fine sand). The
finer material, due to superincumbent loading. has
been squeezed and syndepositionally deformed
(Fig.2.99). lt shows ripple bedding, climbing ripple
lamination (Fig. 2.100), lenticular bedding (Fig.2.t0I)
and cross-bedding. Moving away from fan source,
Le. towards central part of the ‘lalte’, the material
gradually becomes finer. The sequence at Sumdo is
terminated by coarser clastic which is capped by a
mud layer. These sediments are juxtaposed against
hard rocks east of Sumdo and have been dissected
by subsequent fluvial cycle.
Jainer al, (I969) have described Chara arid Sub-
reoent (7 late Pleistocene) ostracodes Qvpridopsir vidua
(Mueller), Herpetocyprls sp and Candona candiolu
(Mueller) from the lake sediments at Jete in Spiii.

73 Mem. Cool. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
2.5.4 Talus Deposits
All along the slopes. on either bank of the
Spiii Valley, occur thick scree cones (Fig,l.l2).
These contain angular fragments from uphill country
rocks and are unconsolidated to loosely consoli-
dated.
The scree represents talus formed due to di-
urnal temperature variations. The meteoric waterl
dew percolating in the cracks and joints of the
rocks freeres and expands during nights. This process
over the years disintegrated the rocks into smaller
fragments. Percolation of carbonate-rich meteoric
\i-ater through the limestone country has caused
partial cemcntation and consolidation ofthe talus
SCYBQ
2.6 GRANTIUIDS
The acid igneous rocks occur as intn.isive into
the early Proterozoic-Eocambrian and Carboniferous
rocks. These can be broadly classified. from south
to north, as 1
(i) Wangtu Granite forming a part of the
Rampur Window Zone
(ii) Gahr Gneiss associated with the Kulu Group.
(iii) Gramtic rocks associated with the Julogh
Group.
(iv) Raltcham Granitoid in the Vaikrita Group and
(v) Nako Granite intrusive into the Vaikrita
Group and the Lipak Formation.
1.6.1 Wangtu Group
2.6.l.A Gmnile
It is mainly exposed in the area north of the
Satluj River in Western Kinnaur. Smaller bodies
are observed around the Wangtu bridge and near
Nugalsari. Granite is leucocratic. fine to coarse
grained, equigranular to porphyritic, showing tex-
tural \-‘ariation from granular to hypidiomorphic. lt
is largely foliated except in extreme oore parts. Ameta
and Swain (I980), based on foliation. enrichment
of quartz, K-lelspar and mitscovite and nature of
contact, divided these into syn-and late-kinematic
types.
The Wangtu Granite contains xenoliths of
pelitic and porphyroblaslic gneisses, amphibolite
and tremolite-actinolite schist. The xenoliths of
basic rocks are angular and show sharp contacts
These are felspathiscd and intruded by quartz
veins. These graniioids have been dated 2025 1
86 Ma by using Rb~Sr method (Kwatra et nl, 1986)
2.6.2 Kuhn Group
Z.fi.1.A Gahr Gneiss
It occurs as thin slivers above the Kulu Thnisi,
lt is augen, streaky to porphyroblastic in nature.
Samples from Baragaon in the Satluj Valley have
been dated i430 2 150 Ma using Rb-Sr method
(Bhanot at al, l9’l8).
2.6.3 Jutogh Group
Z.6.3.A Granite
A leucocratic granite body occurs as intrusive
in the Iutogh rocks along Kareham-Sangla track.
The granite is medium grained and foliated along
the margins
2.6.4 Vaikrita Group
Z.6.4.A Rakchtlrn Granite
This granitic body, occurring in an arcuate pat-
tem in SW Kinnaur, was named Rakcham Granite
(Tewari el at‘ I978) Further NW, it extends into the
Parvati Valley of the Kulii distncl, whereas, towards
SE through the Baspa-Chorgad valleys it joins the
Gangotri Granite of the Garhwal Himalaya. lt is a
medium grained to porphyritic granite with biotite as
a constant rnafic mineral The granite shows zoning
defined by the finer grained margin, wider potphyritic
zone followed by the medium grained non~foliated
core. The outer zone is crudely foliated and contains
numerous itenoliths and roof pendants of varying
dimensions. Towards the northern contact, the
xcnoliths of slate, quartzite and schist resembling the
rocks of the Batal and Morang Formations are present.
Towards the southem contact, the gneissic element is
prominent. The xenoliths of the metamorphic rocks
show tightly folded loliation planes The medium
grained granite south of Thangi contains irregular
bodies of tine grained brownish granite with biotite.
The nodular xenoliths of tremolite-actinolite are ob-
served between Thangi and Lambar. Pink granite is
exposed around Rangchil Dogri.
The llakcham Granite is emplaced alon8
the contact ofthe Kharo Formation and the Moran;
and the Batal Formations It shows concordant to
discordant relationship with the country rock. Along
the southern contact with the Kharo Formation.
injection gneisses and migrnatites are observed.
Occasional tongues and apophyses occur along the
northem contact which is more or less sharp. Biotit:
in the host rock has crystallised along this contact
with addition of tourmaline indicating boron
rneiasomatism. Pyrite in the Batal Formation also
shows recrystallisation close to the ¢0r\lH¢l-

Gcolngy of Spiti-Kinnnur, Hinllchll Himalaya
1 Q Vumncl w|lh F|Hs_ 4 I vmcslnnc_ 5 Dnlomilc. 6. Crou-!v:dding_ 7 Dclomitn \v|lh sub-plrallcl bedding and low angle
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Mam Geol Surv Incl Vol 124
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Gwtqig of spiti-Klnnuir, Biniechll Himalaya 7 5
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.”()_O,,o,.4.v .
Fig.4-94. Litholog at’ n part of the Quaternary fluvial. deposit
to show lining-up cycles. Loc. ‘Ihultu Lunghn, near Kioma.
Small bodies of leucocratic tourmaline granite
have extensively intruded these granites in the
Chorgad Valley which are identifiable from a dis-
tance. The later phases associated with the granite
are pegrnatite and aplite. ln Kombo area. quartz-
siderite-chalcopyrite and gatenrrsphalerite-pyrite
veins are observed. The intensity of pegmatite veins
is inversely proportionate to the distance from the
contact; the outer periphery contains only quartz
veins. The paragenesis of these phases, as inferred
from field relationship, is biotite gra1iite-tourma-
line granite-pegrnatite-aplite-quartz vein-quartz sul-
phide vein-quartz veins.
The steeply inclined easterly contact, general
non-foliated character, sharp contact, finer grained
margin and numerous xenoliths of the host rocks
suggest that the Rakcham granite is intmsive into
the Vaikrita-Hairnanta Group rocks.
The Rakcham Granite has been dated 495150
Ma by Rb-Sr method (Shanna, 1983), whereas, the
tourmaline-leucogranite of the ladhganga Valley
yielded a K-Ar age of Miocene (Seilz er al, 1974),
1.6.4.3 Nuke Granite
It is exposed mainly in the Tashigang-Nako-Leo
Pargial area, smaller bodies of which are observed
right from Khab-Shipki to Pare Chi: Valley in the
north. The Nalro Granite locally forrns large outcrops.
However, similarity in character of isolated outcrop
suggeas these tobe part ofa single granite body having
batholithic dimension, which due to limited erosion
has not been fully exposed. The outcrops of this granite

75 Meili. Geo]. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
are restricted to the area east of Kaurilt Fault Com-
plex. i.e. on the footwall side only.
The Nako Granite is massive, non-foliated,
leueocrstic and contain both toumialine and biotite.
Outcrops east of Tashigang and SW of Namgiya
are biotite rich, foliated and yellow-brown stained.
Along NH-22, between Kah Dogri and Yang-thang. it
shows local concentration of acicular tourmaline and
biotite-rich hands. The Nalto Granite is intrusive
into t.lie Precambrian Morang Fonnation and the early
Carboniferous Lipak Formation. The contact effect
on Morang schist is not very pronounced though
it has thermally metamorphosed the Lipak Carbon-
ates into marble (Pyroxene-hornfels facies) and as-
sociated gypsum to arihydrite. Numerous pegmatite
and aplile veins of varying dimensions are observed
around these granites. These cut through folds,
occupy the fiexures and fill up the crests of the
folds. The composition of the pegniatite is quartz-
felspar + biotite + muscovite + tourmaline + kyanite
+beryl +garr\=t. Some of these show anomalous
value of lithium. The aplite is devoid of biotite.
The Nako Granite has been dated 108 1 17_
Ma by Rb-Sr method (Kwatra el al, I987). The
modal mineral analysis of the Nako Granite (Table-
2.2) defines it as a granite-alkali granite (Streckeisen,
1976). The chemical analyses of fifteen representa-
tive samples are given in Table ZJA-B and the CIIPW
norm calculated from these analyses are presented
in Table-2.4. The Or-Ab-An plots (Fig.2.102) in gen-
eral fall in the granite field with one each in
graiiodiorite and tonalite and one along the line
dividing these two fields, The K10-Nap-CaO plots
mostly lie in the Quartz—monz.on.ite-granodiorite field
(Fig.2. I01) with two samples falling in the tonalite
field. The variation to tonalite is shown by samples
G-l and 2 which have high C110. The high Ca0
presumably could be due to assimilation of the country
rock which is marble in this particular case. Na,O/
K10 ratio (Table-2.5) also suggests granitic-
grariodioritic composition. The A110,/NazO+l(1O plots
(Westra and Keith, t98l) show that the rock is per-
aluminous. The high corundum value (4.08-I187)
in the CIPW norms and the greater than one Al
CNK ratio (Table 2.5) substantiate the above sur-
mise. These conclusions when viewed along with
high Sr,/Sr” ratio (0.7Z25+0.00ll, Kumar, l9ll6)
suggest that these are typical S-type granites.
The total Fe-Na20-KIO and SiO,-A1103! (Na,0+
l(zO) plots (Fig.2.l02) lielexclusively in the calc-
alkaline field. Such suites are largely believed to
have been generated in the shallow mantle wedge
above lateral compressive zones of oceanic crust
destruction and are related to compressional toctonism
(Brown, 1979).
The K-57 5 values of this granite (Table-2.5)
are in general above 2 which is characteristic of the
molybdenum bearing granites.
Table 2.2
Modal Composition of Nako‘ Granite, Kinnaur
| “1511B2tanr»|B01’B20|rm.L1B¢9Ls1N
50.00
29.00
l3.3O
.==‘s-‘
t,._
@@
Quartz 44.00 54.40 4439 _22.l0 V 54.79 45.10 30.30 I 28.70
K-felspar 11.10 _ 12.00 40.10 50.20 1510 _11.e0 14.00 I 50.10
Plagioclase 0,60 1.20 9.40 10.10 s,00_ 7 4.10 10.10 | 3.00
Biotite 1.20 i – 13.00 – 1.50 3.30 – _-
Muscovite 0.50 a.a0_ _ 1,110 e.10_ _ 4.00 20.40 10.20 6.40 _ .
_Tmin’naline – 6,90 – ‘ – _ – 4 V 12.50 3140 ‘
aues 0.10” ”21i0 0T0’ ’ – – __ 020 0.10 0-10 0-10
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100,20 100.10 100.10 100.00
Alkali
Nomenctature————————-~—–——–—-—-—–—-Grariile——–——————-“——“-“”‘”‘”F°|5P-”
Granite

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Mun. Gaol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 11-1
7 77‘|’o|u| Fa
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H2
Mum. Gaol. Su-rv. Ind. Vol. I24
Table 1.5
K-Test for Nako Gmnile. Yangthang urea
s1}~1 zse
I
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3. PETROGRAPHY
The petrography of the Tethyan sedimentary
sequence. ivith which this write-up mainly deals, is
described here. Clastic and carbonate rocks have
been dealt with separately.
1.1 CLASTICS AND ASSOCIATED
VOLCANOClASTlC ROCKS
J.l.I\ ]-[aimanta Group
3.l.A‘ Kimznni La Formation
Volcanic-Volwniclastic rocks ‘ The volcanic suite
of the Ktimzam La Formation includes rhyotite luff.
volcanictastic ash fragments, quartz. crystal luff.
carbonaceous chert. magnetite ruff and sachharoidal
carbonate rock (Bassi and Chopra. I984). The rhyolite
tuff is white in colour and is made up of partially
altered Na»plagioclase, interlocking fine grained
quartzose material, muscoviic. zircon, leucoxene,
siderite rhombs, primary pyrite and fragments of
devitrified glass. The volcaniclaslic ash is Ffiliresented
by cryptocrystalline to opalline silica, magnetite dust
and fragments of partially devitrified glass with
palngonile.ri_m (Fig 3 2). Some of the rims show iron-
lcaching. The magnetite tuff consists of magnetite
octahcdra (Fig..l.3) in an opalline lo very fine quartz-
ash matrix with partially dcvitrified glass fragments
The glass fragments have a colourless core and
brownish/greenish rim. The magnetite octahedra do
not shon any abrasion and occur as ash fall. Partial
devitnficritioii ofglass enveloping the magnetite grains
has formed fibrous silica along the crystal boundaries.
Ash occurs as inclusions in magnetite. Magnetite
contains following trace elements (Bassi and Chopra.
I984)
Valties it”! 10 IO I0 HI ‘DU 60 I60 JD
lrlll ppm)
.eiiierir< (‘ii Ni (‘n “H [in V Cr Ylllfl‘
The X-ray study revealed the presence ofminor
silica and absence of magheniitc. indicating either
absence of water or lack of rapid oxidation at low
temperature during its formation.
A number of tuffaceotis lenses containing
€llllCdl’Z1lqIl;tIl/ rind fclspar iii a matrix of fine dust
occur upstream of Lamoche in thc Hojis Valley arrd
in the Chorgad Valley near Nakurche. Spindle shaped
laptttbtikc clasts are observed in the iutTs of the
H(‘.l|5 Valley The rock at Nakurelie is calcareous and
contains recrystallised carboiizttc. bioiitc. Cl’ll0ritc_
sphenc, apatite and DCLJhCdrt’Il niagnetite possibly
of pyroclastic origin.
Clastic rocks . The sitisionc and it-acke of the
unit A (Parahio section) coiiiorise poorly sorted,
siibangular to subrounded quartz grains and rare
fizlspar in a matrix (50%) of sericite. clay and quartz.
Some microsections show rippled cross lamination
(Fig.1.4), A few rock fragments of btotite schist and
slate occur in the rocks. The rocks ofthe basal part
of the unit A contains heavy mineral group
represented by stauro1itc_ chloriie. /ircori. roisite and
tourmaline
The greyish white. micaceous and felspathic
quartz-arenite of the unit B 1s fine grained, poorly
sorted rock having as much as 15% of plagioclase
felspars. The other minerals are brownish and green
biutite. tourmaline and apatite.
The siltstone and quartzwacke of the unit C
are composed of poorly sorted. subangular to
subrounded quartz in a clayey-sericitic-quartzitic
matrix. Grey green micaceous siltstone and quartz-
wacke of this unit are texturally immature and are
made up of poorly sorted subangular to subrounded
quartz in an argillaceous matrix. The qtiartzarenitc of
the unit C is made up of fairly well-sorted subangular
quartz in a subordinate argillaceous matrix
Pink, green and white quartzarenite ofthe unit
D is made of sorted subrounded to rounded quartz
(65-98%) set in an argillaceous-fine quartzitic matrix.
3.1.]! SaiiugbitGroti|1
3.1.13, Thnngo Formation
The sandstone and siltstone of the Thango
Formation comprise moderately sorted to poorly
sorted. subangular to subrounded and moderately to
xvell spheric quartz (70-75%) in a clayey to
cryptoerystalline Ierruginous/calcareous matrix. in
most of the sections palagonite fragments have been
noticed. The early siliceous cement has been replaced
by ferniginous and carbonate cements. Opaques
(73%), epidote (9%), muscovile (9%), zircon (4.5%)
and -light brown tourmaline (45%) constitute the
heary mineral assemblage.

*4 Mem. Gaol. sun. lnd. Vol. m
3.1.5‘ Talcclrz Formation
_ The grey fine grained sandstone of Lankapanug
section contains fine angular quartz (75%), telspar,
opaques. shell-fragments in art argillaceous matrix,
while one in the Mnnchap section Wnlaing w¢||
sorted angular to subangular quartz, a few grains of
tourmaline and calcite.
3.1.C Kanawar Gniup
J.l.C| Mutlr Formation
The quartzarenite is composed of moderately
sorted, subrounded to well sorted and well rounded
quartz (90-95%). varying in size from 60 to 250 mi-
CIOHS (average being around 1511 micron). Most of
the quartz grains showing authigcnic growth occur
tn a cryptocrystalline matrix (2-5%) and are cemented
by silica. which has been partially replaced by sec-
ondary terruginous cement. Felspar (0.2%). quartz-
ite fragments (0. l5%) and iron oxide grains (0-0 5%)
form the accessories.
Jil.C1 Lipak Formation
The dark greyish arentte IS poorly sorted_ sub-
arkostc with subangular quart? (50%) and felspar
(10%). embedded in an argillo-arenaceous matrix.
Tourmaline and opaques constitute the accessory
minelals. The white quartzarcnite is moderately sorted.
fine grained rock with about 90% of clean fine and
subhedral quartz grains embedded in mainly arena-
ceous/siliceous Il18lflX, Occasional felspar. btotile flake
or muscovitc and some opaqucs art: also observed.
The quartz grains tn aremte show authigcnic growth.
3.l.C, Po Formation
The siltstone and fine grained sandstone of
the Po Formation are made up of moderately to well
sorted, subangular to subrounded. I5-45 micron size
mostly turbid quartz having minute inclusions. The
matrix is mostly argillaceous ‘and at places t‘errugl-
nous. Silica forms the primary cement. which has
been replaced by iron oxide. Sodic plagioclasc and
rare palagonitc occur as accessories.
3.l.C. Ganmarlridam Formation
Thc gritty sandstone (Fig. 3.5) is made of
rounded to \\’ell rounded. poorly sorted quartz (55%)
with cxtcnsivc authtgenic growth and corroded
margins in a cr_\’st:illine silt-size matrix Early silica
cement has been largely replaced by ferruginous
and micritic cements. The rock fragments (20%) arc
of micrite. chcrl. sandstone. shale.‘ siltstone and
fossils
The Iithicwacke is poorly sorted, stratified and
comprises tlomundulttlory rounded quartz (l5)% in
the size range of60-120 microns and 250-750 microns
in a ferntginous-argillaceous matrix (60%). The
accessories are of ferroari sparry calcite and Spurgflig
ntuscovite. iron oxide and felspar.
J.l.D Kuling Group
3.I.D| Gechang Formation
The sandstone varies in composition from
calcareous quarizarenite to quartzwacke The latter
consists of moderately sorted. rounded to well
rounded quanz (50—55%) in two main size ranges of
l00»250 microns and 300-650 microns, with a re“
grains as large as I000 microns. The matrix (35-40%)
is micritic, ferroan-calcitic to silty quartzose. The
cement is Ierruginous which is partially/replaced by
secondary silica. The rock fragments (10%) are
exclusively of sedimentary rocks
1.11‘, Gungri Formation
The thin lcnticular arentte beds are made up of
fine to silty quartz grains (70%) in an argillaceous
matrix The nodules are observed to be composed
ofchcrt-collophane or chert along Wtlh pyrite grains.
biomorphs and btoclasts of ccphalopod, brachiopod.
crinoid and endothyrid foraminifcr.
3.l.E Lilang Group
3.l.E| Nunuluko Farrrlatiorl
The sandstone is constituted of moderately
sorted. rounded to subrounded quartz cemented by
calcite (545%), which has peripherally replaced the
quartz grains. The calcite cement has been partly
replaced by secondary fcrruginous cement.
J.l.F Lagutlarai Group
3.1.1?‘ Spiti Formation
The sandstone comprises poorly sorted rounded
to subrounded 250-350 micron size quztrll tlm“/0) 6’14
fclspar (microcline and plagioclasc together forming
about t0%) in a silty to clayey homogeneous matrix‘
The primary ferruginous cement has been rePl3¢°d
by siliceous cement.
J.1.F| Giurnal Farrrltltiflll
The sandstones are ol‘ following four types
(a) Quartzarenite to quartzwacke which are made
up of poorly sorted, rounded, subrotinded to
subangular. bimodal quarll (35-90%) 01’ fl‘l°d°””°
sphericily in an argillaceous matrix (340%) Will‘
pigmenlary glaucoriite. The accessories are formed
by potash felspat. soda-plagivclase. clay “”1

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Kunum La Formation. Low. Blullclu Flu. Fig. 9. Eplphylan in mudnnne. Note fcrvuginouu material llong ulylolilu (SP). Kunum Ln Formnlion. Loc. Barlllchu Pin. (Bur loll: il 2mm for Figs. 31.3.4 – 3.8 And lmm for Fign. 3.2 – 3.3 and 3.9) 8° Mem. Geol. Sun-. Ind. Vol. 124 glauconite. The aulhigenic silica, ferniginous matter and pigmeritary glauconite constitute the cement, (bl Glauconitie quartzwacke with two subvarieties comprising (i) moderately sorted, rounded and bimodal quartz (70~80%) of moderate sphericity showing authigenic growth, felspar and blfllltt: inclusions, potash felspar and soda-piagioclase (5%). glill160l’lil-iC- argillaceous-quartz cryptoerystalline matrix (10%) and ferrugirious, siliceous and glauconitic cements (5-7°/-ll. (ii) moderately sorted, subangular to subrounded fractured glauconite coated quartz (70- 75°/=-) and pigrnentary limonitic-margined pellets of glauconite (25-30%), the latter could be modified faecal matter (c) Calcareous quartz subwacke composed of moderately sorted. sul:-rounded quartz (75%). felspars mainly plagioclase (l%), ovoidal to pigmentary glauconite (5%). with interspace entirely filled by sparry tzlcite(]0-l5%). (d) Felspalhic quartzwaclie constituted of moderately sorted, subrounded quartz (80-85%) of moderate sphencity, microclirie. orthoclase and plagioclase (combined percentage 5-8%) in a cryptocrystalline matrix of quartz and clay with siliceous cement. 3.1.F‘ Chikkim Formation The shale is made up of I5-39 micron size sul\- rounded to rounded quartz (I0-20%) in a marly paste (40-70%) with fernigiiious cement. 3. 2 CARBONATE MICROFACIES 3.Z.A Hlimantn Group 3.2.A| Kurizani La Formation The carbonate microfacies recorded in this formation are (a) mudstone with (i) fenestral fab- ric filled with sparite. (ii) collapse breccia, brecciated micrite with Fe-rim and filled by sparite strongly styloiitised (Fig. 1.6), (iii) micritic peloids, with sparite, (iv) bioturbation (Fig. 3.7), (v) bioclasts (trilobite), (vi) upto 0.3cm size pisoids occasion- ally broken and with micritic rims, (vii) bird’s eye filling (Fig. 3.8) and (viii) microcolonies ofEpi‘phy(on (Fig 1.9) having inhornogencous matrix showing micritic and cleaner and coarser mud with contact defined by ferruginous cement filled stylolites. a few recrystallised ooids, secondary spariiic ce- ment, and (b) bioclastic wackestone and lithoclasticl peloidal wackestone. 3.2.8 Sanugba Group 1.1.3. Tlranga Formation Leriticular calcareous beds occurring in the basal part of this formation at I-tango and in the Tidong Valley are represented by bioclastic fl’lUd510ng_ The bioclasts are mainly of cririoids 3.2.13, Takclre Formation The microfacies of this Formation have bggn described by Ehargava and Bassi (I986). Only im. portant types are being illustrated here Takche section : (a) Arenaceous mudstone containing moderately sorted quartz, (b) bioclastic quartz wackestone and calcareous quartz wackestone containing subrourided to rounded moderately sorted quartz, (c) calcareous sandstone, (d) fossil wackel packstone containing Hcrifvsiles, crinoid ossicles, brachiopods and trilobite fragments. Piirahio section : (a) Calcareous siltstone containing coarse angular well sorted silt with micntic cement partially replaced by ferruginous cement, (b) bioclaslic wackelpackslone with clasts of Favorites, Holysiter, crinoids, echinoid plates. trilobite fragments and recrystallised sparite, (c) bioturbated mudstone, (d) Thnmnaparn (7) framestone, (c) Ha/ysiles boundstorte (Fig. 3.16), (D Plasmoporefla (‘?) boundstone. Chambers ofFr1vnsi’le.r and Hnlysiies are filled with splterulitic cheri and open spaces with equant ferruginous calcitic cement. Pin Valley 1 ta) Bioturbated mudstune, (bl bioclastic/wacke/packsione having clasts of ciinoids. corals. briichiopods and trilobites, (c) sponge- stromatoporoid boundstone (d) Halysitcs |J0llIlClSl0I’l€. Leo section : (a) Mud/wackestorie containing fossil fragments and rare complete fossils with syntaxial to sparitic cement. (b) Packlgrainstone forming the bulk of the mierofacies (60%) which can be subdivided into ti) biuclasiic pack/gralnslww (ii) lithoclastic packlgrairistone and (Hi) lflyficd biuclastic pack/grainstorie, the matrix in these rocks being homogeneous, ferrugirious to micritic and constitutes 10-80% ufthe rock; the bioclasts include crinoids (mainly lI’l the basal part). b”l°hi°l>°d
shells, echinoid spines, bryozoans. ostracodcs.
and corals (c) Bioelastic floatstone containing
clasts of stromatoporoids, brachiopods and COINS-
(d) Bindslone divisible into ii) 5l‘¢””‘”d‘¢|.Y””
bindstone showing arched nodular colonies
encrusting Hnlyslies (Fig. 3.10), (ii) encrusting
solitary corals, (iii) Parachue/eter bindstonc and
(iv) bryozoan bindstene. (c) Framestone constituted
of (i) stroniatopnroid. (ii) Hfllv-WK‘ and (ii1)FW”»”‘“’~‘~

Geulogy of Spili-Kiunaur. Himachal flimlllya _ 57
3 IO — 3,17
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I-‘lg. I0. llnI_\-sires cncruslcd hy Ecrlimndrclyan alrnmalopnroid, Tnkch: Formalion Loc, Manchnp Fig. ll. Flask
shaped micmpmblcmanca. Tnkchc Fonnnnnn‘ Loc Munchnp Hg. I2. Sponge – spicule wnckcslonr. Tukchc Formation
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nod Plasmoporrlla dchm, Tlkchc Fmmnlinn‘ Lot Munchup Fig. l6. Halysllrx framcslonc. Tlkchc Formahon Lou
Gzchung Fig. l7. Fnlnmcnlous Grrwmrlln, Tnkchc Fmmnuon (Positive print), Loc. Manchup (Bar scale is 2mm for
Hg: 3 I0, 3 I3. J l5. 3l6.2mml’o1F1g 314. and 05mm for Figs 3 ll. 312. 3 I7)

” Mem. Gcol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
Mancltap section : Carbonate microfacies found
in the Takche sequence of the Manchap section are
“5 f°“0W5- (a) Syndepositionally deformed laminated
and bioturbated mudstone. (b) Bioclastic-quartz
wackestone made up of argillaceous and l‘eri’ugi-
nous materials mixed with micritic clotted matrix.
The clasts are silt-size quartz. brachiopods (most
common). echinoid spines, crinoids. ‘1’ gastropods,
bryozoans. trilobites, tabulate corals, nodosarids
and other foraminifers. coated pseudo-ooids and
flask-shaped microproblcrnaiica (Fig. 3.1 1). The cement
varies from micritic. spariric to syntaxial. the last
one occurs along the echinoid plates. The
brachiopod‘s and bryozoa‘s open spaces are gen-
erally filled by sparittc and partly by micritic mate-
rial. This facies is confined to the basal part ofthe
sequence. tc) Sponge~spicul= Wackcstone (Fig. 1.12)
which also contains recrystallised clasts of gastro-
pods. echinoids and crinoids cracks having filled
with stnritic material This facies occurs in the upper
part. (ti) V!rmip0re|In~=Chil’l0ld wackestone which
sporadically occurs in the middle part. te) Packstonc
grainstone facies including (i) VEIMIPOFEIIH
packstonelgrainstone (ii) bryozoa-triloliite packstone.
(til) layered algal-bryozoa pacltstone and (ii)
brachiopod-lamellibrattch pack/grajnstone. All these
are intensely bioturbaled. made of poorly sorted
micritic matrix with uniformly distributed spariiic
and ferntginous materials. Some of the packslones
show graded bedding and also gcopctal fabric. The
clasts are of algae. tabulatc corals. biyozoans, l:tmclli-
branchs. gastropods. ccphalopods. trilobites. stroma-
toporoids. crinoids. sponge-spicules. ostracodcs.
cchinoid spines, ‘? Tenincrililes and ooids (l’} Floatf
rudslone at several levels in middle and upper parts
of the Takche Formation is rcprcsentcd by (i)
Fnvnsirzs-lkrmlpnrella rudslone containing angu-
lar clasts of Fav0sl’re.r colonies and Ibrmipnrelln
debris (Fig. 3.13). The clasts vary in size from 2mm
to l0mm. The matrix is constituted of dolosparite
with scattered fcrruginous and micritic material; (ii)
halysitid-bryozoal floatstorte showing mud»fil|ed
t’InI_vs-fie: and bryozoan clasts, (iii) coral-
stromittoporoid rud/fioatstonc enclosing fragments
of rugose corals. stromatoporoids, bifoliate bryozoans.
and shell fragments; (iv) bryozoa-coral floalslonc
enclosing complete corals and fragments oi‘
Hnlloporu and Harfvsiier. In this sub-facics. the
matrix is layered and comprises sparite and micrite.
(g) Boundstone occurs throughout, though promi-
nenl in middle and upper parts of the sequence.
The bonndstone facies has limited vertical as well
as lateral extent. Basket shaped Frrvnsiies colonies
are most conspicuous (Fig. 3.14). This facies is
divi- sible into (i) HalysiIe.r~VermiporelIn-
Plasmoporelln framestotte, showing interspabe in
between Halyt-ites chains filled by Plat-moporetla,
Vermiporella and rrticrite (Fig.3. I5); (ii)
.7Pla.rm0p0relIa-Wrmiporella framestone showing
’PIo-wwpvrelln growing over Vermiporella debris
the other dwellers being echirtoids. gastropods and
ostracodes with the open space filled with sparitic
cement; (iii) stromatoporoid-rugose coral framestone;
(iv) Favasires framestone; (v) ?Thamt-rapora
ftamestone shows clotted matrix; (vi) Halysiles
framestone mainly showing recrystallised coral filled
with clear sparile and dolosparite. matrix mostly
micritic with impurities of quartz and mica; (vii)
bryozoan bindstone showing several branches of
bryozoa colony within which occur micritic material
(Fig. 2.29). the clasts of brachiopods and ostracodes
and the bores in the bryozoa filled with sparite
except one with silica; (viii) coral-stlromatoporoid
btndstone showing a rugosc coral encrusted by
Ecclimadictyon stromaloporoid in a micritic matrix;
(ix) Girvanel/a bindstone showing Girvnnella in
filamentous (Fig. 3.17) and spherical (Fig. 3.18) fonns
in at micritic medium, (x) Verntiporella bindstorte
(Fig. 3.19) made up of léruttporelln. micrite in inter-
space and clasls of gasttopod and algae with some
parts of gastropods filled with sparite, (xi) Kamaemi
birtdslone/wackestonc (Fig 3.20) a.rnd (xii) bafllestone
displaying floating colonies of Ifnflapara.
Cements : The cements in the Takche Forma<
lion are siliceous. fcrmginous. micritic and sparitic
and rarely ferrirginous subcquant calcite. Clear
siliceous and chalecdonic cements form the first
generation cements in Favosites and Halysiler
lramestone facies Replacement by micritic and sparitic
cement is common. Clear sparite occurs in open
spaces, veins. fractures and chambers of fossils
Ferruginous II1iCl’lliC and sparittc cements fill the
chambers of corals. The sparitic cement seems lo
be of first generation. The rare ferriiginous and
subequant calcite Cements are observed in the open
spaces of Hdlysilcx colonies at Gechang which
may represent a fresh watcr phreatic environment
with active water circulation (Longman. 1980).
Fibrous and micritic cements in alternating layers
were found in only one floatstone occurring in the
|_|ppgf|1’|°$l part or the Leo reel’. Sptirry calcite occurs
both as primary precipitate and as recrystallised
micrile with which it retains hazy and irrcglllllf
boundary

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Geology of Spifi-Kinnaur, Himachal Bimllnyn 59
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~ 1,~~’-_i~’i.§i~‘ |p > ‘ , ,5 fit‘ “”>~”;-igi-,+%;:<,3,= _;”’_ Exphnnlnn of Figs. 3.18 – 3.26 (Unless specificd all no slide prinls) Hg, I8, Nodulur form of Girvimrlln, Takchc Furmnlinn (Posniv: prim). Lac Manchlp Fig, 19. Vermipan-Ila bindslon: (Pnsifivi: prim), Takchc Fomnlion Loo. Mlnchap. Fl; 10. Kamnum wlckeslnne (Positive print), Tlkche Formulion Loo. Mnnchnp. Fig, ll. Shell pncknonc, Lipak Formalion Lac Tnkchc Hg. Z2. Cnncidnl hioelaaric puckmone, Lipak FOITIIIIIOII Lou, Tlkvhe. Ilg. ZJ. Llyercd bimlaahc plckltone with uonoidul T!nlm‘ull’It:, Liplk Formulion. Lon Yulang Dogn Fig, 14. Bumrwl nhmuing cimulll lrrnngcmcnl cf filled mclnrill. Liplk Formllion Loc. Tlkche. Fig, Z5. Whole fossil (Corals. Thamnopnnd) wuokcslona, Lipck Fomwlion. Loc. Yulung Dogn. Fl; 26. Pcloirlal gmmtonc. Lipak Fomialion. Loc Yulnng Dngn (Bar mic n 0.5mm fur Figs. 3 I8, 3.20 and Zmm for 3.19, 32l – 3,26) 9° mm. Geol. §\ll’V.1lld.VIl|. tu J-LC Kanawitr Group J-LC. Lipolr Formation The microfacies iii the Lipak Formation include ta) pacltstone, (b) mudstone, (c) wacltestcne, (d) grainstone and (e) boiindstone. The packstone is represented by (i) layered and (ii) liioclasticl lithoclastic varieties The former shows alternation of sparite and micrite with shells (Fig. 3.2 I), ochinoid spine, recrystallised crinoids (Fig. 3.12), algae eortoids of Tenruculites occurring parallel to the bedding along with corals (Fig. 3.23).The sorting within the layers is moderate. Shells in sparitic layers show umbrella effect. The matrix shows femiginous con- tent which is more pronounced in the spnritic lay- ers. Some slides show graded bedding. The early cement is clean to dark micritic, in craclrslepeii spaces it is followed by dogtooth spar and coarse sparite. The liihoclastic variety includes clasts of well rounded ill-sorted sparitic rock while the bioclastic variety shows clasts (60%) of brachiopods_ echinr.iids_ recrystallised algae_ ‘I trilobites. gastropods, bryozoans, cortoids of Tentacufiles and corals in a micritic‘ fine peloidal to partly sparitic matrix. The cement in this type is largely sparitic; some ofthe packstone are bioturbated showing circular anange- mcnt of grains in the btirrowed part (Fig. 3 24) The mudstonc IS made up of clean. lerrugi- nous and clotted micrite Sonic of these show (7) shrinkage cracks which have been filled with sparite. The burrows in the mudstone are filled with peloidal material. The wackestone shows variation to rriudstone on the one hand and to packstone on the other The clasts in ivackcstone are represented by calcite, quartz. echirtoids, brachiopods and pcloids. tn one section each of (i) whole-l’ossil wnckcstone (Fig. 3.25) and (ii) well sorted thin-shelled packstonc carbonaceous to little coarser matrix were encountered. The cc- mcnt is largely sparitic. The grainstonc at places shows variation to packstonc. Various varieties are (i) ooidal grainstrine. the oolitc (00%) having micritc. calcite and rarely shell fragments as nucleus. The ooliles show 2-4 alternate dark and light ltiycts. Most of these are simple and only a few are poly—00ids. The matrix is sparitic and contains a few well-winnuwcd, clotted. micritic and ecliinoid clnsts. Some uoids are de- formed and impinge into adjoining ooid showing pricking during semi-consolidated stage; (iii bioclastic grninstonc containing clasts olcorals. Tenrr|cut’tie.r_ ooids. peloids. crinoids and larnellibranchs; (iii) peloidal gminstone containing peloids (60-70%) (Fig. 3,26), cortoids of shells, Tenraculires and crinuids. The cement is small in volume, largely sparitic and only rarely rnicrilic. The boundstone facies found in minor propor- tions is represented by (i) algal binclstone. showing algaelcry-ptalgal bedding with bird’s eye structure (Fig. 3.27-29). The burrows are filled with ooidall peloidal material. The cement along the margins of the bird’s eye is micritic and sparitit: in central part; (ii) coral frairtestone (Fig. 3.30) shows mud-filled recrystallised corals. The coral colonies are bur- rowed and mud-filled (Fig. 3.3 I); these and also the interspaces have been filled with carbonaceous micrite and communited bioclasts. The cement in burrows is sparitic. Micritic cement is seen with hard ground (Fig. 3.32). A white marble bed obsewed at Chango and Phiphuk contains wollastoriite and tremolite with a few quartz grains. The tremolite is partially altered into talc. The associated quartz veins are wholly made up of sheared quarti. The marble bands at Yangthting contain wollastonitc, gamet,.diopside and tremolite. .’!.Z.D Lilang Group 3.2.1). Miltin Formtinn ln thin section, most of the rocks appear as extensively stylomottled, filamentous wackestonel packsione factes. This main varicty shows following variations. (a) Whole fossil wackestone/mudstone having light grey homogeneous matrix (70-80%), sparitie skeletal fragments and cnnipleie thin shells oflarval cephalopods, lamollibranchs and lostracods showing partial orientation. The matrix is partly bioturbatcd with voids filled with sparitic material. Thc stylolites are mostly along matrix and hioturbated zones. (b) Thin- shellcd cephalopod wackestone/packstonc showing highly variable percentage of matrix (20-70%) with fragments ofjuvenile eephalopods. lamellibranfihiv “gastropods and ostracods (Fig. 3 33). Styloliles are hut-rimoeky to irregular along contact margins and show lerruginous material along the scams. (e) Cephalopod- gastropod packstone shows fairly well sorted thin shelled cephalopods and gastropods in a homogeneous micritic mau-ix (50-60‘/D). The subsolution voidsare filled by coated fossilsand/or ferruginoiis rnicritc. The cement is dark micritic and partly sparili= (4) Thin 5″‘°”°d filamentous packstone (Fig 3-34) 5|’l°W5 ml” “lens- Geology of Spifi-Klnnaur, Bimaclnl Himalaya \ ‘ll F|g5.3.27- 3.32 ‘ .» 1.-.__, I ‘ ‘ ‘ .|,_1, > .;__ v
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(Bur male is 2mm for Fig.1. 133. 3438. 3.40 Ind 0.5mm for 3,34 – 3.37 Ind 3.39) Geology oi”Sniti-Kinnaur, Himaehnl Himalaya 9 3 locally calcispheres and radiolarians (Fig. 3,15) in grey micritic matrixand stylobreceiated and riodirlarstylolites (e) Bioturbated molluscan packstone of light to pale grey homogeneous rnicritie rnatriXi(40-tl0%) having an average of2O-60% clasts. The molluscs are thin to moderately thick shelled lamellibranchs, gastropods and ceplmlopods. The clasts are poorly to moderately sorted, generally laelt orientation and are of ostrawds, echinoids, foraminifers and sparite. Some clasls have thin micritic film around them. The bioturbated portions show circular arrangement of particles with sparitic cement in the centre. The other microfacies is represented by mudstone showing variations to cherty mudstone of light grey to pal: white micritic material with thin shelled gasiropods, lamellibranchs. cephalopods”, at places their percentage is as high as 30%. A distinct fabric is imparted by stylolites having ferniginous material along the seams. The stylolires are stylonodular to stylobrecciated with local variation to stylomottled type. It shows local planes of disoot1formities.Locally occur sporadic thick shells. 3.2.1), Kaga Formation The carbonate microfacies are (a) filamentous paekstone/waekestonc having juvenile as well as adult Daone./la, dark rimmed echinoid spines, subangular to angular 7organic debris as recrystallised sparite. The cracks in the rocks are filled with dark-rimmed sparitic material; (b) layered medium shelled (lamellibranch) packstone with aligned andbmken shells occurring along local planes ofdisconformities; (c) cephalopod dropstone in layered thin shelled Daanella packstorie. The dropstone is recognised by sagging of bottom micritic layer, truncation of layers at cephalopod level and undisturbed overlying layer, the shells also showing settling fabric; (d) thin shelled lartiellibranch pacltstorie along layers of discortfonnity, with the overlying layer filling in the uneven portion oftlie underlying layer‘, (e) dark grey mudstone with it few skeletal grains. Most of the bioclasts in the Kaga Formation are thin shelled, some with darlt rims. Stylolites are low peaked. The burrows are filled with dark micritjc material and fine organic debris, Fe-rich rriicrite and rarely with hlocky sptirite. The cement is incon- spicuous and is mierite. 3.2.0, Clionmla Formation lt shows the following microfacies. (ii) Filamentous lamellibranch wackestone/pacltstone containing shells of Daonella/Halobia in dark grey rnicritic matrix, the shells showing moderate alignment and sorting. (b) Thin shelled gastropods wackeslonel packstone showing calcispheres, radiolarians, a few mica flakes and ferrugirious material. (c) Calcitised radiolarians wacltestonelpackstone showing radiolarians mostly with broken spines together with calcisphere (Fig.3.36-J7). The rock shows layering. (d) Mudsione made up of grey micrite with uniformly distributed ferruginous material and l-5% clasts of dark-rimmed sparite. Bioturbation is rare and is identifiable by cir- cular arrangement of grains. Stylolites are more or less common and vary from low-peaked to brecciated types. Cement is rare to inconspicuous and is micritic. 3.Z.D. Sirnglung Formation 3.1.1)“ Member A : The following microfacies encountered in ascending stratigraphic order. (a) Bioclastic-lithoclastic wackeslone/pacltstone having a pale brown to pale yellow homogeneous matrix (‘70-80%) wit.h minor silt to fine sand-size dark rimmed angular, stibrounded and rounded quartz The bioclasts (10-20%) are of bryozoans, echinoid spines, molluscs, sponges, rare oolites and doubtful algae. All the clasts are dark-rimmed. The lithoclasts are of quartz and light coloured micriie, the latter possibly representing organic debris. Burrows are filled with ferrugirious material. The stylolites are irregular and oflow amplitude. (b) Bedded to massive mudstone, the bedding in the bedded variety defined by mica flakes, ferruginous material and a few elongated skeletal fragments, burrows filled with sparite and the slylolites irregular to faintly stylobrecciated. (c) Thin shelled stylobrecciated pacltstone comprising light grey homogeneous mierittc matrix (60-70%) with tl1in shelled clasts of larnellibranchs and gastropods, iron coated echinoid spine. a few thick fragments of thick shells and crinoid ossicles and recrystallised ooids (Fig 1.38). (d) Calcareous sandstone made up of 40-45% rounded to subrounded. corroded quartz in ferniginous sparitic matrix. The bioclasts are suhangular and are of corals, tabulozoans and strornatoporoids. (e) Mudsione, bedded to massive, differing from the mudstone (b) in having bedding defined by sparite and thin mica flakes. (t) Bioelastic packstone comprising bioturbated dark brown more or less homogeneous micritic matrix (20-30%). The bioclasts are lighter coloured and are of bryozuiins, echinoid plates and spines, crinoid ossicles, sponges, seryulids, foraminifers, ?fish teeth and lamellibntnchs. The cement is micrilic and syntaxial. The stylolites are irregular and of low amplitude. (g) Sponge-spicule 94 Mem. Geol. Su rv. Ind. Vol. 124 mudstonc made up of pale brown homogeneous micritic matrix. (h) Coral wackestone comprising micritic matrix with fine bioclastic debris; pelletal ooidal grainstone consisting of more than 60% of well sorted. well packed. coated sparitic matrix; the clasts being of foraminfers. turreted gastropods, bryozoans. lamellibranchs, Microtubus cummuriir Flugel. oolites. ooids and the cement is sparitic. (j) Mottled mudstone/wackestone constituted of pale brown to pale green mottled micrite with silt size angular quartz (3%), foraminifera and biodebris (3%), the sparitic cement imparting a mottled appearance to the rock and (lr) sandy floatslone showing clasts of bivalve, coral and hydrozoa (Fig. 3.39). 3.2.!!!“ Member B : The carbonate microfacies in this Member in ascending stratigraphic order are: (a) mottled mudstonelwackestcne; (b) quartzose mudstorte/wackestone showing quartz and mica in micritic matrix; (c) lamellibranch wackestone (most common upto upper part of the sequence) made up of homogeneous micritic ferruginous matrix with -yntaxial to micritic cement; (ti) lithoelastic-bioclastic grainstcne (Fig. 3.40) comprising silt to line sand- size homogeneous well sorted sparitic matrix and clasts of algae_et:hin0ld, crinoid, bryozoa. ferruginous micrite and clasts of pre—existing pacltstone. the cement being not clear. possibly sparitic. 3.2.Dk Member C : The following microfacies in the Member C occur in ascending stratigraphic order. (a) Lamellibranch grainstone/packstone made up of oyster and crinoid fragments in a homogeneous sparitic matrix with a little argillaceous material. (b) Lithoclastic-bioelastlc quartzose wackestone constituted of moderately to well sorted subangular to subiounded silt-size quartz (10-15%), light coloured micrite with rare oyster shells and”marly material, the rock is sporadically bioturbated and has sparitic cement. (c) Micritic to sparitic bioturbated rock showing ferruginous-rich layers. (d) Hydrozoan bindstone showing micrite in inter space. The cracks and voids are filled with ooids and micritic material. The ooids are single to multilayered, many are compound. Primary cement is ferruginous followed by micritie and sparitic. 3.2.0, Hnngrang Formation Microfacics of the Hangrang Fomtation have been illustrated by Bhargava and Bassi (1985). Various rnjcrofacies are as follows. ta) Calcisponge bafllestone Ill typical slides shows recrystallised branched sponge, baflled material including micrite, echinoid spine. ostracode tests and lamettibranch shells. Cement is syntaxial and micritic and in cavities fibrous, fotlowsa by blocky cement, the rock is commonly biorurliated. (b) Seriastraea-calcisponge bafllestone (Fig. 3,41) containing hydrozoans, fermginous, non-ferruginous tnicrite, echinoid spines, brachiopods, bivalves, a few aggregate grains and voids with blocky cement along cracks. (c) Colospongia-hydrozcan bafltestone (‘Fig.3.42) with lamellihranch shells, a few aggregate grains and rnicrite as baflled material. (d) Tabulozoan framestone shows tabulozoan and solitary corals in the micritic matrix. The other organic remains are of echinoids, ostracodes, bivalves and gastropods. (e) 1‘hecosmiha framestone (Fig. 3.43) shows micrite, sponges, gastropods. normal and compound ooids, oncoids and in some section coral encrusted by sponge. (t) Hydrozoan framestone shows micrite in open space together with braChi0p0d, Pycrroporrduim7 eomesozorcum Flugel, mud filled corals, echinoid spines, ostracods, lamellibranchs and gastropods. The first generation cement is micrite followed by bloelty sparitic cement. (g) Srromatomorphn framestone (Fig. 3.44) shows micrite in open space along wit.h shell fragments and crinoid ossicles. (h) Algal bindstone shows algal filament encrusting hydrozoans and corals in a micritic rnauix. (i) Thin bedded packstone/grainstone (Fig. 3.45) comprise rnierite/sparite with ferruginous to non» ferruginous micritic to syntaxial cement and late diagenetic blocky cement Stylolites are common, irregular and low amplitude types mainly along grain and matrix boundary The clasts are of crinoids, hydrozoans, sponges, brachiopod shells, corals (Fig. 1.46) and coated grains. Some slides show micro- discordances. (j) Wackestonelpackstone are represented by normal to well-packed oolite/oncoidal facies (Fig. 3 47-48]. The matrix is homogeneous micritic, including sparitic material. The cement is micritic, syntaxial followed by secondary block? W95 In fractures and open spaces, it is fibrous, micritic and hlocky. The skeletal clasts are cf micro- eephalopods, sponges, algal grains. hydrozonns. echinoid spin, lamellibranchs and gastropods. Some oolites have fossil as nucleus. 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‘V _< _. ,/ .- – ~ .’._ /- . . 1., .. Ii’ .. ??\ {Jar ~ =1 5‘ _’ go Elplnnnllnn 0|‘ Pip. 3.56 – 3.6l Fig. 56. Paluidal aggregate lilhocllshc gruinslu: (SP). Tagling M:mbcr_ Kiolo Formation. Lac. Kibber Fig. 57. Ooids and hiocluls in u fink-shaped aggregate grain ehclused in an algal shculh, Para Membcr. Kimc Formation. Lac. Kibbcr. Fig. 58. Nerinid-ooidnl well pnckcd guirmon: (SP), Tagling Member. Kiolo Fnrmulion. Loo Snkli. Flg. 59. Shell hash plckslonr: (SP), Tngling Member, Kiolo Formation, Lona. Kibbcr. Fig, 60. Ooidal grninslonc, Tngling Member, Kiolu Formation Lac Kibhu Fig. 61. Distorted glluconiliscd ooidll foraminifcrl plckslcne, Tagling Member, Kioto Furmllion Loc Kibhcr. (Bur scale rs 2mm for Fig: 3.56. 3.55. 3.59 and 0.5mm for Figs. 3.57, 3.60 and 3.6|) 9‘ Mun. cm. Snrv. ma. Vol. m é Figs.3.62—3.66 llpllnllion of Hp. 3.62 » 3.66 Fig 61. Thecmmilia frumcnona (SP), Tagling Member, Kiolo Fomulinn‘ Loc. Sukli. lip. 6.‘! – 66. Glalvoirunmnn wnckdpnclnslonc. Limutonc Member, Chikkim Fonnntion Loc. Chikkirn puk aeolian (Bu scale in 5mm for Fig. 3.62 and 0.2mm for Figl. 3.63 – 3.66) Geology of Spiti-Kinnriilr, Himachnl Hlmlllyl 99 matrix with chain corals, solitary corals, branched corals, liydrozoans, gastropods, algal crusts and coated grains, (m) Bioclastic algal pelletoidal grainsione shows dasyclad algae and coral fragments in sparitic-niicritic matrix. 3,2,1)‘ Alarnr Fnnrlalinil The carbonate mieiofacim in the Alaror Formation are (ii) sandy, ooidal grainstone/paokstone showing turbid sparitic matrix with little micrite, moderately well sorted angular to rounded coarse sand-size quartz and coated superficial ouid; in some slides ooids are truncated and compound and occur in a silty to fine quartzitic matrix and a few radiating oolites and iron- coated dasyclads are also present; (b) layered mudstone with gastropods and lamellibranchs in tempestite layers in between mud layers (Fig. 3.51) and clasts are of bivalves, gastropods, algae and ooids; (c) bivalve ooidal grainstonelpackstone (Fig. 3.52) showing simple, compound and complex oolites as fillings in a but-rowlalgal sheath (Fig 3.53) in spariiie homogeneous matrix with a few algal fragments, the cement being equant and Sparitic. 3.Z.D, Nunuluka Formation The carbonate microfacies of the Nunuluka Fornianon includes sandy ooidal-algal piickstone. This taeies comprises moderately sorted. angular to rounded coarse quartz, superficial ooid, rare radiat- ing ooids The cement in the rock is formed by blocky and turbid sparite. 3.1.0‘ Kinln Formation ;l.2.l)__ Para Member : The carbonate microfacies recorded in the Para Member are as follows. (a) Bioclastic wackestone/packstone (3.54-55) showing grey to pale brown micritic matrix in varying propor- tions. The bioclasts are of bivalve. partially filled with peloidal mud. ooid. coarse faecal pellet Form-ninitera form nucleus of a few oolites. The cement in micro-channel part being ferruginous micritc. (b) Furnminiferzil pcloidal grainstonelpackstone having coated foramtniferal tests with sparitic cement. (c) Pcloidal aggregate bioclastic. lilhoclastic floatstonel packslonc showing about 40-60% micritic matrix, various shaped and sizcd pcloids, a few aggregate grains. bioclasls of bivalve. forminifcra. algac and liilioclasts of sparile and peloidal wackestone. 3-1-D“ Tagling Member : The carbonate microfacies areas follows. (a) Peloidal aggregate-lithoclaslic grainsionc (Figs. 3.56-57) showing well-sonod dark rimmed rotu-ided rod-shiipod micrite (80%) and sparitc (I0-15%) clasts. The bioclasts (l0-l5%) are of quinqueloculinids, gastropods, echinoids, algae, bivalves, and aggregate grains. (b) Nerinid-ooidiil- well packed griiinstonelpackstone showing multilayered radiating oolites in the chambers of rierinids, other bioclasts being of dark rimmed 7P:’nai.-opliylliim and biserial foraminifers (F ig. 3.58). (c) Shell hash packstone (Fig. 1.59) with abundant shells, enclosing silt to fine-sand-sized quartz replaced by calcite shells showing umbrella elfect and sparitic cement in voids. Other clasis are of echinoids and rare radiating ooliies. Burrows are filled with micrite and smaller clasts. Siylolites are high and low peaked. (d) Nomially packed bioclastii: grainstune comprising skeletal remains of bivalves, bryozoans, ostracods and echinoids. The lithoclasts are of aggregate grains. (e) Oolitic grainstone with truncated and concentric ooids, pellets, ostracodes, and foraminifers in a sparitic matrix (Fig. 3.60). All the above facies have bloclry spar-itic cements. (f) Glauconitised distorted ooidal foraminiferal packstone tin upper part of the Member) showing ooids, echinoid spine fragments and foraminiferal tests cemented by glauconite (Fig. 3.61) and Thecusmilia lramestone (Fig. 3.62) showing partially mud filled corals. The inierspace is filled by’corloid and iron coated dasyclad clasts in a turbid sparitic matrix, occupied by dark peloidal mud and micrite. Ostracods and gastropods occur as reef dwellers. Cement in cavities is fibrous along lining and blocky in the central part. 3.2.12 Lagudarsi Group 3_2.E| Giumal Formation Bioclastic-ooidal wackestone is made up of normal, compound, broken, symmetrical, asyrnrnetri~ cal as well as deformed oolites which have been burrowed. Bioclasts are of echinoids. bryozoans and crinoids. J.Z.EX Cllikkim Formation lt comprises light coloured (a) mudstone with ti) open spaces filled with fine micrite along cavity margins, dogtooth cement towards core and core Of silty micrite/blocky sparite and (ii) uneven base of dense mudstone, followed by bioelastic mudstone with discontinuity surface in between having shells filled with both micrite as well as blocky cement and (b) foramitiiferal wacltestcine contains biomorphs and poorly sorted bioclasts of globotruncanids, ostracods, gastropods and radiolarians the rock being bioturbated and showing low amplitude stylolites (Fig.3.63-66). 4. STRUCTURE The regional spread of the Precambrian Crystalline Thrust Sheets. observed in the westem l-limachal Himalaya, has been telescoped in Kinnaur Sector. The Jeori-Wangtu Group, a gneissic complex, forms the basement for the Lesser Himalayan basin (Figs.2.7. 4.1a & b). It is exposed between Ieori and Karcham in Kinnaur. At Karchtun, it is stratigraphically overlain by the Manikaran Formation (Ranipur Group) along a decoupled contact. The Rampur Group is tectonically succeeded by the Kulu Group along the Kulu Thrust which has translated the Kulu Thntst Sheet across the Rampur-Larji sequence to rest over the Shall-Simla-Jaunsnr Groups in the Dalhousie- synform towards west. The Vaikrita Group. and Vaikrita Thrust link up with the Salkhala Group and Panjal Thntst of Junmu and Kashmir (Fig.4. la -1 b) respectively. The wikrita Group fonris basement for the Tethyan basin. The Kulu, Iutogh and Vhikrita Groups, with respect to the Kulu-llampur Window, show minimum tnnslatzions of70lon, l05lcm and 75ltm respectively. The crystalline rocks of these fornuttions, as shall he discussed in the forthcoming pages, show five decipherable phases of deforniation while. in the Tethyan rocks uneortformably overlying the Vaikrita Group of rocks, only three deformntional phases could be identified. o loom: __ . . jam] .1]; * st _ ‘-‘Woo npguai ‘§§|t“ /1 \s§E§,t’“ I A i \-.4_ eniaa __ T i_. .’7\. ._\__,./.~~ I I – . . _ . – r . -. r 1 r / 1 1 H ‘-‘ ..=* I _, I I I , ‘ ‘ um azaleas yinusr iii? 1’ ‘ ‘ J :§§§§==:i:-ag‘ I .:=?EEE§§§§5i I I ,4 :’1’1::::” ‘I 1;-.’.1,.‘.r.:r-5 » ‘ I I /av I 4:. r-f-x,ar.ii=;-14-1-£71 4.1»;-“.’.?-ttrirji-5-,’;‘1,=-,’~_‘.’¢ i vaieai _ Ill – _V *. ‘- .-._ _,; ‘.f|:;_’ .-:.;2′;._-.-.;§_;:;”.’. r‘u=,.-~-” u . ..__,.. .-r. _ ,, _ -_.. . ‘T——” ‘ 9 – L ‘2‘, ifs’. oeulauu Q 4i __=_ I .—.. ‘ o 5 ‘ -5.‘-. i 7 Wig 9 i turuuuuuonvnllruor o = Fig. 4.la. Geological sketch map of the Western Himalaya Eitpl. I a. Jeori-Wanglu Group, b. Tso Morsri Crystallines. 2 Parnutochthonous Precambrian-early Cambrian Lesser Himalayan sequences. 3 a, b. e. Kulu (I) Iutogh (b) and Vaikrila (c) Thrust sheets 4 Eoeamhrian-Palaeozoic sequences. 5. Mesozoic sequence. 6. Ophiolite nappcs. 7 Tertiary. ll. Quaternary. Mandi-Baragaon-Kadiali stretch. The Jutogh Group, the next higher thrust sheet, translated along the lutogh Thrust‘ rests over the Kulu Group. Towards SE. llle Jutogh Thrust Sheet has advanced upto Rajgarh-Naura with an isolated ltlippe at Shimta (Pilgrim and West, I928) lo rest over the Jaunsar Group of rocks. The highest tectonic belt, constituted ol‘ the Vaikrita Group, is disposed over the Jutogh Group along the Vaikrita Thrust (rr MCT). Towards NW, the Vaikrita Group, along the Vitikrita Thrust. tectonically conceals the Jutogh Group and. as ll result, lies directly over the Kulu Group. lt is folded into an antiform in the core of which is exposed the Rampur-Lsrji sequence as a window. This window is followed by the Pandoh TheTetliyanroelrsofSpitiaridKinnauroocuning as synclinoria. though autochthottous vls-a-vls the vaitrma rocks, are in fact allochthonous which tectonically hitch-hiked on the back of the Vaikrita Group. The allochthonous nature of the Tethyan socks is best illustrated try the Kashmir basin (Wadia, 192!) across the Kishtwar Window (Fuchs, I975. Bhargava, i981) and the Chamba-Manjir-Katarigali sequence across the Rampur-Larji Window. In the Tethyari rocks, both diastrophic and non- diastrophic structures are present. 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1°1 Mein. GeoL Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
slumps in the basal part of the Thatigo Formation,
identified as palaeoreismites, can also be classified
as syn-depositional slumps.
The diastrophic structures are of various ages,
The imprint of the Teniary defamation in the
Himalaya has been so severe that it has tended to
ntaslr the earlier structural elements. However, evi-
dences leadig to the recognition of pre-Tertiary
structural elements, though fragmentary and indi-
rect, do exist in some sections. A tentative attempt
is made here to highlight such evidences to estab-
lish a ease for pre-Tertiary tectonic events. The pre-
Tertiary structural events, which can be identified,
belong to ‘ (ll Precambrian (2) Cflmbrian. (3) Lower
Carboniferous and (4) Cretaceous. These are fol-
lowed by Tertiary and Neotectonic movements.
4.1 MAN'[l”ES’I2A’l10NSOF’l’HIE
PRECAMIBRIAN TECTONIC EVENTS
4.1.1 Rifting and Uncontormlty
The Rampur Group sediments of early Proterozoic
to 7 late Archaean age were deposited over the
Jeori-Wangtu Group (basement complex). The basin
for the Rampur Group, as suggested by the
association of 25l0 1 09 Ma old tholeiite (Bhat,
I990) with its metasediments, was created by an
intracratonic rifting almost at the ‘Archaean-
Protelozoic boundary. This possibly produced rise
ofthermal dome and gigantic faults in the basement.
The fontter, perhaps, caused formation of the Gahr
Gneiss. These basement faults were selectively
reactivated during the Tcrtiary.
Presence of five defonnatjons in the Vaikrita
rocks, and absence of the first two of these in the
Tethyan rocks, establish two pre-Batal deformations
in t.he Vaikrita rocks. In other words, the Batal rocks
were deposited over a Iolded Vaikrita basement. The
angular uncottfonnity in between these two is demon-
strable one kilometre upstream of Spilo and Pooh
where, along a low angled contact. the Batal Forma-
tion overlaps a steeper contact between the Motang
and the Shiasu Formations. This plane of
unconfonnity is not easily identifiable in local sec-
.tions due to the homogenising eflect of the Tertiary
deformation and attendant metamorphism, which si-
multaneously aflected the Vailtrila as well as the Batal
rocks. The Batal basin also came into existence due
to rihing near to the continental edge of the lndian
Plate. This rihing was mainly lithospherie-activated,
as is evidentby the Manjir conglomerate and limited
extent of basic flows in the Batal sequence.
4.1.2 Folds
There are total five generations of fold in the
Vaikrita and also in the Jutogh rocks (Schwan, 1980).
Of these. the earliest reclined, appressed and co-
axial. upright to reclined E-W trending’t‘olds,
referable to Fland F2 of Naha and Ray (I911), are
not found in the overlying Palaeozoic-Mesozoic rocks.
The E-W trend of the F| and F2 folds, where
least oriented. was interpreted by Naha and Ray
(I971) as due to transponation from north. The
mapping of the Jutogh and Vaikrita ll’l!1JSl sheet
rocks has established that the roots of these thrust
sheets lie in NE. The southerly direction of trans-
port for these rocks. thus, could not have taken place
during the Tertiary Orogetty. Also the E-W orien-
tation of these folds is discordant with NW-SE trend
of the regional folds in the western Himalaya. These
E-W folds are, therefore, regarded as of Precambrian
age, which also accounts for their absence in the
younger sequences. Small magnitude rootless folds
in the Morang Formation, exposed along the lefi
bank of the Satluj near its confluence with the Tidong
Khad at Morang, and hooks and interfolial folds
preserved in the pelitic-psammitic alternating
sequence of Morang and allied formations (Fig.
4.3-4.6), possibly, belong to the Precambrian age.
These folds can be designated as Pr Fl and Pr F1
4.1.] Regional Metamorphism
The unmetamorphosed Lipak rocks rest over
the metamorphosed Vaikrita rocks in eastern Spiti
and northern Kinnaur. This observation suggests a
pre-Lipak regional metamorphism of the Vailtrita
rocks. This metamorphism is assigned a possible
Precambrian age dueto following evidences:
l. Only one phase of metamorphism repre-
sented by chlorite-biotite is recordable in the Batal
rocks. The earlier two phases of metamorphism are,
thus, regarded lobe of pre-Batal age (Bassi, l988a).
These can be related to the E-W trending small
magnitude Pr F| and Pr F1 folds.
2. The presence of stauroltte as a detrital min-
eral in the Batal rocks (Kumar et al, l9E4_) 8150
indicates existence of staurolite-bearing rocks of pre-
Batal age in the provenance which lay to lhfl WCSI
of the Spiti basin The lutogh or Vaikrila IN‘!-5
could possibly be this provenance.
3. Disoriented folded schist enclaves occur
in early Palaeozoic Rakcham Granite (Fig 4.7) lndi-

Geology of Spltl-Klnnaur, Blmnchal Himalaya I03
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_. .f* -.1; (; i<‘7.;~.,-t;.\ _ ‘-, ‘trf|Iru’I“||r”ll|fi:lt” ‘ f …,§;- __ if trultrmlt. ‘ ‘ t-.,, “”~ ‘“”‘ mg“ “Inf “‘1, ‘§,\“”ti % r 3!‘ _ .|u’n;’ ‘ ;l I [J Ill “I rnr/1:,” -airs, \ \ “1 ,. U10,’ 1, In”, .’ – I _ . 11,,’ I mt -._ I! ‘1 “”|ltrr mu‘ \* r .0 ‘1, *1. I‘ig.4.1. Suhsqueous rotational slide in the Chorriule Formation. Loc. Hal Nola, about 2.5 lrm upstream from its confluence with the Sptti River. eating existence of pre-early Palaeozoic schist mani- festing a metamorphism of Precambrian age. 4.1.4 Basement structures The More Plain – Phirse Phil Fault (MPF), the Syarma Fault Complex (SFC), Kaurik Fault Complex (KFC) and Pin Fault Complex (PFC) demarcate and control ta) sedimentation panem. (b) Structural style. (c) grade of metamorphism and (d) occurrence of granitoids. The detailed effects of these faults are described below. 4. l.4.A MPF : The metamorphic facies of the Lower Palaeozoic rocks north of the MPF are altogether different from those encountered in the main Spiti Valley. The fossiliferous Po Formation occurs on either side of the MPF, the one on the northern side is metamorphosed to biotile grade. The outcrops of the Rupshu granitoids are confined to the north of the MPF, The folds north of the MPF are mainly recumbent, whereas to the south of il, they are upright or rarely overturned. 4-1.4.5 SFC: South of the SFC, there is more or less a continuous deposition from Ordovician to Car- boniferous. Towards north of this fault, the early Carboniferous Lipak rocks rest over the Precambrian basement. The lithofacies of the Lipak Formation, north and south of the SFC. are altogether ditferent. The folds on the northern side of the SFC are recumbent (Fig.-1.10). whereas to the south of this fault they are upright to gently overturned. SE of Lalung. though this fault is not observed. such a contrastingstntctutal style continues; the SFC in this stretch is possibly blind.- The Lipak rocks north of the SFC enclose wollastonite indiusting contact metamorphism, per- haps due to some granitoid which is still buried. The Lipak rocks to the south of SFC show no ther- mal efiect. 4.t.4.C KFC: The Lipak Formation is developed on either side of the KFC. Only upper part of t.lte Lipalr Fonnation is developed on the eastern de (Yangthaltg side) of the KFC, whereas, towards west the entire sequence is exposed and has higher amount of arena- ceous component. The Lipal: rocks on the Yangthang side have been metamorphosed to biotite grade and show spectacular recumbent folds (Fig.-£9) in contrast to unmetamorphosed state of rocks and upright folds (Fig.4 S) in the western side. The KFC also delimits the granitoid outcrops towards the western side. 4.1.4.0 PFC: This fault complex broadly delimits the Mesozoic sedimentation in the Pin Valley. The I-laimanta, Thango and Taltehe Formations to the west of the PFC are comparatively more metamor- phased. The above mentioned faults, thus, seem to have Controlled (a) the depth and shape of basin leading to dilferent lithofacies on their either side since late Precambrian time. (bl the depth of burial leading to contrasting metamorphism of rocks on either side and also the emplacement of granitoids and (tr) lec- tonic style which also, perhaps, was a function of the depth of burial. These faults are. therefore, considered Precambrian basement features which became active from time to time. 4.1 MANlFES’D\’l’IONS OFTHE CAMBRIAN TECPONIC EVENTS 4.2.1’ Unoonformity A majorplane of uncunformity separates the early-middle Cambrian Kurtzam La Formation from the Ordovician Thango Formation. This plane is possibly undulatory, suggesting a period of exten- sive erosion in pre-Thango time. ’04 Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24 4.2.1 Pre-Ordovician tlh and folds An angular discordance between the bedding dips of the rocks of the Kunzam Lu and the over- lying Thango Formations is observed at Takche and in the Pin Valley (Fig.Z.l l). Recumbent folds, locally \‘1=V=l°P¢¢l in upper part of the Kunznin La Fonna- tion, are absent in the Thango For-mg|_iun_ Th“; folds are considered to have been formed during the Cambrian. 4.1.3 Pbysiogrsphic features The basinal highs deciphercd during the Thango-Muth period (Bhargava er al, l99l) are relatable to the movement during the late Cambrian period. 4.3 MANIFESTATIONS OF THE EARLY CARIIONIFEROUS TECIDNIC EVEN“ 4.3.1 Basins] physiogrnphy The distribution of the Po Formation in the Spill Valley suggests that an area between Po and Losar was uplifled during late to post-Lipalt period to form a NW-SE trending subaerial high (Bhargava et at, l99lb). Another minor subacrial high trending in ENE-WSW direction emerged in the Guling area (Bhargava er nl, l99Ib). These highs, attributable to post—Po epeirogcny, contributed clasts to the Ganmachidarn Formation, This event is also reflected in the granitoids of corresponding age. These basinal highs constituted important fea- tures which not only controlled the depocentres of the Po and Gattmachidarn Formations but also sub- sequent Tertiary deformation. as at the sites of these interpreted physiographic highs, occur the main TF, and TF1(F, and F, folds of Bhargava er aI,l99ll>)
4.4 MANTFESTATIONS OF THI CR!-TTACEOUS
TIICPONIC EVENTS
4.4.] Secondary Planar Structures
Foliation is rather universally developed in the
Batal rocks. lt is also developed in the Ltpak F0nna-
lion in the Phiphuk and Yangthang areas and in the
Po Fomiation inthe More Plain section. hence ofpost-
Curboniferous age. These foliations are sub-parallel
to parallel to the bedding and should indicate beds to
be isoclinally folded. Since no regional isoclinal folds
showing over-tuming or recuntbertq can be estab-
lished vi:-a-vi: overlying fossiliferous uqm=nc=, this
folistion has been interpreted due to horizontal tre-
formstion (Klerkx ct al, 1987).
The foliation cleavage developed in the rocks
of the Po Formation at Tabo (Fig/1.11) is at steeper
angle and ditficult to relate with the axial plane of
the fold in that area. In this small outcrop, it_v|.ries
from N20°W-S20″EI90° to N30″W-S30″B40°NE and
N30“W-S30″E/l0° NE and shows anomalous rela-
tionship with folds. This anomalous relationship could
be due to basement control on the deformation
(Wilkinson and Smith, I988) in this area,
4.4.2 Folds
Three generations of folds are present in tho
Palaeozoic-Mesozoic rocks of Spiti, corresponding
to F], F, and F5 folds of the Vailtrita Group, How-
ever, only twofold episodes are present in the Tertiary
roclts of the llimachal Pradesh indicating that the
first of the folds referred to above is pre-Tertiary,
and possibly of late Cretaceous age.
Thedirect evidence of Cretacmus folding isavail-
able at Khab where a I08 :17 Ma (Kwatra er al, 1987)
granitoid body cuts across a seri offolds (Fig, 4. I3).
The NW-SE trending folds of this generat.ionarerecum-
bent and coaxial with the second fold. Comparable folds
are present in the Giumal and Chikltini Formations
(Figs.-t. l2)attheChichirnPealg in Kioto-Spitiand Giunial
Fomiationsinthe Sakti Syneline. At the Chichim Peak,
the fold shows several digitations with axial planes
trending in NW-SE direction with 30°-4__0° inclination
towardsSE. This foldmaybedeaignatod MF|. Exeept for
the highest fold, the closures of other folds have been
sheared. The closure of the MP, fold is refolded along
a fold of the Tertiary age (TF1 ).
Folds related to this age are, perhaps, present
in the Lilang Group also (Fig.-1.14). However, it is
difficult to distinguish them from the de’collement
folds which are extensively present in the rocks of
the Sanglung Formation.
These folds mark the commencement of the
Himalayan Orogeny which culminated in the fold-
ing of the Siwalik-Indus molasse. The MFI folds
could be diachronous. as indicated by the a8= °f
toa s t7 Ms gnnitoid and the late Cretaceous age
of the Shale Member [Chikkirn Formation), which
is also involved in this folding.
‘.5 MANII’B’lZ\’l’|ONS0li‘1’HE’l‘llIR]‘lAIY
‘l‘II.’IONlIIVIIl\l’l‘5
4.5.] Itlfi
The folds in the Tethyan sediment! Ilt
de‘colle1nem as well u harmonious with the relllfifiil
ltttlt-‘IIIIE.

Geology of Spiti-Kinnanr. I-limaclial Himalaya I05
— .– 4..
+_ \
Explanation nl Hp. 4.3 – 4.9
Flga. J-6. F‘ nnd F, fnlds |n lhc mulluplc deformed crystalline: of the Vnlknla Group Loc. 3 and 5. 200m toward!
Naggu from Jagalaukh-Hamla mad junclicn, 4: lnpak Gnd<SpiI| confluence, Leo Fig. ‘I. Rufl of schist in lower
Pnlnenzolc Rakchnm gruuulmd (495 Ma) Loc Tilung, Tidung Vallty Fl} U. Upnghl fold: in Ihc Llpalc Formalwn lo
lhc weal of Kaunk Faull Complex Loc Llpak Gad. I15. 9. Recumbent fold m the Lipak Formation to lh: eall of
Knunk I-‘null Complex Loc Nalm Na/n bridgc NH-22, Yanglhang (Bar acale is lOcm).

‘°° Men. Gaol. Slrrv. Ind. Vol. m
11’ I ‘I
/// \ Ill ‘ ‘\””‘( \ \c_
– J16!-—-a
– [VIII !I’_’\ * _ _ 2/
, ,“,,,._, -___ _ ;
F?‘ .—:-‘
’ Tu
.___| 17′} _-
14’: T
‘ /~
i

Flg, (.10. Recumbent fold tll the Kioto and Spin Forms-
lions to the NE of the Syarina Fault Complex at Snkti
(sketched from 1 photograph).
4.5.l.A Dr’caffznr¢nIfold‘.s
Large de’collement folds are observed in the
Sanglung Formation which essentially comprises a
sequence of limestone and shale alternations. The
detachment along the bedding plane has occurred
mainly along the contact of rocks of contrasting
competence These folds occur in various dimen-
sions (Figs.4 l5, 4. l6). These décollement folds are
more or less harmonious with the regional struc-
tures, thus indicating their genesis during the main
folding episode.
4.5.1.]! Folds related to regional dqfunrurtion
These show a combination of parallel and similar
folds wi|.lt former dominating the pattem (Fig.4. I7-
416). Though, in general, thedipsofthebods areofthe
order of 30“-50“, locally the outcrop pattern suggests a
comparatively lower angle of inclination of the
lithooortlacts. This observation suggests that the dip of
the enveloping surface is lower than the dips of the
beds. As stated earlier, three generations of fold are
present in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks, ofwhieh
the earliest is ol‘ Cretaceous age (MF1). Only the other
two folds (l’F| and TF1) are discussed under Tertiary
structure.
u Tl?| folds : The TF| folds are coaxial with MF|
fold of the Cretaceous age. These are the most
prominent folds which have determined the outcrop
pattern Ind, to a large extent, even the shape ofthe
Spiti-Kinnaur fiyrtclinoriu. The TF| folds in the Spiti
Valley between Loslr and Schiehling and in the
Kinuattr area trend in NW-SE direction. East of
Schiehting they swing to E-W direction. The swing
from NW-SE to E-W in the eastem part of the
I-limachal is a regional feature and is reflected in all
the tectonic belts from the lowest Siwflik
parauloehthon to the highest crystalline nappes
(Fig.2.’l). This swing represents a re-entrant in iii;
cover rocks, possibly as a response to the tectonic
features of the Peninsular basement beneath the
Himalaya (Swami Nath et al, 1964). The TFl folds
have refolded the MF1 folds in the Chichtm, Sakti
and Surnra areas (Fig.4.l2).
The TFI folds are doubly plunging upnght to gen-
tly overturned. Some of the folds have faulted limbsand
crest. The largest TFI fold along the Spit.i River, he-
tween Hal and Schicltling, is located at the site of an
interpreted basinal high which came into existence in
post-Lipakperiod (Bhargava eml. I99 lb). This basins]
structurecould have exercised a control oter the forma-
tion ofthis fold.The TFI folds have consistent trendand
extensive spread; hence regarded to rep resent slow and
steady defonnation.
The main TF\ folds are labelled in Fig/1.27 (in
pouch).
It. TF2 folds : The TF1 folds are cross~folds which
have provided plunge to M.Fl and TF1 folds be-
sides folding their limbs (Fig.4 12). These. are broad
warps with axial traces trending in NE-SW direction
in the area between Losar and Schichling and in N-
S direction in the area east of Schichling. These
folds are also of plunging nature. Most of these
folds have limited extent. However. the TF1 fold,
from Guling in the Ptn-Parahto Valley to Kebn in the
Lingti Valley, extends for about 30km before getting
tnmcated by the Syarma Fault Complex. This fold is
sited over the interpreted cross ‘~ .~- Q;-_y—_f»__~,_v ‘ — . –/.‘;‘.}»-
.— “‘~;…1- » W-_ V/A»
~.\
3
Elpllnllinn of Figs. -Ll] – 4417
Hg. IJ. Nakn gran|m|d {I0}! | 17 Mn) unllmg across I“ folds of lhc Momng Fnrmnuon, Loc_ Khnb (numbered with
respect lo caylicsl fnid uhsclvcd m lhc Vmknla rocks) Fig. I-I. F] and F1 (F3 and F‘ wllh rcspecl to cnrhcsl folds
01’ lh: Vnulintn ruck) m lhc Chomulc l;mmal|on ncar Marc Plaln Fuull al Chumlk Figs. IS-16. Ddcollemcnl folds in
\hc Snnglnng l‘mmal|m\ cnlnprmng shnlc-||mcslunc llcrnulmns Lnc North of Kazn (I5). Pnruhin Valley‘ near Chidang
H6) Fig. I7. Hmml F2 (I-‘4 when numbered unlh rcspccl lo lhc ‘cu|l|esl fold 0f lhc Vmknla rock) anliclinul warp ll
Khnr ll pluugcs away from ihc vncwcr due In F, (R) cross folding. (Bur scale |s 40 ems)

““ Mcm. Geol. Sun’. Ind. Vol. :24
F1qs.4. I8 — 4.22
L_;..’____.
Elpllnlflon nf Figu. -LIB – 4.22
Fig. I8. An npcn <\Wl!v\r:lI|cfl| nnl|c|||\c shmung |n|1al’mm.1lmrml drag folds duc In slmpngc of bcdx, wuh lhnckcning
nl (In: lnngc |n\ I‘;-|.mg \’.|I.| Fig. I9‘ A hmad nhnml svmmclmnl svnchn: and an nnnchnc (lcfl bollum comer)
\\|l|\ hlllc ur nu lhwkcuung al flu: hung: m lhc Alum nnd Kmln I-mmalmns l.m: N hank of Rulang Nnln, lkm SW
<-I K;|ng|mp Fig, 20‘ An ns\m|nclncnl sym-hue. I fnnll has d:vc\np¢d along lhc nllcnunlcd Icfl l|mb_ which hlln I
cmmdcrnhlc |:\lcu~|–u <Ku\uI| I~:m|n_ l.|k||\|1 Group Inc In Kukuh Klmd, ncnl nix cnnflucnec W|lh lhc Pm River
Figa. 2|-22 .‘~I-‘um-I||\a| l1c\uvc.~’ |n Ihc L1Iang(iroup [nu Nznr (crmmns oflhc Ghunsmlng ghcm. Kmln Fnrmllion
xlln K.1|nng \ul.: llmgnmg (ll) and undcvlung Snnglung Fonnalmn

Genlug of Spiti-Kmnaur Humachnl I-hmalaya
4%
\
_,.||| _ 0
-/ ,/. /
9*
1. I –
‘ /‘ “W ‘”W|T|
W” …|=I” 5‘ ”
// /1
/Tl
.11u|||||m;’¢
NZSE 525’
\ .
s£§§%u
ii 1%’

\ ‘!
/ \
.x –
’/\\

Fig.4.23. Foldlng in A|nwr~K|0l0 Furmnlions in. hill Casi of Kiomo, Besides open fold some rccumhcnl décnllcmenl
[old nre also noticed.
I V /’“
1,4111, I
ZN’ \
_/?”“‘\ A
i
1-;=
,4II_Ԥ
-\
[ s|ow mos ‘l
Flg_4.14- Foldmg in Alaml-Klolo Formation along righl hunk of the snulhnm Gyundi (oppclsllc camping syoundj

111 Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
(ll) Lateral shifting in the River: The fluvial ter-
race near Rania in the Lingti Valley shows pebbles
of red sandstone of the Tliaiigo Formation. As no
Thango rocks are exposed in the Lingti catchment,
the red quartzite pebbles could not have been brought
by the Lingti River. The fluvial terrace at Rama ex-
tends southward upto Atargoo in the Spiti Valley at
a level hifltel’ than the present Spiti River bed. Down-
stream. this terrace continues upto Danltar-Schichlingi
This alluvial outcrop clearly suggests that the Spiti
River originally looped through Rama and Dhankar.
Such B course of the Spiti may also explain presence
of red sandstone pebbles in the terraces at Rama.
The reactivation of the Spiti Fault. as deduced
above. perhaps raised the Rama block. causing the
Spiti River to flow along the downthrown block.
The raising of the upthrown block, aided by land-
slides, dammed the river channel at Schichling. This
damming caused a vast lake between Atargoo and
D%hZX.
(c) Drainage reversal : The Phirse Phu from the
Telecon Pass flows southeast-ward and takes an
abrupt turn towards north and through rills cuts its
own fan and joins the Tso Morari lake (Fig.4.33).
The earlier course of the Phirse Phu, as docu-
mented by the spread of its Valley and oldest ter-
race, was towards the Pare Chu. A part of water of
the Phirse I-‘ha from the lop of the fan still spills
into the Pare Chu.
The point where the Surnkhel has deflected
from its earlier course is located along the trace
of the MPF. The activation of this fault possibly
caused the Phirse Plia to swing towards NE, thereby
diverting it into the Tso Morari.
There is yet another facet of the
geomorphological history of the Phirse Phu, The
divide between the Sumkhel and Phirse streams‘
three kilometre east of Telecon Pass, is situated
on alluvial and fluvioglaeial terra indicating that
a stream had flown through this stretch as well.
The existence of wide valleys of the Surnkhel and
Phirse right upto the Telecon Pass suggests that
these together for-rned one continuous strain which
joined the Pare CHM. The reactivation of fault
located along the western margin of the Tso Kai
upto the Telecon Pass, possibly tilted the upthroivn
western block towards northwest thereby truncat-
ing this river and reversing the course of the
Siimkhel part of the stream (Bhargava, 1990). The
uplift of this block is also supported by the oc-
currence of coarser clastics in the upper catch-
ment of the Stirrikhel and their comparative pau-
city in the Phirse Fha Valley.
Various tectonic elements of t.he Spiti-Kinnaur
area are depicted in Fig.4.27 (in pouch).
4.7 SEE-SAW TECTONICS
The phenomenon of interchange in ll rela-
tive movement uf upthrown and dowiithrown bloclu
of the given fault in time has been described in
the geological literature as ‘Inversion Tectonics‘
(Williams et al, l9S9). In the Spiti Valley, such
inversions have repeatedly occurred along the MIPF,
SFC and KFC during the geological history of the
insist. Such changs in relative direction of movement
of blocks on either side of the fault with SFC as
a typical eitample are recounted below :
l. The SFC restricted the post-Eocambrian ha-
sin to the SW. The NE block thus formed the
upthrown side.
2. A deeper facies of the Tournaisiiin Lipak For-
mation occurs NE of the SFC over the
Eocambriari. The NE block. therefore. formed
the downthrown block.
3. The Visean to Norisn basin was restricted to
the SW block. The NE block formed the
iipthrown side to delimit this basin.
4.(a) Rhaetic-Cretaceous rocks occur NE of this
fault; (b) the Carboniferous rocks are more
metamorphosed showing greater depth ol‘
burial and (c) rocks show set-riiductile recum-
bent folds. The NE bloek, thus, once again.
became the downthrown side and remains so
till this day.
Similar switching of direction of relative move-
ment along MPFC and KFC are also decipherallle
The periods when such inversion and reversion <=-In
be deduced are presented in table 4.1, It is sug-
gested that the tectonic cycle, which involves re-
peated change in relative directions of movement
along 3 fault in time, may be termed as ‘See-Saw or

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur. Himachal Himalaya
5;
\§__f§
5;‘
<__,r‘-‘f ‘V N5Qw SSOW m~:~»@y\ x 0 /7 / Fl ‘ w lownrda NE of Kenlung (U||lh Nuia) showing fulding in Alum:-Kinm Formations. Fnlding is co m Alaror F01 at ion $, N4OE S4OW \ ?/ /7 II; /A: Y\\ I 4″ 44%-9.! Q .‘ T u|¢_) and aql lam 0| qmms quvmox pimuu \uu.u|s ill“ n:u|1v3 u un Iluuqanuqap nqd asnqd pun (mag x u.n| gz) mnq uvdu-||nd umow OS] (|s;.\\) paflpa |\|fl||u|g ‘[5; “flu ||8ur1 aqua mwamnmup ||nu.| ||ld§ :1||_;o apns mmquln aq| iuo|u (s) |a|d.|la5 ‘1; 1!“ aflpuq pgu am “opq |s|\l ‘n|IN nlpmg aql Buup paq |wu\u Ju:|ou|0H p:||!]_ ‘|[ 1|; iau|||w|x(n unuqlnnnd :l.|| pua (pmllupm |qm|; umnizap ;mu)5nJI| .£.|wun|||n() uaamloq “nu; ‘0; ‘8“ apn M0|l|]\|,\\0p >q| flunuuoj :|oo|q unqmus
qpm ‘gL(,| _|o a‘1B||b\||1u: .uunuv[ [“51 fluunp >|unI)| pun uplnng uaamaq P801 Huup: p>do|a/up qlnuq dais _|u sums
-51 “flu qnlap 1n \|:||wU 0| /inuapuay w umqs pun do] ll ndaays 5| 1| ‘apns \\lI|l{]U\\O[\ spnnxuy sapwq |1nIj :p|§
mon|1d|\ nu “mu alssuu] nddn pm: apu ~\un||u.m-p uu \\|:\u1 u|r|\4|.§J§-:|luln:u|l1,_] unmaq ||m’|.] a\pI|u5 ’31 ‘I;_.|
cc r – arr flu w Iwlllvwlla
l
\
I’ll ‘l°/\ ‘Pll| nuns 10:5) -maw H I

Geology at’ Spiti-Kinnttllf. Hifllaclial Hinnlayl “5
Table 4.t
Changing partern of blocks on either side of MPFC, SFC and KCF in time
FAULT J 7 S_._
MPFC rc RFC.
Period ]Bi.oci<l§WlNEl5“’ LNEI W_JE Present C1 U CI Rhaetic _ _ _ U U _Visean C! C Toumaisian _ _ _ U UCUCIU U C. U Eocambrian I _, _ _ %.i..__ CIUCZU U 4+ CUC! UCUC C.‘ CI D = Downtlirow U = Upthrow 4.3 CONSTRAINTS IN THE DATING OF THE S’1‘RUC1’U’RAL ELEMENTS As indicated earlier, the Tertiary defomtation has largely obliterated the older structures. The evidences for the pre-Tertiary tectonic events are, thus, far and few and there exist certain ambiguities in the interpretations drawn in the present work. These ambiguities are listed below. l. In some sections of Lahaul and Spiti an apparent gradation in metamorphic grade and tec- tonic style is reported from the rocks Of the Vaikrita Group to the Batal Formation. However, as dis- cussed earlier, in one section of Kinnaur (Bassi, 1988s)‘ definite breaks in metamorphic and tectonic episodes between the rocks of the Vailrrita Group and the Halal F0l’l’I13lt0l’t were established. 2 Though no unquestionable Pr.F1 folds seem to be present in the Eocambrian – Palaeozoic – Mesozoic roclis, the rocks of the B’atal Formation in a few sections and those of the lliunzam La- Formiition in the Lankapanug section show folds which are comparable in style to Pr F2 folds. Due to paucity of such folds, the aforementioned rota» tionship cannot be unequivocally ascertained. If the ‘Pr F1‘ folds are same as those of the Kunzam Ln Formation in the Lankapanug section, then the age of the M1 t”l’tElill”IID1’|)lt1$l‘l”t associated with these folds shall also be late-middle Cambrian (pre-Thango). coinciding with the age of the early Palaeozoic granitoids. Such an interpretation may also account for the reported gradual change in the tectonic style and the grade of metamorphism from the Vaikrita Group to the Halal Formation in certain sections of Lahaul. 1 Cretaceous age to the folds exposed be- tween Khab and Yangthang has been assigned due to (i) 108 i l7 Rb – Sr age of the Nako granite (Kwatra er al, 1987), which cuts through these folds and (ii) parallelism of these folds with overturned! recumbent folds of the Chikkim synclirte. There are two distinct granitoid varieties in the Khab-Yangthaiig sector; both these granitoids cut the recumbent folds in the aforementioned sec- tor. The granite varieties are : (i) biotile-rich foli» atod granite with yellowish stains and (ii) Ieucocratic tourmaline-bearing granite. The I08 1 l7 age (Kwatra er rt-I. I987) is ofthe leucocratic granite The biotite gtanrte. texturally, is comparable to the Ralccham Granite which is -I95 Ma old (Sharma. I981) Should the granite in Klttib-Yangthang section also yield a similar Rb-Sr date. the folds referred as MF| in this section shall be cortelatable with Pr F2 folds (Proterozoic or middli:-late Cambrian). 5. BASIN ANALYSIS The following aspects of the basin analysis, Vil. (l) Focies and palaeoenvironment of sedimentation, (2) Basin morphology, (3) Palaeocurrent directions, (4) Location of palace- shoreline. (5) Provenance and (6) Evolution of basin in space and time are discussed in this chapter. As stated earlier, very few sections are accessible in this mountainous terrain where detailed studies could be made. The conclusions derived thus are broad based. The palaeocurrent directions of each formation are meagre and, due to absence of marker beds within these formations, represent data from diflerent stratigraphic levels. The palaeocurrent information contained here, therefore, is of limited use. 5.1 FACIES AND ENVIRONIVIENT OF SEDIMENTATION A preliminary interpretation of environment ol sedimentation for the Tethyan sequence of Kinnaur has been made by Bhargava er al, (1984) and that of Spiti by Narain (1975), Sriltantia (I981) and Fuchs (1982). A more detailed account for the Spiti part is provided by Bhargavti (1987), Bhargava cl al, (1987, l99lb), Bagali (I990) and Bagati et al, (1991). These interpretations, especially of the Palaeozoic sequence, in the light of additional data collected, have been partially modifiedjn the present work. In the present study the pre-Halal successions, which comprise metamorphic sequence, have been omitted. 5.1.1 Ihimanta Group 5.I.LA Bola! Formation The Halal Formation represents moderately to poorly sorted hetcrolithic tacies varying from mud (Hc) to sand, arranged in numerous small fining – upward cycles. The thickness of cycles increases towards the stratigraphic top and in each succeeding qcle there is an increase in grain size. The lower part has an overall higher percentage ofargillaceous and carbonaceous matter as compared to the upper part. ‘l’he characteristic betkling features are lenticular bedding, mud drapes in between sandy layers and rhythmite showing subparallel laminations and low angle truncation surfaces. Basic lava llows are sporadically found in the basal pan and matrix-rich conglomerates in basal and middle parts. The above lithological assemblage and bedding futures suggest a broad peritidal setting mainly in subtirlal lower shore tlice zone and partly in the intertidal zone environments. The t’tning—upward cycles possibly indicate subtle changes in coastline reflecting change in relative depth. These changes in earlier history of the Batal Formation were in deeper part of subtidal areas and were also quite frequent resulting in thin cycles. Towards the upper part, as indicated by predominance of sand and increased thickness of cycles, there was an overall shallowing. ln upper part, the change in depth within the depositional cycles seems to be mainly between deeper part of upper shore face to shallower part of the lower shore face in a tidal setting. The matrix- n’ch conglomerates represent tidal channel (Friedman and Sanders, I978) or the coarser material flushed from coastal part due to shifiing strand lines. The hurricanes possibly produced the graded rhythmitcs. The basin in earlier part had poor circulation thus preserving the carbonaceous material. During the sedimentation ot‘ the upper part of the Batal Fomtation, the area of sedimentation became shallower. In the Batal Formation, a few ripple marks present in its upper most part in the Batnl-Kttnzam La and Dcbsa sections indicate palaeocurrcnt directions varying from SW to NE. through NW quadrant. In all, ten palaeocurrenl readings were recorded. 5.l.1.B Kunztlm La Formation ln better developed sections this formation shows five units. The lowest unit, heterolithic mud mixed (He) facies is poorly to moderately sorted siltstone, shale with subordinate medium grained sandston and sandy rhythmites (Fig.5. l) showing parallel bedding. The typical bedding features are wavy ripple (Fig.5t2) I114 1=I1li¢”]1″ beddings, low angle truncations (Fi3.5r3), lililllli marks (Fig.5.4), channel fills of sands (Fig.5.5) and syndepositional slumps. Rippled sand layers show grading. No apparent cyclicity is noticed and various units occur randomly, ollen separated by low angle discordance surfaces. The sequence is characterised by the Crtizlnna facies of trace fossils. There is no perceptible change In environment oi‘ deposition along the Blltll-Kllllllflt La contact. The trace fossil assemblage of Crlrlrw facies, ripple, wavy and lenticular beddings suggest deposition mainly in subtidal environment. Absence of Cruzlna and presence of Dipllcirnites (Bliatslvl el al, i982) indicate, in general. low enerlll Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, Hirnachal Himalaya I1” conditions. though presence of local bottom currents are indicated by parallel alignment of Rusophycus (Bhargava and Srikantia, i985) (Fig 5.6). Bar and channel conditions are also indicated by low angle dipping laminated sand rippled layers and lenticular units, which are thicker at the point of pinch out, Influence of mild hurricane/storm is reflected by graded rhythinites. The next higher unit is also represented by mud-mixed heterolithic facies (1-lc) but shows graded rhythmites, sand packages with mud drapes, low angle tnincation (Fig.S.7), local flute casts (Fig.5.8) and small scale ripples. No trace fossils were re- corded though bioturbations are present. Numerous rhythmic units show sole markings, low angle lami- nation and current-ripple lamination capped by rip- ple bedding. Moderate sorting in sandy layers, how- ever, indicates intermediate energy level. The depo- sition oould be in lower to intermediate pan of subiidal zone. The local conglomerate in the Pin Valley also belongs to this facies, which is broadly comparable to suhlittoral sheet sandstone of Reading (1982). representing a transition intermediate storm deposit of high and low energy shell of fluctuating wave intensity. The third unit is sand dominated hcterolithic facics (Ha) represented by matrix deficient cross- bedded sandstone showing ripple and lcnticular bedding. This unit shows evidences of high energy in the area of deposition producing matrix-deficient and cross-bedded Sandstone, indicating a shallowing toward middle to upper shore faces. lt is succeeded by another heterolithic facies represented by algal dolomite. silty shale, shaly siltsone and tine sandstone. The bedding features in this unit are algal mat and columns. low-angled cross-bedding in lenticular beds showing thicker ripple unit near pinching and less than one oentimetre ripple layers with mud drapes, wavy bedding, herringbone cross-bedding (Fig.5.9) and miidcracks. This unit encloses trilobite, brachiopod and Hyalilfies fossils. The carbonate beds in this facies have an erosional (cg, Bara Lacha Lo section) as well as griidational (e.g., Kunzarn La section) contact with the underlying sediments and a sharp contact with the overlying sandstone. The lithologic and fossil assemblages indicate shallowing and local sub-aerial exposure followed by erosion and deepening to cut of! clastic input and deposition of carbonate over eroded edges. Further shallowing led to restoration of sandy sedimentation. Recurrence of such cycles gave rise to several levels of carbonate deposition. Presence of algal mat and Epiphyron built columns (Fig.3.9) and trilobite remains suggests deposition in restricted platform to low energy, possibly shallow lagoonal environment. Shallowing lcd to tidal flat conditions when herringbone cross-bedded and mudcracked sandy and silty beds were deposited. The uppennost unit shows facics variation from pink- maroon silty shale (Fig 5.l0), fine siltstonc and sandstone showing cross-bedding and ripple lamination in the Kunzam La section to greenish- pink, white, cross-bedded quartzarenite, shale and siltstone showing mudcracks and ripple marks in the Parahio section. The lithologic assemblage and bedding features indicate further shallowing and consequent increase in energy condition. Frequent subaerial exposures formed mudcracks and oxidising conditions imparted a maroon oolour to the sediments. The overall pattem of the Haimanta Group (Batal and Kunzam La Formations) indicates a gradual shallowing from suhtidal to tidal and possibly su- pra-tidal environments along with gradual aeration of basin. Appearance of benthonic communities in early Cambrian coinciding with basal par1 of the Kurizarn La Formation led to bioturbatioris which, in the beginning, mainly occur as horizontal burrows (Fig.5.ll). Somewhat complex burrows appear irt upper part ofthe Kunzam La Fonnation (Fig.5.t2). In a.ll, about thirty palaeocurrent readings were recorded in the Kunzam La. Pin and Parahio soc- tions. the vector mean direction being N’N’E. 5.1.1. Srinugha Group S.t.1.A Thango Formation The thickness of the Kunzam La Fonnation in general decreases from NW to SE and in the same direction older and still older sequences are preserved. The Thango Formation in the Kunzam La-Parahio section. thus, rests over the youngest unit of the Kunzam Ln Formation and over the oldest in the Gyamtlring and other Kinnaur sections. This disposition of the Tliiingo Formation over diflerent stratigraphic units of the Kitrtzani La Formation oould be due to an overlap or to erosion of the Kunzant La Formation in pre-Thango period. The latter interpretation is favoured as the clasts in the conglomerate of the Thango Formation have a distinct Kunzam La Formation atfinity. The main lithologic “3 Mom. Gcol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24 r—- ._. L _.?_E,_ ~ _tv_ it‘ , 0 r:\.-_*-é.~ “.’». . ‘; .‘.’ ‘1 ‘£k:”‘ ‘~-‘~ -~»» 1~.~.~. V -; _ _c W.-.-:\ » ~ ‘ .; Q -,”M7’\€’ r- \ ‘ ‘ _..‘ .J\\. v ” 41.» .».-‘9 V. -~ 4-~. »’ -:_ , ~nH~ J4: _ -k – . ._- v ~ -\ %‘A’.”: i __ . _ _ “”/ _- _’.r » ‘ .. .\ ‘ § F , ‘r .=>z~ ‘
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Ahgncd Rusophycus, Kunzam Ln Formnnon Loc Four km Nl0″W of Kunznm Ln Geology nt’ Spiii-Kiniiaur, Flimiichnl Himalaya II9 agsgmblflgefi in the fully developed Thango Formation are (a) both matrix-rich and matrix-poor conglomerate showing moderately sorted, fairly well rounded clasts with subordinate coarse grained tabular cross-bedded sandstone, (b) coarse medium and fine grained sandstone showing tabular, festoon_ herringbone cross-beddirigs (Fig.5.l3) and tidal bundle in the upper and ripple cross-bedding in basal pan; (c) cross-bedded medium to fine grained, bioturbated, ripple bedded sandstone-shale with load casts, Planaiiies, Raunullia, Phycodes etc. and (d) cross-bedded sandstone with oscillation and also current ripple marks at places with bifurcnting (Fig. 2 16) and flat topped crests. mudcracks (F|g.5.l4) and current crescents (Fig 5. l5). In the conglomerate tacics_ the basal most con- glomerate contains clasts of the Kunzam La affin- ity and the ones higher, in addition, enclose those ofihc Thango attinity also indicating uplift in prov- enance during the deposition This movement gave a gentle tilt to the Kunzam Ln beds resulting in loc.il angular discordance with the overlying Thango Formation The conglomerate showing a decrease in size of elasts towards stratigraphic top seems to be of fluvial origin, which were brought by torren- tial mountainous rivers. These could also be rem- nants of fans, largely reworked during marine trans- gression The cross-bedded sandstone facies (Sa) is the most predominant and indicates effect of tidal cur- rents with minor influence of wave action in a shal- low tidal sea. The sequence showing low angle cross- bedding (Ftg.5.l6), ripple bedding and mud draped ripple layers (Fig.5.l7) indicate wave activity by migrating bars with minor tidal influence. The bi- Furcnting linguoid tvavc ripples, flat crested ripples, current crescent and mudcracks reflect intratidal to possibly supratidal palacocnvironrnent. The shale-sandstone facies (Ha) with trace fossils in upper part indicates reduced energy. pus- sibly in intertidal zone. Thicker shale components perhaps represent inter to subtidal palacoenvironment The Visher‘s curves for Thango sediments (Bhargava er a/, I99 lb) suggest environments vary- ing from fluvial component reworked on beach, tidal channel. wave zone, beach and possibly mixed en- vironment in one case. To summarise, the sedimentation of the Thango Fonnation commenced with fluvial material reworked on beach, and passed through essentially a tidal zone with storm episodes where wave action was prominent. During the later part, locally short lived supra-tidal/intertidal conditions were attained. To- wards the terminal phase. by and large, there was decrease in energy level, possibly due to relative deepening. The entire sedimentation took place under oxidising conditions. In the Thango Formation the palaeocurrcnt directions were determined by cross-beds. The di- rections are highly variable. The average mean di- rection is predominantly towards NE. ln total 25 palaeocurrent directions were recorded from the Takche, Sang-uba and Thango sections. 5.1.2.3 Tnhclie Formation This formation shows two distinct composite facies. In western part of the basin, i’.e. from Takche upto Rotting section, it has a considerable siliciclastic input, whereas, in the eastern part i.e. Pin, Parahio and Leo in Spiti basin and entire Kinnaur, the carbonate component is dominant. The change from arenaceous to calcareous is apparent between the Ratang and Parahio Valleys. In either case a number of cycles are recognisable in the Takche Formation. In the clastic dominated sequences, the cycles in basal and middle parts ofthe formation commence from bioturhated fine grained sediments or with fossiliferous beds. This passes into alternation of silty and fine to medium grained calcareous clastics, both showing parallel and low angle cross-beds. lt ends up in fine-medium grained sandstone showing hummocky cross-stratification and low-angle discordance Such cycles vary in number from two to eight. Some of these cycles are thick while others have limited thicknesses. Within some of the cycles occur minicycles cg. biuiurbated units and fossililerous units as smaller interbedded units or hummocky cross-bedded unit interbedded with fine bioturbated units. The upper carbonate (mostly dolomite) part is generally rich in corals and brachiopods. ln this part, the cycles commence with siltstone-cora1/brachiopodlcrinoidal carbonate and/or bloitirbated beds interbedded with fossiliferous beds ending in cross-bedded or rippled sediments. These cycles broadly represent shoaling cycles, beginning in lower energy environment (middle-lower shore face 7)and ll’0 Mam. Gcol. Surv. Ind. 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Towards the upper parts, the beds containing Favosites. Halyrites and rugose corals possibly indicate deposition in near shore undathern (Facies Bell 7 of Wilson, l975) or along subtidal-intertidal interface, where siliciclastic material was also deposited. In the carbonate dominated sequences of the Pin, Parahio, Gyamthing and Tidong Valleys, the cycles commence either with a sequence of bioturbated fine grained clastics or limestone-marls with shale partings passing through organic buildups and ending in cross-bedded clastics showing cuspate ripple marks. The cycles in the microfacies are not very clear, yet broad cycles commencing with packstonei‘ mudstonef wackestone and end in breocia (rudstone) at top. can be identified- Small ooral, stromatoporoid, algal and bryozoal build-ups occur in the Takche Formation of the Pamhio. Pin, Lipak and Tidong Valleys. The wackestone in- dicates quiet, protected, open to restricted platform (Facies Belts 7 and 8 of Wilson, 1975) to partly foreslope (Facies Belt 4) palaeo-environment. ln the former, well segregated sandy and carbonate beds were deposited, whereas in the latter environment, whole fossil wackestone showing syndepositional deformation was laid. Both seem to represent low energy environment. The rudstone normally is re- garded as a foreslopc facies (Wilson, 1975). The most predominant corals found in the Talrche Formation are Holysites and Favorites. The former indicates high energy protected environment (Wilson, I975) while the latter, especially basket- shaped (Fig.3.l4) growth common in the Tidong Valley, suggests a basin with feeble current (Wilson, I975). The bryozoa, which forms bafllcstone, indicates low energy or protected high energy environments similar to that of Hafysites. The high energy envirorunents are indicated by laminar and low domal stromatoporoid (Kershaw and Riding, 1978). The occurrence of Vermiporella in rudstone facies suggests that it could thrive in high energy environment and also possibly form wave resistant structures (Bhargava and Bassi, 1986) Its colonies, however, within the Hctly.ri’te.r chains are indicative of its preference to protected environment. The reef facies is symbolised by spherical and cncrusting forms of Girvnnetla (Wray, I977; Tsien and Dricot, 1977). The typical organic reefs are only selectively developed in the Spiti-Kinnaur area. The build-ups, l”“’i”t! Cnough siliciclastic material. seem to have developed near shore and have been compared with fringing type (Bhargava and Bassi, i986). Only in the Manchap Thoch area, possibly back reef, partly organic reef and foreslope facies are developed. Overall, the organic build up and microfacics indicate protected low energy environment with local introduction of high energy. Each cycle mentioned above represents prograding event of varying magnitude. ln the Talrche Formation, only the cross-bed- ding in the Talrche and Parahio sections were _uti- lised to determine the pataeocurrent directions. These indicate currents to vary between NW to NE quad- rants, the latter being more prominent. Southeast- erly pataeocurrent directions in the Takche Forma- tion were noticed in the Pin Valley. ln all about 20 readings were taken. 5.1.3 Kanawar Group S.1.3.A Muth Formation The clean sand in the Muth Fonnation, abruptly appearing just above the Takche Formation, indi- cates a probable sedimentologic break whose dura- tion is diflicult to determine. The Takche-Muth contact in the Taltche and Gechang sections is un- dulatory. However. as stated earlier, it is diflicult to conclude if these undulations represent erosional surfaces. The Muth Formation is essentially represented by clean sandstone facies (S) which mainly shows low angle truncation surfaces (Sit) with subordinate low angle cross-bedding (Fig.5. l8), nltemating with low angle cross-bedded units with sub-ordinate sub- parallel low angle truncations (Fig.5,l9). Locally minor trough and Testoon cross-bedding, ripple bedding and channel fills are present. Herringbone cross-bedding, mudcraclts and interference ripple marks are sporadic. Only in some isolated sections thin dolomitic beds (i.e. Pin section) and thin peb- ble beds are developed. The sandstone subfacies characterised by aforementioned bedding features are repeated in quick qcles. In between some of the cycles occur erosional surfaces. The Muth For- mation, bcsides its lithology and bedding features, is characterised by total absence of fossils and even bioturbation. Only a few orthid impressions (Bassi, 1988b) and trace fossils referable to Planoliles, Polceophycus Iubuluris, Aremcoliler and arthropod tracks are known from this formation. The sediments of the Muth Formation, during I22 Mem. Geol. Sun‘. Ind. Vol. 124 -5.20 l . .¢> ., > ’ 4
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Geology of Spiti-Kinnaun HiIl\l¢|Ifl| Himlllyl ’23
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Fig. 5.21. V|sher‘a curves for the Muth’Fonnanon. Men-
urelnentr from sieving of friable sandstone,
a preliminary study in Kinnaur. were interpreted to
be ofinterttdal palaeoenvironment (Bhargava er 0!,
I98-ta). Since the sandstones are largly very clean.
this interpretation was revised and the beach to
wave zone environment was favoured (Bhargava 2!
al, l99lb), In this interpretation, sporadic herring-
bone cross-bedding, mudcracks, interference ripple
marks, frosted quartz grains and CM (Passega, 1964)
and Visher‘s curves (Vlsher, l969) were taken into
consideration.
The fine-grained sand with planar, low angle
bedding and some trough cross-lamination has been
observed in the transgressive upper shore face to
beach environment of Galveston Island, Texas (Davis
at al, I971). In this environment, cross-bedding of
ripple origin, as reported from Gulf of Gaeta, Italy
(Reineck and Stngh. l97l, 1973). can also develop.
The Muth sedimentation, however, pertains to high
energy environment with fast rate of reworking to
account for lack of trace fossils and bioturbation.
Some shallow channels also existed to produce
channel fills and parallel laminated sands, low an-
gle cross-bedding and ripple laminations. Subaeriall
subaqueous exposure in this setting of the sediments
produced mudcracks and also erosional surfaces.
The frosted quartz grains could be wind blown from
inland basins, but no desertic or any other inland
environment (Das Gupta, I971) is visualised.
The Vishcr’s curves were drawn (‘Fig.5.2l) for
sequences showing ta) low angle festoon cross-beds,
(b) low angle cross beds, (c) sub-parallel lamina-
tions_ (d) cross-bedded unit above erosional sur-
face, (e) channel filling and (D ferruginous-cal|:ar-
eous sandstone showing sub-parallel to interbedded
low angle cross-lamination. Each curve shows two
saltation populations.
The palaeocurrerts recorded in the Muth For-
mation are polymodal. In the Pin Valley, the mean
direction is towards SE, whereas, in the rest of the
basin it is mainly towards NW. In total about 30
readings were taken.
5.1.3.13 Lipok Formation
The Lipak Formation, in most part of its
sequence. represents heterogeneous facies comprising
shale, sandstone, calcareous sandstone, limestone
and dolomite. in certain parts, specially the middle,
exclusive biohermal limestone facies and in upper
part gypsum facies occur. The bedding features
include ripple bedding, parallel la.mi.nations. low angle

l24 Merit. Genl. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
cmss-bedding, local discordance surfaces witlt small
channels, algal lamination: and hard ground. The
dominant fossils are brachiopod, coral and crinoid.
The above mentioned facies are orderly arranged to
form several cycles varying from 2 to I2 in number
in different sections. These qtcles of heterogeneous
facies in the Takche section begin with (ti) niicritel
biorurbated sandy micrite-siltstone ending up in cross-
bedded quartzarenite, (b) micrite-shell hash-coral
build- up with local shale-argillaceous limestone,
ts) hardground, shale-micrite-silty carbonate. In
Pinglung, Mud and Lipalt sections, the cycles
commence with carbonate-carbonatu-shale-siltstone
stndstone. In upper ntiddle part, synaeresis mudcracks
are recorded. These cycles reflect several shoaling
events within the Lipa.k Formation.
The change from clean sands of the Muth For-
mation to heterogeneous carbonate dominated se-
quence of the Lipak Formation is regarded to indi-
cate a relative deepening of the basin, where much
of clastic supply was cut-off. This deepening may
he related to transgression of the Lipalr Sea in
Phtphuk, Shalltar-Sumdo and Phirse Phil sectors.
The cycltcity in heterogeneous facies indicates
changing from low to high energy environment (from
lcrrigenous free to lerrigenous dominated sediments)
in subttdal to intertidal sci-up. At the beginning of
each cycle, subtidal or even below wave base con-
ditions werc acquired. In the lattcr environment,
the hardground was formed which provided it suit-
able substrate for coral buildups.
In lhc carbonate dominated sequence, the
microfacies. in order of increasing abundance, are
boundstonc. gratnstone wackestone, mudstone and
packstone with cement varying from micritc to vuggy
conrsc sparttc Ifl open spaces. Clotted micrite and
cortoids. though occur, are rate. These features
indicate a setting varying from Facies Belt 5 of
Wilson (I975) re organic buildups to restricted
platform (Facics Belt ti) with possible foreslope
tFncies Bclt 4) environment. These constitute
s|t:tllo\\ing-up scquencr: on minor scale also, Sev-
crnl of thc cycles referred above arc incomplete!
truncatcd Eitrly’CCl‘I1CI\lRlIOI’I is characteristic ofthe
lzictcs Lack of littinnl diversity (especially coral)
and prcscncc of algal build-ups make the Lipak
palacocni-irorimcnt comparable to that of the In-
shorc Rocky Shore of Bahama (Bathrust, l‘)7I) of
soniewltzit modcratc energy regime. The gypsum tn
upper part of thc formation represents ultimate in
shallowing cycle which produced platfomt evaporite
facies (Faeier Bett 9 of Wilson, I975). One of the
present authors (UKB), however, is of the opinion
that since a typical evaporite cycle is not present,
as suggested by Mallet (I865) also, the gypsum
could be due to reaction between the limestone and
the sulphiuic acid produced from iron pyrite of the
overlying Po Formation.
The palaeocurrent directions in the Lipak For-
mation were measured only in the Losar section.
The cross-beds in the arenite and coquina beds of
this fomtation show currents towards NW and NE.
5.l.3.C Po Formation
The Po Formation apparently comprises alter-
nation of mud facies (Mb to Ma) and sandstone
facies (Sir). However, a close examination reveals a
gradual change from the fomter to the latter through
heterolithie facies (Hb, He and Ha) forming a cy-
cle. The lowermost unit, made up of dark grey tn
black shale with a few silty grains, is followed up
by ta) silty shale with fine silty layers, (b) silty
shale with fine sand layers, (c) siltstone with sand
layers, (d) siltslone with rippled fine sand layers at
places with herringbone cross-bedding-arid (e) cross-
bedtled sandstone with local herringbone cross-bed-
ding. The intensity of bioturbation, which is of Small
size and moderate in basal part, increases towards
top and is maitimum in unit c. ll again decreases in
unit d and is rare in unit e. The basal part doesitot
show sedimentary stnzctures. Ripple bedding ap-
pears in unit d and low angled cross-bedding in
unit e. The trace fossils (eg. resting traces of star-
fish) are mostly corifined to black shale part and
indicate low energy environment. In sandy tacies
Slwfithos is rather common. Each cycle represents
a progradation, possibly of low wave energy beach
face comparable to Gulf of Gaeta (Reineclr and Singh,
I973). The environment varied from mid-shelf to
upper shore face. The biorurbated shalelsiltstone with
thin laminated silty or sandy layers represents tran-
silion to lower shore face zones, whereas, the siltstone
with rippled sandstone layers indicates middle shore
lace and sandstone represents an upper shore face
zone. At places, it even acquired beach-tidal inlet
condition where herringbone cross-bedding was
formed. The grain size plot in Visher’s curve
(Bhargttva er nl, l99lb) indicates surf zone envi-
ronment for such sandstone. The titrttilgamated thiclter
sand beds showing internal erosional surface repre-
sent storm episodcs. Such cycles are repeated be-
tween five (in Losar area) to eight times (in Tabo-

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, Himachal Himalaya 125
Po area), each suwding cycle is shorter and coarser,
indicating rapid progradation and shallowing ofbasm
with increasing time.
The plant fossils in the basal part of the Po
Formation have often been regarded to represent
near land condition. ln the low energy sea,
however, the plant fragments could drift to
somewhat longer distance without much damage
to the leaf or stem.
ln the Po Formation, the palaeocurrent
directions, detennined by the cross-beds in the
arenaoeous units, are towards -north as well as south.
Only l0 palaeocurrent directions were studied in the
Losar and Po sections.
5.1.3.1) Ganntacltidont Formation
The sequence of the Ganmachidam Formation
is developed only in areas where the Po Formation
is developed. It is composed of heterogeneous facies
comprising siltstone, sandstone, grit and diamictites
fanning following coarser cycles: (a) siltstone with
a little sand and grit followed by cross-bedded line
sandstone with pebble beds, (b) pehhly ‘gritty
sandstone, followed by conglomerate. The bedding
features are planar to trough cross-bedding in
sandstone and low angled cross-bedding with ill-
preserved ripple bedding in the siltstone. No fossils,
except for a few lamellibranch impressions. could be
found. Bioturbation is rare to absent.
The Ganmachidam conglomerate has been
regarded a glacial deposit by several workers. None
of the glacial features, however, are present. The
grain size plot (Visher’s curves) of the sandstone
indicates a beach setting varying from delta/estuary.
low tide, wave zone to foreshore (Bhargava er al,
l99lb)- The cyclicity of finer-coarser lacies (No. of
cycles l-I) indicates a coarsening-up sequence from
upper shore face to beach and perhaps upto delta
in some case. The conglomerate possibly represents
deposits of mountainous coastal streams or tans
which ensued due to sharp rise of the provenance
Ira. These were reworked in a marine environment
lo constitute a unit of coarsening-up cycle.
The palaeocurrent directions recorded in the
Ganrnaehidam Formation are variable though ma-
iority of them fall in NE quadrant.-About 35 read-
ings were taken in Ganmaehidam, Lingti, and Po
sections.
5.1.4 KULING GROUP
5.1.4.A Gecfsang Formation
This formation commences either with a clast
supported conglomerate (eg Parahio section) or shell
rich zone (e.g. Ganmachidam), both occurring as
lags. The bulk of the Gechang Formation is com-
posed of weakly bioturbaled cross-bedded, fine!
medium to coarse and even gritty sandstone facies
(Sa). Rarely micaceous sandstone (e.g. Ghunsarang
section) or shale (e.g. section behind Po Rest House)
is present. The fossils are mainly lamellibranchs
and brachiopods (Fig.5.20). Ichnofossils Skolirhor,
Lnevicyclus and Zaoplrycos have been recorded.
The lithounits are arranged in order of (a) shelly
coarselmedium grained sandstone-gritty sandstone,
(b) sandstone with pebble lag -cross-bedded sand-
stone, (e) sandstone with shelI-lag- cross-bedded
sandstone. These indicate shallowing-up cycles. A
maximum of five generalised cycles have been iden-
tified at Ghunsarang Pass. in most of the sections,
however, only one or two cycles are present. The
pebble/shell lag is interpreted to represent commence-
ment of transgressive cycle. when the finer clasties
were winnowod and pebhleslsltells were concentrated
as lag. The cycle ended with deposition of cross-
bedded sandstone. Cycles occurring in mid section
of the Gechang Formation commence with shale!
micaceous sandstone of subtidal zone and end up
in sandstone of foreshore to upper shore face en-
vironment. Presence of mud cracks and ferruginous
sandstone suggests subaerial exposures.
Eurydesmo, occurring in the basal part, sug-
gests shallow and high energy marine conditions
(cf. Dickins, 1957). The top ofthe Gechang Forma-
tion in several sections is profusely bioturbated and
may indicate an omission surface. The absence of
Kungurian lo Midian, and also possibly of the
Artinskian fossils, is regarded to signify a break in
deposition at the end of the Gechang sedimentation
covering Kungurian-M.idian.
The Gechang Formation shows vector mean
of palaeocurrent directions in NW quadrant. 40
readings were collected in Losar, Pin, Parahio and
Lingti sections.
5.l.4.B Gungri Formation
The Gungri Formation over the Gechang rep-
resents a transgression of Djulfisn age. This forma-
tlon represents a black/dark grey mud faeies (Mb)
with zones having silt/sand andlor shell rich layers

I26 Mem. Gaol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
_ ‘Figs. 5.28
\‘ J7: ‘F ~;;>.2-;, “»*T‘~i_– ‘$9,’; _ ___,_”5! -* _:. __<_ 1. ___5@….,>; – _,_._-_- -1″ _ \ ‘_ _vv-_ .-3.;-‘-‘_<_
\.~”.**-< ‘ >»-ad ~- ; -‘:”.”..”;;=>;‘
-‘:1, I qr ‘i ‘ ‘
., “15”_; _..I; ‘Q . _‘
-‘ Ln; *E’- . 14.: 1
L pi’ _.;-. ‘ ,-A1?
2
.‘-3‘ _r’ ‘ _‘ – ‘ ~__ H” 31,-‘
‘7 . yv Y =’*
*¢”~_ ‘ 7’. ~ V . TAX . ‘ , ~ -. J -_- .
_ vs , – “\_ _-.‘- -?’\ ~?’ “~ – ->
.,.; 3 x v,‘ ‘
>’->”t’**s **‘*§2 i
I
Ia‘,

.’ 1
Q v
,»”

2 _3
‘V Y : .

:,~@’.\‘=3″
K. ‘
.-.1 _’
\.‘ I “_/J I
22*/a
v -, j 4.’ “UK N
-‘ A ’-” “’~ .1
, -~ _ ‘r~’ ; , ‘.‘ -,_:
=
Ixplnnnlon of Ilgx. 5.22-5.28
Ilg, 22. Prolormpara wilh largo med cnnmd Oungri Formanon Loc Tumlum Thlngl. Ilp. 23-24. Clllpfll ripple
mnrkl m lhc dolomite of the Mambo! A (Slnglung Fovmlnon) Loc Oyundi Nala Il|, 2!. Plrnlkl and wlvy bedding
in dduluik. Pun Member (Kioln Fomnlion) l-ac‘ Kiomo Hp. 26-27. Plofuuzly burrowed ecphllopod rnpruenlillg
hard ‘land in \he Spili Fonnllion. lac Slkii Hg. 28. Omd: in’Ih: undnon: weaning an the hull pan of the Oiumal
Formllion Loc Tnngpn Dok (Bur scale in lcm for Fig.12 Ind 2mm for I-15.28 ).

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, Himachal Himalaya I27
(Ma). Broadly the shale in basal part is silty, to-
wards middle-upper part it is fine grained Along
the transition from silty shale to shale in several
sections occttrs Zouphycos (Bhargava el 0!. l935b)-
Within shale are found millimetre line silty layers
and cherty calcareous and phosphatic nodulss lo
certain sections also exist stltstone and medium to
fine grained sandstone (e. g. Ghunsarang Nd-TH). lfl
basal part occurs Produclus. whereas Cyclolvblls.
Xenorpis, bryozoa and crinoid (Fig.5.22) are found
in upper part of the sequence.
The stratigraphic arrangement ofditferent beds
reflects cyclicity of sedimentation. These cycles are
mainly of three types : (a) silty shale-shale
(Ganmachidant section), (ti) shale-shale with mm-
tine siltstone beds (Lalung section), (c) shale-shale
with silty lenses (Sumna section), (d) shale with
spiriferids~s]t/ale with Lamnimargus-shale with nodule
and brachi0p0d- siltstone sandstone (Chuktyanjan
TIrach_ Ghunsarang).
This formation reflects sedimentation mainly
on_shelf mud under restricted circulation. Fine shells
and silty bands within the sequence are regarded
to be storm layers. The cycles enumerated above
(two to five) represent shallowing-up events in a
narrow environmental setting. Relative deepening
of the basin is envisaged at the appearance of
Zonphycns (Fig. 1.67).
5.1.5 Lilnng Group
5.1.5.A Mikin Formation
The Mikin Formation comprises a carbonate
sequence with local shale partings. These units are
arranged in an orderly manner to constitute cycles
commencing with pure to argillaceous lime mudstone.
and ending up in a carbonate sequence with shale
partings. The bedding features observed are nodu-
lar and wavy beddings and subaqueous slumps. The
formation is rich in cephalopods.
The microfacies of the Mikin Formation are
dominantly represented by different varieties of thin-
shelled wacke/pacltstone in a homogeneous micritic
matrix. The clasts arc poorly to moderately sorted.
The other microfactes is represented by lime
rnudstone.
These microfacies are considered characteris-
tic of subtidal to bathyal facies (Wilson, I975; Flugel,
1931). Peloids. radiolaria (though rare), nodularbed-
ding and nodular conglomerate (Wilson, 1975) and
subaqueous slumps (Wilson. I975; Cook and Taylor.
I977) support a hemipelagic environment olsedirnen-
tation. Intact valves in several cases may indicate
general absence of current, though irregular fabric
recorded in filamentous litnestone possibly points to
the presence of occasional bottom currents.
The cyclic order of superposition of pure lime
at bottom and time-shale towards top of a cycle
may be regarded to indicate shallowing~up sequence
Showing conditions of deposition varying from pure
carbonate to minor influx of fine terrigenous ma-
terial. lt may also indicate depositional environment
shitting from bathyal to subtidal and again reverting
to bathyal; alternatively it may be due to increase
and decrease of mud supply brought about by
geomorphic changes in the provenance area. The
second alternative is preferable.
5.1.5.3 Kago Formation
Overall, it constitutes a heterogeneous faeies
comprising alternation of shale and limestone in
which shale predominates. The thickness of shale
horizon in basal part is two metres. It increases to
25m in middle-upper pan and again decreases to
five metres in the upper part. The shale-carbonate
alternation is represented by six cycles. The sequence
is rich in cephalopods and Daonella.
The carbonate microfacies are (a) filamentous
packfwackestone, (b) packstone with organic
dropstones and several levels of disconformities and
(c) mudstone. These microfacies, like those of the
Mikin Formation, indicate bathyal to subtidal con-
ditions. Abundance of pelagic bivalve Dnonella
suggests deeper marine environment of sedimenta-
tion. The shale-carbonate mega-cycle indicates fluc-
tuation in the supply of terrigenous material reflecting
geomorphic/ellnnttc changes in the provenance.
Possibly, there were disruptions in sedimentation,
within the bathyil environment, causing local
disconformities, hard ground fonnation and filling
of uneven surface by the next micro-cycle of sedi-
mentation. Shallowing, perhaps due to change in
the sea level, reverted sedimentation of shale. In
the initial phase of deposition of the Kaga Forma-
tion, the period of shale sedimentation was brief, it
became prolonged in middle-upper part and again
reverted to shorter duration in upper part. The
cephalopods flourished in bathyal basin conditions,
The carcass of cephalcpod occurring as “organic
dropstones” (Fig. 2.71) indicates lack of current and
deposition on a quiet shelf (Bhargava, i987).

128 Mem. Geol. Siirv. Ind. Vol. I14
S.l.$.C Clmnrule Formation
lt comprises eveiiluriifoi-in thin-buzlded carbmiate
beds (Fig 2.72) with local and rhythmic taluuecais shale
and marl buts. Nodtilar and wavy beddirtgs and large
stibaqiiooiis slumps characterise the carbonates of this
formation. The mega-hcteiolithic lithofztcies show cyclic
pattems (total Cycles five) commencing wil.lt (a) fine
grained dnloniite to argillaceous dolomite, (b) fine
grained dolomite to shale and (c) cherry lirnmtonel
dolomite to non-cherty or argillawus dolomite
rcpresenliiig coarsening-uplshmling-up cyclm.
Daonelia and Hulobiu are the most dominant fossil
remains. The micrcfacies include (a) mudstone, (b)
fihrneiitous lamellibntnch wackmtonel packslone, (c)
thin shelled waclrestone with calcisphere and radiolaria
and (ti) rzilciuscd radiolarian vmckestond pocltstorie.
Bioturbation is rare.
The radiolarians (fairly abundant in a part of
the sequence) and calcispheres (Fig.3.36-37) in the
carbonate rocks of this formation indicate an envi-
ronment transitional between open sea shelf and
basin margin (Facies Belt 3 of Wilson-Deep shelf
margin=clinothem). Such an environment is charac-
terised by lack of bictnrbation and preponderance
of subaqueous slides (Cook and Mullins, 1983). The
thin shelled pelagic and deep water Halabin and
Daonelln provide additional support to the above
interpretation.
Each cycle commencing from pure carbonate
and leading to nrgillnccous carbonate-shale possi-
bly indicates increase and decrease in supply of
mud to the basin Snmc of the cycles are incom-
plele.
S.l.5.D Sirriglurig Formation
S.t.5.D, Member A : ll comprises a cyclic sequence
ofdolomite/limestone showing cuspate ripple marks
(Ftg.5.23-24). locally argillaceous siltstoric and shale
with lenticutar bedding. Each complete cycle begins
with dolomite passing into siltstone/shale or carbon-
ate ending in an argillaceous carbonate. A few cycles
commence with shale in basal part and end with
siltstone in upper part. Twelve such cycles broadly
represent Shonling and/or coarsening up events.
The main microfacies are (a) bicclasticl
lithoclastir: wacke/paekstone wit.h clasts of bryozoa,
echirioid spinc, rnollusc, sponge, (b) mudstnne, (c)
thin shelled slylobrecciated paekstone, (d) sponge-
spiculc mudstone, (e) coral wackestone and (I)
pellctoidal grainstone. The mictufacies (ti), (c) and
(d) indicate a somewhat deeper environment, whereas,
the (e) and (f) miorofacies indicate shallower
conditions. There niicrofaeies indicate conditions
fluctuating from upper foreslope – foreslope (Facies
Belt 4 of \Vilro|:t,~ 1975) to basin margin (Facies Belt
3). The cycles beginning with siltstone and ending
with piire carbonate are suggestive of deepening-
up sequence, Le. a shifi from upper middle foreslope
to lower foreslope-basin margin setting. In the Lingtj
Vhlley, nine full and one incomplete such cycles are
decipherahle.
5.1.5.0, Member I : lt is made up of carbonate,
shale and siltstone alternation in the basal and mid-
dle pans and carbonate and sandstone in the upper
part in regular stratigraphic cycles. Each cycle com-
mences with carbonate and ends in shale-siltstone
or sandstone passing through argillaceous carbon-
ate. The shale-silty sandstone part, being around
llm thick in first three cycles, decreases to 9 metres
in 4th and 5th cycles and then to 2 metres (sand-
stone) in upper cycle. The thickness of carbonate
units also decreases upward only to increase abruptly
in the last incomplete cycle. In other wards. each
younging cyclelis thinner» and has elastic: coarser
than those of the preceding cycle. The bedding
features in the sandstone beds are tabular and her-
ringbone cross-beddings,
The carbonate microfacies are (ii) mudstonel
wackestorie, (la) latnellibranch wackestone and (c)
grainstone which suggest moderate to high energy
environment. The sedimentation mainly took place
in subtidal to inteflidal, varying from middle to upper
foreslope environments. The herringbone cross-
bedding indicates influence of tidal currents in the
terminal phase of its sedimentation.
The stratigraphic arrangement of sediments
indicates coarsening-up cycles. Six complete and
one incomplete cycles are present in the Lingti
section.
5.1.5.0, Member C : It comprises a sequence of
carbonate rocks, shale, siltstone and sandstone.
Sporadically shale encloses boulder and cobble size
fragments. In lower part. the cycles are of carbonate
rock and shale, while in the upper part, these are of
carbonate and sandstone (including siltstone). There
are seventeen such cycles. The sedimentary struc-
tures in the sequence are rippled bedding and low
any: crossbedding. Rliizucumllium occurs in shale.
whereas, Skalithar occurs in sandstone beds of the

Geology of Splti-Klnrlaur, Hirriachll Himalaya lZ9
upper pan of the sequence. The carbonate inicrofacies
are (at Iamellibranch grainstone, lb) lithoclaslic
qttartzose wackestone. (c) micritic to sparitic focks
and (d) hydrozoan bindslone,
The microfacies indicate low to moderate energy
conditions, Occasional high energy and near shore
conditions are indicated by grainstone and quartzose
w3ckg5|,°fl¢_ Rhizocoralhum and hydrozoan
bindstone suggest low to moderate energy basin.
The sedimentation is thus interpreted along fureslope
(Facies Belt 4) mostly in subtidal to intertidal setting,
The angular cobbles and boulders represent slided
material along the foreslope. The cyclicity of
sediments suggests about l7 coarsening-up cycles
representing shitting sedimentation from middle
foreslope to upper foreslope. possibly even in littoral
to circa~littoral zone.
S. l .5. E Hangrang Formation
This formation, mainly comprising dolomite
with subordinate shale and limestone, represents
reefoid build~ups. There seem to be organic cycles
within the Hangrang Formation. At the Hangrang
Pass, in section A, the cycle commences with oolitic.
ooidal dolomite, followed by dolomite with
stromatoporoid and solitary coral and culminates in
dolomite with Them-ismilta_coIonies. In section B
also there are two cycles, the lower one beginning
with shell hash, followed by ooidsl limestone and
ending in Thecosmilifl framestone. The second cy-
cle begins with solitary coral zone and ends in
Thecnsmllla framestone. These cycles represent
superimposed reefs (James, 1979).
The carbonate microtacies are (a) sponge
bafllestone, (b) chain coral-sponge bafflestone, (c)
sponge-hydrozoan bafllestone, (d) tabulozoan
tramestone, (e) Thecosmllla frttmestone, (f) hydro-Lott
framestone, (g) algal bindstone, (h) packstonel
waclrestone, (i) packstone/grainstone and (ji poorly
sorted floatstone.
The organic build-ups mostly are of small to
medium size. These are referable to knoll-type of
reels which flourish on a platform,
Except for Theeonnilla framestone (under
boundstone facies) and grainrtone, all other carbon-
ate microfaeies indicate low to moderate energy en-
yironment. Various boundstont: facies of low energy,
in fact, are found in the protected niches of bushy
colonies of Thecosnrllia. The carbonate microfacies,
as stated above, show stratigraphic cyclicity, Each
qcle begins with low to moderate energy facies and
ends up with moderate to high energy Ureeosmilta
framestone facies (Fig.2.80). These are nonnal stages
in reef growth beginning with pioneer (stabilisation)
stage to colonisation and diversification which are
knpwn from all over the globe (James, 1979). These
indicate an increase in energy conditions and may
correspond to shallowing-up cycles due to combined
effect of eusratic changes and vertical growth of the
reef knobs. The hydrozoan, sponges and tabulozoa.
besides occurring within Thecosmilia colonies, occur
exclusively and independently at places associated
with solitary corals (e.g. Rangring), These localities
represent low energy areas, possibly of back reef
setting or lower part of the slope as is also suggested
by the occurrence of floatstone facies in these build-
“PS1 The Lalung, Pin-Spili to Hangrang areas domi-
natai by Thecosmilia represent a wide reef area of
moderate energy with protected parts to provide
niches to low energy boundstone facies,
The Kiomo reef witli mainly solitary corals
and rare hydrozoa seems to represent lagoonal en-
vironrnent.
S. 1.5.! Alaror Fonmrlimr
This formation shows the sedimentary cycles
from carbonate to shale mudfacies (Mb) through a
heterolithic shale-carbonate or argillaceous carbon-
ate facies along the Guling-Atargoo road. These
cycles are capped by cross-bedded sandstone (Sa)~
cross-bedded limestone. The dominant body fossil
is Monotis and trace fossil is Rhtzocorall.-‘um.
The carbonate microfacies are (a) sandy ooidal
grainstonelpackstune, (b) layered mudslone with
lempestite layers and (c) bivalve ooidal grainslonel
packstone. The uoidal grainstone facies indicates a
winnowed platform edge sand (Facies Belt 6 of
Wilson, I975). The layered mudstone with tempestite
layers near platform edge sand could be formed in
a shallow shelf lagoon (Facies Belt 7). The sedi-
mentation lhus seems to shift from platform edge
sand to lagoon. During this palaeoenvironrnental
variation, possibly due to eustatic changes, the shale
and sandstone were cyclically deposited,
!.1.5.G Nluurluka Formation
It shows a sequence of sandstone, limestone
and shale. Three fining-upward sedimentary cycles,
each beginning with carbonate dominated unit and
ending with clastics (basal cycle with sandstone and

13° Metal. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
upper with shale), occurs along the Amrgwfiuling
road. The sandstone facies is characterised by tabu-
lar cross-bedding and herringbone cross-bedding
The mierofacies is highly sandy ooidal-algal pockstone
The herringbone cross—bcdding in sandstone
indicates an influence of tidal currents. lt was fol-
lowed by rise in sea level to cause sedimentation of
carbonate. This site, however, could not be far from
the coast and also not deeper as is indicated by the
sandy nature of the carbonates. The second cycle
possibly commenced from mudflat and ended in
carbonate sedimentation in zone overlapping or
adjoining the u’dal flatlcoastal area (Bhargava, I987).
5.1.5.H Klolo Formation
5.l.5.H’ Para Member : The sedimentary cycles
in this member begin with cross-bedded dolomite!
ooidal gritty dolomite and end up in subparallel
bedded (Fig.5.25) to massive bedded grey dolomite.
The bedding features, besides cross-bedding, are
shnrpstone conglomerate and channel fills. The
microfaéies are (tr) bioclastic wackestone/packstone
(b) foramiuiferal peloida] grainstone and (e) peloidal
aggreptte bio/lithoclastic floatstone/packstone. Small
to medium sized rnegaloctontids are the most domi-
nant fossil remains.
In view of preponderance of oolites,
quinqueloculinids and megalodontids, a winnnwcd
shelf edge sand area with tidal channels was sug-
gested as site of deposition (Bliargava, 1987). Pres-
ence of rare aggregate grains and oncoids, together
with packstone and floatrtone, may suggest sedi-
mentation partly in subtidal area of a protected la-
goon‘ The cycle from ooidal to bedded dolomite
indicates I change from intertidal to subtidal
palaeoenvironment. This sedimentary cycle in the
Para Member is comparable with late Triassic Lofer
Cyclothem (Fisher, 19641 l97S). The palaeoenvi-
ronlnental setting of the Fara Member is relatively
deeper and away from coast/beach area, as com-
pared to that of the Nunululta Formation. The Para
Member is thus interpreted to represent a transgres-
sion over the Nunuluka Fomralion. This transgres-
sion caused deposition of the Para Formation over
the Llpak Fonnatlon in the Phiphulr area.
5.l.5.tl, Tlflllg Member : It comprises dolomitic
limestone with lenttcular conglomerate. The sedi-
mentary features include wavy and sub-parallel
beddiitgs, low angle cross-bedding, large cavities
fllld with arutlceous material and local coral knobs.
The microfacies are (a) peloidal grainstone, (b)
nerinid grainstone. (0) shell-hash packstone, (d)
bioclastic and ooidal grainstone, (e) Thecosrnilia
tramestone and (I) glauconitised distorted ooidal
foraminiferal packsrone.
The rnicrolacies, large arcnaeeous material-filled
cavities and low diversity of fauna suggest a win-
nowed shelf edge (Facies Belt 6 of Wilson, 1975)
to restricted platform edge (Facies Belt ll), where
corals formed small and scattered reefs. The
glauconitised ooids and foraminiferal tests symbol-
ise hard ground formation suggesting a sudden
deepening of the shelf resulting in cutting of the
terrigenous supply, a prolong sediment-water con-
tact and consequent hard ground fomtation. The top
of the Kioto Formation, thus, is interpreted to rep-
resent a submarine hiatus.
5.1.6 I.-agudarti Group
S.l.6.A Spill Formation
It belongs to mud facies (Ma) represented by
black shale with cherty flakes and local fine, weakly
graded silt layers/streaks, fossil shell layers and lo-
cal sandstone and conglomerate interbeds. The se-
quence is characterised by horizontal burrows,
Zoaplrycos, pelagic nektonic body fossils (Befemnites
and other cephalopods) and prolific presence of hard
ground (Fig.5.16-27). The lithologic and fossil as-
Semhlages suggest deposition on a shelf with slow
ntte of sedimentation as suggested by commonly pre-
served hard. grounds. The Visher’s curves for weakly
graded and poorly sorted sandstone are akin to
turbidite and subtidal deposits. These, together with
silty layerslstreaks, are interpreted to represent stomt
events, which not only brought silty material, but
also reworked part of the sediments to impart it a
weak grading. lt is diflicult to provide a satisfactory
genesis of t.l1e boulder conglomerate. It may be due
to limited mud flows from shallower part. The nod-
ules with fossils as nucleus possibly formed
diagentically due to change in pl-l values of the pore
water. A slight change in pl-l could also lead to pre-
cipitation of chert and phosphate. Since the fossils
in tltc nodules are undeforrned, the latter are consid-
ered to have fanned around the fossil as protective
layer prior to compaction.
5.1.6.3 Gfrnnol Formation
This formation represents essentially a
quartzarenite and glauconitjc sandstone lheies. Locally
occur glaueonitic shale, gritty beds (in upper poll)
containing siltstone and hlaclr shale pebbles in bflill

Geology of Spiti-Kinnsur, Himacltnl Himalaya
_ “;_
LE
IEICE
rv SEA
-;::t r / rs
Fll9UElC\’
PIOIII L
.. |-
nt GL/5
lo ’
— so
— co
zo;
9
no. 4 I GL/to
l l I
fillll SIIE (“ll SCALE!
0| t t t .4 , I t L41 i 1 4′ if
t 2 3 4
GI./tie
_ | | t | l I I t__* —
get/|g i No.48
I I L_I
_ ——7′ — ‘ l
K, | tr “FL t t t t ail’. 7. L74! t in/I
__ ____ _ At
Fig. 5.29. Wsltet-‘s curves for the Giumsl Forrnltion. Mulurernenls made i thin section.
part of black shale interbeds. The sequence is
characterised by weak graded bedding and poorly
to moderately sorted coarse to fine grained sandstone.
Horizontal burrows, branched and unbranched.
together with_a few ooids (Fig.5.28), are mainly
confined to basal pan of the formation. The basal
part (50ent to 2.5m) is mostly represented by fine
grained siltstone with or wit.ltout black shale beds.
The overlying succession shows a sequence ofoosrse
grained sandstone-fine grained sandstone-silty
sandstone with shale-shale representing an upward-
ftning cycle of about 59m thickness. Next fining-
ttpwarrl cycle is represented by sandstone-shale
(l35m) and the uppermost by pehbly/gritty
sandstone-glauccnitic lirnonitic sandstone – fine
sandstone with local gritty bands (about 50m).
The black shale and fine silt/sand in bssat pan
indicate extension of palaeoenvirontnental setting
of the Spiti Formation with gradual aeration of the
basin. The three upward-fintngcycles are possibly
related to major waning phases during the sedimen-
tation. Most of the Visher’s curves drawn for about
30 samples oi‘ the Giumal Formation are in the fot-tn
of straight lines (Fig.5.7.9), which are oontpsrable
to those ofthe turbidite deposits. These curves, how-
ever, reflect a sorting better than those of typical
rttrbidite deposits. Visher’s curves of a few sand-
stone samples in basal and middle parts also show
two minor saltation populations. lf the site of depo-
sition of the Ginmal Formation is considered in doqier
water setting, then the sandstones seem to have
retained shallowtwttler characters despite their trans-
port by density currents. Alrematively, the Giumal
Formation may represent shallower environment,

’32 Mern. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
5.l.6.C Clllkklnr Formation
5.1.6.C, Limestone Member : in the basal part it
comprises limestone, while in the upper exists on
alternation of marl, limestone, and shale. The car-
bonate beds contain sporadic siliciclastic and dark
grey pyritous limestone bands. The fossils include
globorotalids. Globolrtmconn and radiolaria. The
carbonate microfacies are rnudstone and
Giobolrtlncanm globorotalid- radiolarian vnclteetone.
The carbonate microftcies and lithologic es-
semblage are typical of shelf to oft‘-hasinal envi-
ronment (Wilson, 1975). There were occasional
periods of restricted circulation when dark grey
pyritous limestone was deposited. The silt and bro-
ken shells could be transported from the upper part
of the shelf. The alternation of marly limestone and
shale possibly indicates altemating periods of in-
creased and decreased mud supply on the shelf area.
5.l.6.C, Shale Member : ll represents mainly a
mud facies (Mb) with silty and marly layers. The
bedding features are weak, grading to parallel lami-
nation. The characteristic fossils are globorotalids
and Glabornmcanu. The Shale Member is consid-
ered by the present authors to represent deposit of
outer shelf environment.
5.1.7 Quaternary
5. I .7. A Glacial
The glacial cycle scents to be the earliest iden-
tifiable Quaternary sedimentary cycle. ln the area,
however, no true fossiliscd glacial deposits could
be located. The evidences for glaciation arc (a) wide
‘U’-shaped valleys which subsequently have been
filled by fluvial-laeustrine sediments and (li) huge
erraticsfound along higher reaches (e.g. right flank
of the Paltan Valley).
The errntics and morphological futures bear
testimony to widespread glaciation. As the glaciers
melted, the streams ensuing out of these reworked
the moninic material. The reworking resulted in
ta) remuvll of finer material leaving large cobble
and boulder erratics as remnants and (b) where
streams were turbulent the glacial material was thor-
oughly reworked and redeposiled as glacio-fluvial
sediment. Presently the glacial deposits are being
formed as various kinds of moraines in the existing
glaciers. These, like older glacial deposits, have little
chance of preservation at the mighty stream which
shall be produced on melting of the glaciers shall
either remove this material to distant sites or. if
streams are weaker, these may rework and redeposit
sediments at nearby sites afier removing the finer
material.
5.l.7.I Fllvitll
. The fluvial deposits occur (a) along the flanks
of the present rivers and also (ls) in the fossil val-
leys. The former occur in terraces occupying dif-
ferent levels. The fluvial sedimentation represents
(i) fine material carried by the river in suspension,
(ii) medium size material by sttltation and (iii) coarser
material during its most turbulent stage by rolling.
On decrease in velocity of the stream the coarser
clastics are deposited first, interspace of which is
filled by sand-silt size material. Local pending re-
sults in deposition of silt and clay.
Maximum coarser material to the rivers is,
however, provided by avalanches, fans and slides.
Only a part of the material has been redistributed
by the axial drainage, whereas, most of it has re-
mained staclted along the banks and over-banks.
During severe melting of snow and glaciers, the
increase in stream level deprives the slideslavalattchesl
fans of clasts smaller than pebbles. The removal of
material creates voids and coarser material read-
justs to reduce interspaeesf When the flood vvttnei.
the stream deposits clay, silt and and in these
int€t’iPflfl¢5 form a conglomerate bed. Such conglom-
erates do not show pebble imbrications. ln areas
where a sequence of fan deposit is preserved, each
subsequent fan avalanche, in general, has a lesser
extent, This could be due to increasing aridity as
well as acquisition of greater tectonic stability.
The fluvial deposits mainly show facies of
braided streams. The main channel deposits are titre,
though channel cut and fill of overbanlr or bank
type are observed.
5.l.7.C Locudrine
The lacustrine sedimentation, though ephem-
eral, has played an important role in modifying the
geomorphology of the terrain. All terraces whish
Oonstitute wide valleys (Fig. t .12) in Kioto. Phaldhm.
Rangring, Atargoo. Hurling, Sumdo. Shalkar, ChanD°-
Shiasu and Kupa are formed by the lacustrine de-
posits. An excellent study of lake sedimelllllliml 68″
be made between Atargoo-Pin-Spiti confluence,
Sumdo-Kaurik and Sumdo-Hurling sections due’to
rmd cutting. At the first mentioned locality, a prism
shaped coarse material occurs as a slide. The
lttcustrine beds rest above it indicating the genesis

Gculogy of Spirl-Itlliiiinur, Hlnaeltal Himalaya I33
ot‘ lake due to dainriiiiig of the river by a slide. In
fact all the lake sediments mentioned above occur
along the river valleys, which were dammed due to
landslides. The Sumdo lake sediments show clastic
material mainly coming from NE in the form of a
coarser material fan. The grain size ol‘ clastics de-
creases away from the source area. Vertically the
sediments show cyclicity from grit-coarse sand~
medium sand-silt, This represents dispersion oi‘ one
fan slide. The subsequent cycle, commencing with
coarser material, has invariably cut and filled the
itrtderlying finer unit. Dewatering of sediments causal
syndepositiortal deformation and squeezing. The
cross-bedding and climbing ripples show presence
of currents in the shore-line area. Thin clay layers
occur within different cycles. After several cycles,
the sequence is terminated by coarser clastics capped
by mud, indicating filling up of the basin. As the
blockade of the river at Sumdo was removed and
its flow restored, it Cut the lacustrine bed. The res-
toration of the river flow has resulted in partial
reworking of the lake sediments. Each cycle begin-
ning with coarser clastic could reflect ti neotectonic
impulse in the provenance area to trigger new slides.
Alternatively, it may be a climatic manifestation,
the coarser material indicating commencement of
snow melting and liner of onset of winter
All the lake basins show evidences of
ncotectonism indicating that the damming of the
rivers was possibly caused hy stnictura] disturbances.
5.1 SHORE LINE OF THE SPITI BASIN
The study of the lacies of the coeval Halal
and Man_|ir Fonriations and Tzmdi, Ruling and Lilang
Groups provides broad clues to the location of the
shore line and the ciaton.
The Manjir Formation in the Chamba area, the
western most limit ofthis formation, is rich in large
siic clnsls varying in size from pebble to boulder.
Towards east. this formation shows gradual reduc-
tion in the frequency and size ofthe clasts. ln Lahaul
and Spiti, the pebble horizons are very thin and rare.
The distribution ofooarscr clastics vis-a-vis finer ones
suggests the depositional dip towards east.
The Tandi Group represents an age range
between late Permian and middle Jurassic (Srikantia
and Bhargava, I979; Prashra and Des Raj, I990),
Though of much less thickness, the Tandi Group is,
thus, a broad time equivalent of the Gungri Formation,
Lilang Group and possibly the Spiti Formation. The
Permian part ol‘ the Tandi Group. represented by the
Kukti Formation, is too much arenaeeous and shows
sedimentation in intertidal setting with deepening
to subtidal environment towards upper part. its
equivalent, the Gungri Formation, belongs to shelf
mud environment. Similarly, the early and middle
Triassic parts of the Tandi Group (Guslml Formation)
shows shallow subtidal setting, whereas, its
equivalents, the Mikkin, Kaga and Chomule, show
shelf edge environment. The Dilburi Formation of
the Tandi Group is a deposit of coastal zone, while
the Spit.i Formation shows a shelf mud environment.
The facies distribution of the late Permian-
Triassic and middle Jurassic rocks, thus, also indi-
cates presence of deeper facies of the basin towards
east. Based on the above observations, it is con-
cluded that shore line possibly existed to the west
of the Spiti basin. However, it is difficult to define
the coastal faeies in various formations for precise
demarcation of the shore line.
During the Batal period, the coast line seems‘
to be much west of Spiti. lt was perhaps-located
west of Chamba, where the Manjir Formation is
well developed. However, along strike direction
towards SE, as the pebble contents decrease, the
coast line seems to be far from the limit of the
Manjir Formation. tn other words, the coast line
was not parallel to the present strike of the beds.
ThlCltIl8S of the Ktinzam La Formation decreases
towards the southeastern-end of the Spiti
Synclinorium, Towards Kinnaur, older and still older
horizons of this sequence are exposed. These areas,
therefore, seem to have formed the highest topo~
graphic levels in post-Kunzam La period which were
eroded in thc pre-Thango period. Such an interpre-
tation ts also home out by the Thango conglomer-
ates, which have a Kunzam La provenance, ‘and
show maximum thickness in these very areas. lt is
likely that the SE Spiti and eastern Kinnaur areas
formed the shallowest pans of the basin, which
even on minor fall in sea level, were bared and
eroded. If so, then the coast line during this period
probably was located nearest to these areas.
During the Thango period, as revealed by
current crescents, the coast line seems to be near
Lankapanug (SE corner) of the Spiti basin These
areas, as stated above, have thick conglomerate
sequence. indicating them to be the shallowest part
of the hasin, i.e. nearest to the coast line.

I34 Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
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In the Takehe Formation, maximum siliciclaatic
sequences are developed in Lasar-Ratang and Tariya
(Upper Pin Valley) with a few flat topped rippie
marks. These areal, thus, could be in proximity of
the ooaat line.
No distinct fades changes are aeen in the se-
quence of the Muth Formation. But, if the Muth
Formation entirely represents the beach depeuit, the
coast line could not be far from t.he present limit of
the outcrops.
In Hurling-Siialkar and Phirse Phu sections,
the Lipak Formation rests over the Precambrian
5flI\I¢W¢. indicating Carboniferous transgression in
these areas, Le. these areas were near to the coast
line. Similar interpretation can also be made from
Stro
maloporoid, H – Hwbvriur, St – Strepteplaamid. B –
the ocmrrence of the gypsum (if evapnrite) at Losar,
Hurling~Shalkar and in the Yulang Valley suggest-
ing that these areas were nearest tn the coast line.
During deposition of the Po Fonruition, there
are evidences to suggest frequent shifling oi‘ the
coast line. During black shale deposition. it will
Quite far from the present limit of the outcrops in
a westerly direction and near the present day out-
crops during the-deposition of quartzite. HOWE/£1.
with the passage of time the coast line shined ni-er
to the Spiti Valley. It tieetns to be neareat to Kaurik,
where the sequence is not only predominantly
arenaceous but also contains eonglonterale beds.
During the deposition of the Ganmachidam
Fumiatinn the eoast line had a eonfiguntion sirnilar

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur. Hilna
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to that of the Po Sea. Due to rise at an intnabasinal
high between Loser in NW and Po in SE, the basinlll
lrfi seems to have shnmk in this part.
The Gechang Formation shuns shallow ma-
rine high energy conditions indicating the proxim-
ity oi‘ its basin to the coast line.
F-L diegrlm for the elastic lequ
GXICG I.
Shallow water time equivalent of lhe Gungri
Formation are known from the Salooni Formation
and Kukti Formation (Tandi Group). The facies in
these formations are also not coastal. Thus, the
coastline was located even further west of the Salooni
outcrops. The isolated pattern of the Salooni For-
mation, besides due to post folding erosion, may

I36 Mem. Gaol Sarv. lad. Vol. I24
also be due to its deposition in embay-menu sug-
gesting a highly irregular coastline during the dep-
sition ofthe Salooni-Gtmgti mdiments of late Penniait
age.
Similar distribution ofthe sea and land seems
to have extended during early-middle Triassic time,
as suggested by shallower faeies in the Gushal
Formation (Tandi Group), in contrast to the Mikin-
Chomule Iticies. A shallowing sequence of the
rurnaining||t.rtoftheLiIa|tgGroopsu$ts migration
of the coast line towards east.
Such interpretations are not possible for the
Spiti, Giurnal and Chiltkim Formations. However, as
they are generally deeper water deposits (mostly
open shell‘). the coast lines of their respective basins
have to be much west of the present day outcrop
limit
5.3 BASIN MORPHOIDGY
Generalised basin morphology for the Palaeozoic
sequences of the Spiti basins was proposed by
Bhargttva el al, (l99lh).
The equivalent of the Batal Formation shows
coarser cla.q.ics in t.he Chamln-Mart|’ir actor, theredler
along strike. the frequency or elusts shows a gradual
decrease, whereas, across the strike towards east,
the number and size of clasts rapidly decrease. This
may indicate a sharp change from a gently sloping
coast sand area to subtidal zone and shallow inner-
shelf area (Fig.‘7.l). The Batal Formation regionally
shows uniform lithologic characters suggesting no
major variation in the basin topography
During the deposition of the Kunzam La
Formation, the basin upsloped towards SE and
Kinnaur parts. Being shatlowest. these areas on slight
regression were exposed to erosion‘ The deepest
part of the basin possibly was in Lsnsltnr from where
turlndites have been reported (Fig.7 2). This deduction
is also possibly supported by predominant
development of the carbonate facies in Baralaeha-
Zanslrar sector. As, by and large, there is a gradual
or little change in the sedimentary facies, the basin
is interpreted to have a gentle slope.
The shallowest part of the Thango basin, as is
evidenced by the conglomerate facies, lay towards
SE part of the Spiti and eastern Kinnaur'(Fig.7.3).
This basinal profile is broadly relalable to the basinal
highs proposed in Gyundi and SE part of the Spiti
Synclinorium (Bhargava er al, l99lb). The litho-
and biomierofacies of the Takche Formation suggt
location of the Lahaul-Ladakh-Takehe in NW and
Tariya in SE as the shrtllowest parts of the basin
(Fig.7.4). The presence of back reef facics (Fig.5.!0)
is indicated in the Parahio and back reef to partly
reef and fore reef areas in the Pin and Tidong Valleys
respectively. The ‘main organic area‘ of this reef,
possibly was towards the Kumaon bmin, where robust
strontatoporoid colonies are reponed (Khanna at al,
I985).
During the deposition of the Muth sediments,
n remarkably identical facies was developed in the
Spiti-Zanskar-Kinnaur-Kumaon sector. A uniform
hasinal geomorphology is, therefore, visualised. The
thickness ofthe Muth Formation from Spiti towards
Zanskar gets gradually reduced, perhaps, reflecting
upslcping direction of the basin. A -minor basinal
high has been propounded in the Spiti part during
the deposition of the Muth sediments (Bhargava er
al. l99lb).
ln eastern Kinnaur and a pm of Spiti, no Lipalr
Formation exists. This could be due to non-deposi-
tion or else owing to active and rapid erosion dur-
ing post-Lipak and pre-Kuling period. This region
ofKinnaur and Spiti, lacking the Lipak sediments,
coincides with the sub-basinal high, interpreted during
the deposition of the Muth Fomtation. It is likely
that this high persisted and over which only a lim-
ited thickness of the Lipak Formation could be ac-
commodated whtch was easily eroded. As a con-
trast to this basiual high, tr relatively deeper part
existed north of the Syamtn Fault Complex where
predominantly a crinoidal carbonate mudstone fades
is developed. The basin profile changed during Lipak
mid-way, forming certain deeper pans at Takchfl.
Parahio, Pin and Lipak Gad. where hard ground and
algal-coral build-ups were formed (Fig.7.5). During
the tenninal phase, the proposed llllilflfll high pos-
sibly became more pronounced causing fonnation
of ‘Sabltha’ like lagoons at Losar, Yulang-l-lttrling-
Shalkitr-Chang0~Yang1hang.
During the deposition of the Po Formation, the
basin was considered to have been confined to the
two corners of the Spiti basin (Bhargava er at, l99lb).
Since the overall faeies and thickness of the Po
Formation at Loser and Po are ikntical, it is pmpflwd
that the basin might have been somewhat continuous
through the Syarma part of the Spitihasin as well
(Fig.7.6). Southeastern Kinnaur poibly remarried a
positive area during the deposition of the Po

Gnlogy of Spltl-Kllnllr. lllmuclfl Ilhlahya 111
Formation. The Po Formation towards Zanslrar also
shows gmdiml reduction in thickneu. Beyond Thidsi,
it is not developed showing shallowing and presewe
of positive area in the basin in that direction.
There is no Ganmaehidun Formation in most
pans of eastern Kinnsur, the central part ot‘ Spiti
and beyond Thidsi in Zanakar. This area in Spiti
coincides with the basinal high which persisted since
the deposition of the Mutli. lt is suggested that this
high beiarne pronounced and subserial and provided
clasts ot‘ the Muth, Lipalr and Po sediments to the
Ganniachidam conglomerate (Fig.7.7). The
Garimachidarn basin seems to be highly variable as
is revealed by frequent facies changes in this
formation. These faeies were possibly oontrolled by
sub-basinal transverse highs which came into
existence during this tiirie. The Guling and Kidul
transverse highs were most prominent during this
period (Bhargava er at’, 199 lb).
The transgression during the tlqiorition of the
Gechang Formation covered the entire Spiti basin. In
Zanskar, it is mainly developed Wine the volwnics tile
ament. The basinal highs persisted during this time
also, though much of undulations seem to have been
levelled.’Tl’re hasinal highs are somewhat docipherahle
in the lmsin of the Gungri Formation as well.
During the deposition ofthe Mikin and Chomule
Fomiations (Fig.7.9), the basin showed rapid deepen-
ing with identical facies from Kinnaur to Zanskai. It
suggests uniform conditions in the basin during this
time. The Sanglung Formation shows rapid facies
variation pointing to uneven basin oortditions. No data,
however, exist to interpret its exact physiography
The Hangrang Formation shows coral build-
ups. The build-ups are conspicuous around the
basinal ridge identified in the Carboniferous-Permian
time. May be this sub-businal high formed favourable
locale for organic growth (Fig. 7. I0).
Not enough details exist tor the facies and
thickness vanations in the Alaror and Nunululra
Formations from Zanskar or Kinnaiir for any palaeo-
Phyiiflgfllphic reconstruction. During the deposition
oi the Po to Nunululta Formations, the area NE of
Syfllma Fault Complex seems to have formed a high
and as zt result, no deposition of these formations
look plaoe in this area.
The Kioto and Spiti Formations show remark-
ably identical flciee throughout the basin suggest-
ing a uniformity in the basin physiograpliy dunng
this time.
During the beginning of Cretaceous. possibly
tilting and deepening of the basin took place to
generate turbidites (Fig.1. ll).
5,4 PROVENANCI
The rock suites in the provenance area have
been interpreted on the basis of heavy minerals and
plot on Q-F-L diagrams (Fig.S.3l) alter Dickinson
and Sucnek (I979). These studies are nuiinly limited
to elastic sequences. l5-20 stilts of each formation
wereexaminedandooonaver-age50-100;;-ainswere
counted.
The Batal Formation shows a heavy mineral
assemblage comprising chlorite, ziroon, zoisite.
sporadic stiiurolite, tourmaline and gamet (Kumar
er at, W84) indicating metasediments of green schist
and aiitphibolite facies as the provenance rocks. In
the Kunzarn La Formation, the heavy mineral suite
comprises brown tourmaline, purple zircon, epidote,
chlorite, limonitoand haeirtatite. This suite is char-
acteristic of granite to low grade metamorphic rock
terrain (Tonita, I954; Fedo-Colecido, I956;
Beveridge, I960).
The heavy mineral assemblage of the Thango
Formation is similar to the one found in the Kunzam
La Formation. The clasts ui the Thango diamictitei
are distinctly from the Kunuiln Ln and basal part
of the Thango Fonnaiions The sedimentary. low
grade metamorphic and granitic terrain thus l’0l1’ned
the Thango provenance. The heavy minemls recorded
in the Talrche Formation are akin to those of the
Kuniam La and Thango Fonnalions, and thus, like-
wise indicate low grade metamorphic. granitic and
partly sedimentary rocks in the provenance area.
The heavy mineral suite of the Muth Formation are
constituted of pink and purple zircon, brown tour-
maline, limonite and haematite. which also point to
low grade metamorphic and granitic rocks as prov-
enance. The Muth Formation comprises well washed,
multicyclic quartz indicating sedimentary arenaoeous
rocks also in the provenance area.
In additioiito the polycyclic quartz, turbid quartz
and sodic plagioclase, the heavy mineral yield in the
Po Formation, though poor, is similar to that of the
Muth Formation (Le. zircon, tounnaline, haematite).
Thus, a sedimentary to low grade metamorphic ter-

135 Meta. Geol. Surv. lad. Vol. t24
rain with granitic body possibly fomted the source
area. The clasts in the Ganmachidam Formation have
an unmistakable Kunzam La, Tbango. Taltche, Muth
andl.|palt and occasional granitic parentage. The heavy
mineral suite comprising chlorite, zircon, zoisite,
tourmaline and epidote, in addition, indiurtes mainly
low grade metamorphic source.
The Thango to Ganmachidam melt sequences
show continental bloclt source (Fig.5.!-I).
The heavy mineral suite (ehlorite, zircon,
epidote) of the Gechzrng Formation (Fig. 5.31) also
indicates arenaceous sedimentary and low grade
metamorphic rocks as provenance “in a recycled
orogert“ (Dickinson and Suczelt, I979), suggesting
at least a pronounced epeirogenic evenL Fine grained
sedimentary quartz and mica in the silty bands of
the Gungri Formation indicate a low grade
metasedtmentary sequence in the provenance area.
The heavy mineral data on txrhouate dominated
Maozoic rocks were not collected. The late Triassic
Nunuluka sandstone. besides sporadic tourmaline,
contains turbid quartz and plagiocllse which are
suggestive of sedimentary and acid igneous rocks
in the provenance area. The Q-F-L diagram indicates
a continental block setting (Fig. $.31).
The thin sandstone bands in the Spiti Formation
are mica rich with occasional K-felspar indicating a
low grade metamorphic to acid igneous provenance.
The Giumal sandstone has turbid and noruutdulatory
quartz which often shows rhombic zircon and iron
Oxide as 1tlC|\1SlOllS. These, along with the presence
or rnicrocline. sodic plagioclase and muscovite, point
to an acid igneous derivation. The Q-F-l.. diagrams
(5.3 l ) for these two tomtations show scatter of points,
possibly indicating a mixed continental block and
recycled orogen setting
5.5 P fl
Only a few unequivocal evidences at a few
stratigaphic levels are available for hrmdly interpreting
the palaeoclirnate for the Spiti-Kumaon repcn during
tit Palaeozoic and Mesozoic (Fig. 7.16).
5.5.1 Palaeozoit:
5.5.1.1 Ordovician (Thanga) Tint: : The Thango
Formation, besides having red coloured clastics, also
shows scales of gypsum in the Kinnanr area._The
association indicates a warm arid climate during t.ltis
period.
5.51.2 Ordovician-Silwim (Takche) flan: : Small
but extensive presence of algal-coral build-ups, es-
pecially in the SE Kinnaur and SE Spiti parts,
indicates a warm sub-tropical climate.
5.5.1.3 Early Clrbonifcrturr (1’o||nIl£da|| Lippi)
Time .’ Local occurrence of coral-algal build-ups
and extensive development of carbonate and gyp-
sum in the upper part of the Lipak Formation are
suggestive of an arid and warm climate.
5.5.1.4 Alselinn-Sahnnarion (Goring) Tint: :
Ehrydesntn signifies cold climate iii iiert-ooiiawiiia
region (Dickins, I957). Its presence in the Gechang
Formation thus points to a cold climate.
No direct evidence is available to decipher the
palaeoclimate of the arty-middle Cambrian (Kunnnt
La), Silurian-Devonian (Muth), Visean (Po), late
Cartiottiferous-arly Permian ((‘nntnaclritlam) and late
Pennian (Gungri). l-lowever, on the basis of frosted
quartz grains present in the Muth, an arid to semiarid
climate could be inferred for this period Plant fossils
in the Po suggest a change from warm arid to wann-
humid climate during the Visean period. The
conglomerate of the Ganmachidam, though mainly
of tectonic origirrcottld also signify partial reworking
of morainic material, thereby indicating a cold climate.
The late Permian time in Spiti-Kinnaur, identical to
the Peninsular part, might have witnessed a change
towards a warmer climate.
5.5.2 Meetrmic
5.5.2.1 1’rin:.d0-ur!yJ’||mm’c (Lilalg Group) Time -‘
Extensive development of carbonate in almost the
entire Lilang Group and prolific occurrence ofknoll
reefs throughout the basin during the Norian and
sporadically in the early Jurassic time suggest Wlrm
tropical climate.
5.5.1.2 Lm Clflltlflll (cmum) Tine : Thwah
no clues are available for the late Jurassic-early
Cretaceous time, by virtue ofreliable pulaeogeogephic
reconstruction. an extension ot’ early Jur-ante climate,
tic. warm-tropical, is visualised during this period
also.

6. TE’l’HYAN SEQUENCES OF SPITI-ZANSKAR, KINNAUR-KUMAON AND
I(ASIl1VlIll-CKAMIIIA-TANDI : A COMPARISON AND CORRELATION
The Spiti part of the Tethyan sequence is
physimlly traceable into Zanakar_consu’tuting one
major synclinorium. The Zanshr sucenrioo, north
dthe Sun Antifinn elmne, lirlt-hp with the Kashmir
Synclinoliunt, which, in turn, extends towards muth
into the Charnlng-Bhaderwah Synelinoriuni (Fig.4. l).
These thus formed on basin.
The Kinnaur Synclinorium, likewise, links up with
the Known Sylflimrirrm TIE.
and Kiooaur-Kumaon successions, presently
separated by the crystallines. in view of highly
comparable litho and biofacies. are envisioned to
form one -large continuous basin. The present
configuration is attributed to erosion combined with
theelfictofstrutaltrnldefiorrnation.
basin existed subtle diflerenoes which exercised
oontrolon lithologyofdifie1entpans.lnl.helbllowing
pages a comparison and correlation of various
sequencer are pnsenhed.
The nomenclature used for the Kurrmon part
(Table 6.1) here is afieryliurnar el al, (I977). For
Kashmir two sets ofnomenclaturt: exist, viz. (i) by
Srikantia and Bhargava (I983) and (ii) by Kulnar at
al, (l98_7). The classification by Kumar zt al, (I987)
uxsoertxin narnes which werealnousd by Srikantia
-and Bhargava (I983) but altogether in a diflerent
sense therdry crating confusion. The classification
of Kurnar er a.l, (1987) though post dates that of
Srilrantia and Bhargava (I983), was used by Shanker
cl al, (1989) by referring to an unpublished worlt
‘without justifying the reason to ignore or even refer
to a 17t’e-existing clasifiution which had found roots
in international prhlications (¢.g. Thlent el of, 1989).
In the praent synthesis, in view of priority‘ the
nomenclature of Srikantia and Bhargava (1983) is
variation! of various formations in Kashmir-Tandi,
Zanakat-Spili, and Kinnaur-Kuniaon are depicted in
Figs.6.l and 6.2.
The continuous Tethyan sequence with minor
intilnentological breaks begins in all the aforemen-
tioneo arms with the Eocambrian rocks, designated
as the risen Formation in Spit!-Zanahar, Maehhal
Formation (Knrnareial, 1981) inltuhmlrandllnlam
Formation in Kurnaon. The extensions of Machhal
and Batu] in Bhaderwah, Charnba, Kullu have been
flflignllat as the Maltjir and Kalarigli Ponhatlnll
TM DIAL Machhal. Rfllfllll and Kanrigali saquenfi
represent snbtidal sedimentation The Ralanr and
Manjir diamictites seem to represent fluvial/coastal
flnmaterialreworlredinamarineenvironmenLThe
Manjir thamictites, down depositional dip, show
reduction in size and frequency of clam. its finer
theirs and time equivalent in Spiti and Kashmir are
the Beta] and Maehhal Formations respectively (Fig.
7.l). The Batal Formation in the Pin-Parahio and
Kargil auctions include: thin interstratified basic
flaws.
The sequence resting confonnahly over the
Batal Formation is referred to in the Spiti-Zansknr
and Kinnaur sections as the Kunum La Formation,
which has maximum thickness in the Spiti-Zanskar
areas. Towards southeastern Spiti and Kinnnur, as
statedearlier,itsthid:nessdocrusesaodprog1~essively
older levels are exposed in this direction. The
carbonate fades, though obarved in Parahio-Takche
alw, becomes prominent in the Baralaeha La traction
and in the bush! area. From the Member C ofthe
Martoli Formation of Kumar ct al, (1977) fragments
of trilohite body and trace fossils have been recently
l‘ound‘XMvarngain and Misra, 1989), suggqtr’ ‘ng its
equir/ enee with the Kunzam La Formation in
Ktunaon. The carbonate rich part in Kinnaur and
Kuniaon seem to have been eroded. “l’he equivalents
of the Kunzam La Formation in Kashmir is the
Shumahal Formation and perhaps also the Rangrnal
Fomtation, the latter may he an enlarged version of
the carbonate rich sequence of Spiti-Zanskar.
Equivalent of the Kunum La,Forrnation doer not
occur in the Chamba, Bhaderwah and Kullu areas
whell it was ptsdbly not deposited (Fig. 1.2). These
sequences by and large represent a sublidal
sedimentation in low energy regime with occasional
storm episodes and upward shallowing to supra-
tidal It is only in the upper part (roithile
Cambrian) that a relative deepening of the basin
seems to have taken place giving rise to carbonate
This cycle too penal into n shallowiog
phase when cross-bedded areoites were deposited
in the Kashmir (Meniaer C of the Rangrnal For-maticn)
and Spiti-Zanskar areas.
lo the Spiti—Zanslrar and Kinnaur areas, the
Kunraml-nliirmationanditsequivaltmlsareoverrlain
lrncUr|fiI1lIlrlyl7ytheThan@FoI1tIalion(Fig.7.3). The

I40
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the clasts are prominently from the ctubouate rocks of
the Kunum La Formation The conglomerates are
lacking in the NW pan of Zanskar‘ The Thango
Formation fliovvs variation in thickness, lust being in
the Tame-Yongma section. This Formation in the
ladhganga |’Valley (Kurnaon) links up with the
eonglomentlc horizon mapped earlier as the ‘Ralam
conglomerate‘ (Basel and Duns, I937). Submuently,
Mamgain and Mina (1989), even in some sections of
Kumaon, found nrly Ordovician fossils in the sequence
intmedimelyabovethe’Ralam‘eot1glornuatet ltulflsely
that in Ktunaon. too. equivalents of the_Man)’ir and
Thanp Conglornenta exist and both of them poaibly
luv: been rnlpped as the Rahun Conglomerate. The
equivllenloftheTha.ngoFo’rnntioninl(uhmiris
MetxberAo!thelli.shl:oln1 Formationwhich hlshxn
partly tendered plryllitie.
Th: overlying ‘hitch: Formation (H Mlnehlp
Forrmtioo) in mostly alureous in SE Spitl and
Kinmun Its enlcareous contents and also thiolmesa
Eoumbrinn. Pulleozoie and Mesozoic sequences in the Wclicm I-limalnye
det:reaseittNWdi|eeti0rL lnthelanslrarnrea, it
shows erratic development and is by and larg absnt.
The erratic thickness of the Thkelte Formation is
attnhutable to post-Thkche erosion. signifying a pre-
Muth Fotmatiooul break. The lithological equivalent
of the Takthe Formation in Kashmir is Member B of
thc Rlshknbal Fonnation and in Kurnaon, the Sltiala
and Variegated Formations. Probably the Muth A and
Muth B ofKurnar at al, (I977) are also equivalents of
the Takche Formation. The thidcness of the quivalent
of the Takche Formation is maximum in l(um:tm\.
Thse sequences show OOH]-tllglll-5l’l’Ul‘llfllq)0fUid’
bryozmil hqild-ups, which are most prominent in
Kurrtaon (Yong Limestone oflflumna et nu‘, 1985):!!!
Kinnaur (Blurpw and Bnsi, I986) (Fig. TA). Minor
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arm‘ The environment of deposition varls from
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remiaed platform for the Tnkehe and shallow
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. | |
Fig. 6.1. Thickness varialron of lhe Eocambnan—Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sequences \n Kashmir, Zanpkar, Lnhaul, Spin. Kinnnur and Kumuon Expf Equivalents of
1 Vaikrila Group. 2:. Mlnjir Formauon. b Sulooni Pormnucn Halal Fcnmalmn in Spni 3 Kunzam La Formalion A. areno-argillaeeous busul and middle puns.
h. carbonalc dommllcd upper purt 4. Thlnga Fcrrnalron, with conglomerate at blse. S. Tnkehe Formalran. 6 Mulh Furrnlllon. 7. Llpak F01’|11l||on. I P0 Formation
9. Glnmnchrdam Formnuon I0. Plfljll Volclmcs. ll. Gechang Fnrrnalmn. I2 Gungn Formanon. I3 Lllang Group rmnus Kmln Formation 14 Kmlo Formation
15. Spiri Formation. 16. Giumal Formation And I748 Chikkim Formation. I7 Llmestone Member I8 Shale Member.
10430025
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I42 Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
The remarkably uniform and conspicuous
sequence of white supcmiatured quartrarenite referred
to as the Muth Formation in all the areas (Muth C
of Kumar er al, I977, in Kumaon) rests abruptly
over the Takehe and its equivalent formations. The
Muth Formation mostly has uniform thickness. Only
in the Ropa-Hango sector, Lahaul and Lariskar arus,
where the Takche Formation is also feebly developed,
the Muth Formation is either absent or hardly a few
metres thick. The contact between these two is
interpreted to mark a depositional break. The limited
thickness of the Muth Fomiation in Lahaul may be
due lo a pre-Lipak erosion, as may be suggested by
a sharp contact between the Muth and Lipak
Fon-nations in these sections. The palaeoenvironment
of the Muth Formation all over the Kumaon-Kashmir
stretch is regarded to vary from sandy tidal flat,
sandbar. mixed tidal flat, sandbar shoal in Kumaon
lo tidal beach in Kinnaiir-Spiii-Zanskar and possibly
also in Kashmir.
ln Spiti, the Muth Formation is conformably
succeeded by the Lipak Formation. The passage
sequence between the Muth and Lipak Formations,
made of limestone, dolomite, shale and sandstone,
is of limited thickness in Spiti. hence classified
with the Lipak Formation. in Zanskar, it is still
thinner or not developed In Kashmir, the passage
bod. on the contrary. is a mappable un.it of considerable
thickness and was named as the Wazura Formation.
The Wazura Formation and Syringoihyris Limestone
(;Aishmuqam Formation) together lomi equivalent
of the Lipak Formation. The Lipak Formation in
Sumdo-Shalkar. Phiphuk and Phirse Pbu sections
rests directly over the Vaikrita Group. tn Zanskan
about two kilometres NW Of Tanze, this formation
rcsis over the Kumam La Formation afier overlapping
the Thango and Muth Formations. No equivalent
ofthe Lipak Formation is known in eastem Kinnaur.
ln the Kali Valley (Kumaon). the Kali Formation
(Mamgain and Misra, I989) is a possible equivalent
of a part of the passage sequence in between the
Muth and the Lipak Formations re. part ol’ the
Walura Formation. The Lipak Formation and its
equivalent mostly repreunt sedimentation in medium
to high energy coastal rcefal subtidal areas with
Siiiklm-like evaporite taisins in Spiu (Fig7.5). Proximity
to land i.ii Kashmir is indicated by fairly well preserved
plant remains in the Members A and B of the
Syringothyris Limestone (1 Aishrnuqam Formation).
The Lipak Formation only in fully developed
sequences, exposed in SE and NW plfli oi Spiii, is
followed by the sandstone~shale sequence of the
Po Formation. From Spit.i to Zztnskar, the Po Formation
shows too muclt of thickness variation with reduction
in thickness towards NW. ‘tn central Spill, Kinnaur
and large parts of Kumaon it is absent (Fig.7.6). In
Kashmir, its equivalent with more or less identical
litliologic assemblage is the Fenestella Shale
(=Ganeshpur Fonnation). These sequences represent
several shallowing-up cycles from mid-shelf to shore
face and even tidal flat. Several cycles end up in
diamictites. Both these formations contain doleritic
to dioritic transgressive sills.
The Po and the Ganeshpur Formations are
conformably succeeded by conglomeratie horizons
referred to as the Ganmachidam Formation and
Pindabol Formation (Agglomeratic Slates)
respectively. These sequences, like the Po and
Ganeshpur Formations, represent upward shallowing
cycles mostly from subtidal to beach environment,
where possibly the alluvial fan./fluvial material was
reworked by marine processes. The equivalent of
the Po and Ganmachidam Formations are not known
in eastern Kinnaur and Kumaon.
The Ganmachidam Formation in the NW part
ol’Zanskar, west of Sarchu beyond the Gurlok Valley
and the Pindabol Fonnation in Kashmir are in general
succeeded by the Phe and Panjal Volcanics
respectively (Fig.7.7). The volcanics comprise
volcanogenic rocks in the basal part and andesitic
to basaltic lava flows in the upper. These show ropy
structure and are largely ol‘ subaerial origin
The Phe Volcanics in the Thidsi sector overlap
the Lipak Formation and. about two l(tl0I’l1€ll’€5 east of
Tungri Tolrpa, rest over the Batal Formation alter
overlapping the entire Falaeozoic sequence. Similarly.
the Panjal Volcanics in Kashmir come to rest over early
Palaeozoic sequence. The time span occupied by
these volcanics. in the areas where they are absent,-is
perhaps represented by a hiatus ll‘l between the
Ganmachidam and Gochang Formations.
The Gechang Formation and its equivalent
Girthi Formation in the Girilii Valley (Mamgain and
Misra, I989), commencing in most of the sections
withya lag and followed by arenites. marl“ fll1’fl”5′
gression in the Spiii and pan of the Kumaon areas-
ll shows a great variation in thickness in Spiii, being
thickest in the Lingii and Poh-Tabo sectors. In
Zansliar, ii has an uneven distribution. The Chumik
Formation of Gaetani tl nl, (I990) is identical in

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, Himachal Himalaya I43
lithology and fossil contents to the Gechang Forma-
tion with which it has also been correlated. The
occurrence of the Phe volcanics in between the
Chumilt (E Gechang) and Gechang (sensu stricto)
‘Formations could be due to tectonic complication
as suggested by Gaelani er al, (I990), In Kashmir,
the time equivalents of the Gechang could be the
Mamal-Nishatbagh and part of the Panjal Volcanics
sequences. The equivalent of the Gechang Fonna-
tion is inconsistcntly developed in the Kinnaur area.
This formation represents a subtidal to upper shore
cycle of sedimentation.
The Gechang Formation is abruptly succeeded
by the black shales of the Gungri Fonnation, which
Show more or less uniform thickness in Spiti.’lt is
equally well developed ln Zanskar, Kinnaur and
Kumaon (Kuling Shale). Everywhere it represents
sedimentation in inner to midshelf muddy region.
In Kashrnir its equivalent, the Zewan Fonnation which
rests over the Mamal/Nishatbagh Formation, com-
prises alternation of sandy shale and calcareous
sandstone in basal part and sandy limestone, cal-
careous sandstone, with thin shale partings in the
upper part. This sequence commonly contains
foraminifera, bryozoa, echinoid fragments,
brachiopods, gastropod and Iamellibranchs and is
regarded to represent deposits of medium energy
coastal intertidal-subtidal areas.
ln the Chamba area, aher a long hiatus, the
Salooni Formation representing the time equivalent
of’the Gungri Formation occurs directly over the
Katarigali (= Batal) Formation (‘Fig.7.8). lnsouth Lahztul
also its equivalent, the Kukti Formation, rests over the
Batal and Chola Thar/| Formations. Both these repre-
sent deposits ol‘ subtidal-intertidal environment.
The Lilang Group, which succeeds the Gungri
Formation in the Spiti Valley, has been subdivided
into eight mappable formations Though equivalents
of the Lilang Group are present in all the sectors,
lithological details similar to those available inthe
Spiti Valley are lacking. Therefore, only broad
comparisons are possible.
The Milrin, Kaga and Chomule Formations are
well-clevelnput in Spili These represent sedimenta-
tion in subtidal zone of bathyal to basin margin
(Wilson’s I-‘acies belt J; last one mainly of the
Cltomule) environment (Fig.7.9) and indicate rapid
deepening of the basin at the begnrting of the Triassic
(Bhargava, I987).
Microfacies, similar to those found in the Mikin
and Kaga Formations of Spiti, are also known from
Kinnaur. Komaon and Zanskar. The details of exact
equivalents of the overlying Sanglung Formation
representing foreslope to basin margin, tidal flat.
littoral to circa-littoral environments from these ar-
eas are not known. However, a comparable
palaeoeztvironment of carbonate shoal sand bar to
shelf mud is reported from Kumaon (Kumar et at,
I977). Equivalents of the reefoid l-{angrang Forma-
tion are known from Kinnaur and Zanskar. No coral
built:l—up so far has been reported from Kumaon
The Kuti Shale, whichis a broad time equivalent of
the Member C (Sanglung Formation) and Hangrang,
Alaror (platform edge to shelf lagoon) and Nunuluka
(tidal flat to coastal) Formations, represents sedi-
mentation in shelf mud to transition subtidal zones
(Fig.7.l0). The lithologic and palaeoenvironmental
details of the equivalent of these fonnations in Kash-
mir are not known.
ln south Lahaul, the equivalents of the entire
Mikin-Nunuluka succession seem to be represented
by the Gushal Formation, interpreted as deposits of
shallow subtidal-intertidal palaeoenvironment. In
Chamba. the basal part of the Kalhel Formation may
be equivalent of the above mentioned formations.
The predominantly oolitic carbonate Para Mem-
ber (Kioto Formation), which marks a transgressive
phase in the Spiti, is well developed in the Zanskar,
Kinnaur and Kumaon areas (referred to as the Kioto).
lls equivalents are possibly present in Kashmir also.
The environment of deposition of the Para Member
is uniformly shelf edge sand with tidal channel to
local suhtidal zone (Fig.7. ll) The overlying Tagling
Member, as defined in this publication, is a possible
equivalent ofthc Laptal Formation of Kumaon Both
these members represent sedimentation in winnowed
shelf edge to restricted platform edge. its equiva-
lent in Chamba is perhaps the upper part of the
Kalhel Formation and, in south Lahaul, the Dilburi
Formation, both representing tidal flat complex_
The black shale of the Spiti Formation, over-
lying the Tagling Member and Laptal Formation
along a sub-marine sedimontological break, occurs
in the Zansliar, Kinnaur and Kumaon areas (Fig.7. l2).
Everywhere it represents a shelf mud palaeg-gnyi-
ronment, except in Knmaon. where due to presence
of radiolaria bearing chert in upper part, the envi-
ronment is interpreted to be deeper in the terminal
part of the sedimentation of the Spiti Formation.

44 Mem. Gaol S rv Ind. Vol. 124
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Spiil Ind Lingti valley (LII || N J ) F. pl A ye F56!

Geology 0fSpiti-Kintuur, Hilntlchll Himalaya I45
The Giumal Formation, succeeding the Spiti Forma-
tion, is uniformly calcareous in the basal and
glauconitic in the middle and upper parts in Zanskar,
Spiti and Kinnaur. ln the Kumaon area, it is entirely
made up of lerrigenous clastics. lt broadly repre-
sents proximal turbirlites of continental slope to
continental margin (Fig.7.l3). Due to presence of
coarser element in Spiti area. the Giumal Formation
is interpreted to be of shallower environment as
compared to’ot.her sectors.
The Chikkim Formation occurs in Spiti and
Zanskar. The Kangi La Formation (Gaetani el 0!,
1983) may be equivalent of the Shale Member of
the Chikkim Formation. lts equivalent in Kumaon
has been designated as the Jhangu l-‘or-mat.ion (Kumar
er al, I977). All these comprise carbonate in lower
and shale in upper parts and in general represent
shelf to off basinal, lower to mid-shelf environ-
ments. In Kurnaon, the Jhangu Formation is regarded
as a deposit of continental slope (Kumar el nl, I977).
Gaetani at at, (1983) consider Kangi La Formation
to represent a distal turhiditc (Fig 7.13).
No Cretaceous rocks are found in Kashmir.
Charnba and south Laltaul, Terminal Cretaceous to
Palaeocene and also possibly Eocene sequences in
Zanskar are represented by Spanboth Formation and
Chunglung Lu States respectively. The former rep-
resents infra-littoral to subtidal and the latter fresh
water environment olsedimentation. These sequences
in the Zanskar and Kumaon areas are overlain by
the ophiolitic nappes. ln the latter area also occur
marine sequences as exotic blocks.

7. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY
The Eocnrnbriiin Brita] Formation rests
unconformlbly over ii crystalline basement which
shows pie-Batat defonnation. The Tethyan sequences
of the Knsltinir, Chamlia, Spiti-bnskar and K.innaur-
Kumaon form part of a vast basin. Alter compen-
sating for the crustal shortening, the size of the
basin is likely to exceed 225 km x 900 km. Though
suflicient data do not exist to comment categori-
cally on the mechanism of formation of this basin
yet, based on available observations, a tentative
model may be proposed.
The Batat Formation in Spiti-Zanskar con-
tains sporadic basic flows in the basal part and con-
glomerate in the upper part. The depositional up-
dip rocks (Manjir) contain thick conglomerate in
the Chamba area The crystalline rocks. which
form the floor for the Batal sequence. are of cralonic
at’t’initv.
The marine Tethyan basin sited over this crys-
talline sequence is. thus, visualised to have been
formed due to rttting around 700-600 Ma (Singh.
1985), which coincides with the age of some granitoids.
ln view of clastics exceeding the volume 0! the
volcanic rocks, it is suggested that the rihing was
lithosphere-activated (Condie_ l9ttZ). The rlfiing
caused block faulting and generated coarser clasiics
in the near-st-tore environment (Fig.7 1) ln this block-
faulted basin with poor circulation, the sediments
could have two kinds of relationship vis-a-vi: the
basement, viz (a) deposited over a block and (b)
abutting against an upthrown block (Fig.7.t). This
initial disposition is possibly responsible for differ-
ent relationships observed between the cover and
the basement, i 2 fault envisaged in Kiunaon (Heirn
and Giinsser. 1939, Kumar at of, 1972) and part of
Zanskar (Gaetarti er ol. i985) and conformable se-
quence in the Spiti-Zansltar (Srikantia, 1981) Some
of the faults and perhaps even fault-bound blocks
were reactivated from time to time. These exercised
control over the sedimentation and also on late
Tertiary tectonism
The Eocambrian Halal basin extending in west
upto Chamba area was of larger dimension. It shrank
in area during the Cambrian, as suggested by a
limited extent of the Kunziim La Fonnation. As ii
result. the Ctiainba-Kullu part became an area ot‘
non-deposition (Fig. 7.2) during the Cambrian tune.
Towards ‘the late middle Cambrian, the basin wit-
nessed some deepening only to revert to tidal flat-
supratidat environment. At this juncture, possibly
coinciding with the commencement of Pan-African
suturing, there was a widespread regression in the
Kashmir. Spiti-Zanskar and Kinnaur-Kumaon sec-
tors. lt raised the Kunzam La rocks to undergo
erosion (F-‘ig.7.3). Presence of trace elements of ig-
neous suite (‘Bharidari and Sharma. 1,984) and glass
fragments in the sandstone of the Ordovician Thango
Formation, may indicate a small magnitude tilting.
resulting in a transgression during (7) late Cambrian
to early Ordovician. The suturing-rifting occurred
in pulses zesuhing in regression and transgres-
sion in quick cycles. Such cycles uplifted even the
Thango sediments and exposed them to erosion.
During these ‘movements, sub-basinal highs having
NW-SE and NE-SW trends were fanned. It was during
these movements that the 550-450 Ma granitoids
were emplaced in the Vaikrita rocks.
Witnessing the warm climatic conditions. the
basin somewhat deepened associated with the modi-
fication of basin profile, which promoted carbonate
sedimentation and formation of small organic buildups
(Fig. T4) during the Ordovician-Silurian (Takchc)
period. At the end of the Silurian/early Devonian
period. the Zanskar. Spiti and part of the Kinnaui
areas were exposed to erosion. The erosion seems
to be maximum in the Lahaul-Zansltar area, where
only a thin veneer of the Takche Formation is pre-
served. The late Devonian period (Muth Fonnation)
witnessed another tnuisgression in Spiti-Zanslrar and
Kumaon. Though from the Muth Formation to the
Lipak Formation (late Devonian to early Carbonifer-
ous). in most sections, there is a passage sequence
of different thicknesses, this contact is abrupt at
Sarchu and part of Zanskar, while in Kumaon and
eastern Kinnaur, the Muth Formation is succeeded
by the Permian sediments. This relationship of the
Muth Formation with the younger sequences seems
to indicate a local post-Devonian sedimentological
break in these areas. The cessation in sedimentation
of‘ the Muth Formation was followed by erosion
also, which greatly reduced the thickness of ll”!
Muth Formation in the Lahaul and part of the Zflflfiltfll
areas. ‘The Lipak Formation, in several sections
(Phiphuk, Shalkar-Sumdo. Tso Morari). F5515 “V”
the Precambrian rocks indicating a late Devonian-
early Carboniferous transgression. During this pe-

Geolog of Spiti-Kinnaur, Himaehal Himalaya I47
VENDIAN (MANJIR —BATAL FORMATION)
CNAIBI
snmarmt eoasr Lm!
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Fig. Tl. A rifled basin formed sito for the deposition of Eocambrian Manjir ,Kat|rt|;a|t. Batal and Rnlam Formations.
A’ wltere sequence abuts against the basement, B – where non-conformable. The conglomerates were restricted mainly
to the neareoast areas Dehra Dun, Shtrltla, Tand|,Chamba and Snnlgar are plotted at their present geographical
locations, whereas, the basin locations are shown utter correcting for crustal shortening.
riod. even new stretches in the Lahaul-Zanskar ar-
eas were inundated by the sea. The Kinnaur-Kumaon
sector, however, remained unafleeted by this trans-
gression. Several basement faults seem to have
been reactivated during this movement; some like
Syarma and Kaurilt Fault Complexes. which had
delimited th pre-Ltpak Basin. allowed the basin to
spill over the Precambrian basement in the Pltiphuk
and Shalkar sectors towards NE. In the Phiphuk
area. the block NE of the Syarma Fault Complex
possibly sanlt considerably to allow development of
relatively deeper facies ofthe Lipak Formation in
this area. This transgression was followed by
shallowing which formed Sabkha-like basins in the
Spiti part (Fig.7.5)_ The Syarma Complex onee again
became active and delimited the sedimentation to its
SW.
During the Visean (Po-Fenestella Formations)
lime. Lhe sedimentation took place in the siliciclastic
Sea. At this lime, the highs, which were formed
during the Ordovician (Thango period), became pro-
nounced and the Phiphuk and Kinnaur-Kumaon areas
did not receive any sedimentation (Fig 7.6)._Duri|tg
the late Carbortilerous-early Permian (Ganrnachidam)
time, these highs in central Spiti became positive
areas and sedimentation was confined to SE, NE
and NW corners of Spiti and part of Zanskar. The
elastic material to this basin was contributed by
rapid erosion of the central raised part (Fig.7.7)
which removed the whole of the Po Formation and
a large pan of the Lipak Formation. The accentua-
tion of the sub-basinal high into a positive area was
associated/followed by late Carboniferous- early (?
late) Permian rifting which mainly occurred in the
Kashmir and Zansltar parts. The ri.fl.ing brought about
a trattsgressive shallow sea in Spiti-Zanskar with 8
few embayrnents in Kinnaur—l(umaon in which the
Gechattg Formation and its equivalent were depos-
ited. During this period, several linearnents were
opened to provide early Permian sea in the Penin-
sular [ndia and the Lesser Himalaya (Fig. 7,7).
This transgression was short lived as is
evident from the absence of Kungurian to Kazanian
elements in most of the Himalaya and even M.iclit|.n
in Spiti and Kumaon A transgression during the
Djulfittn was more widspread. As a result, Chambe-

’41‘ Mem. Gaol. Surv. Int]. Vol. I24
EARLY— MIDDLE CAMBRIAN (KUNZAM LA FORMATION)
\\
f
‘ , 1
-.. -_ Q»
2/’ ” \ v”‘
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-0 ,_ /. Z \Q_z
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Fig, 7.2, [hiring \hz Cambrian, the basin shrank. the provenance largely peneplained. The basin was \IlBIYl]\-‘ in suhtielal
setting during curl) Currihrian Towards later part it became tidal
Bhaderwnh-Kullu and south Lahaul sectors. which
had remained positive areas since earliest Cambrian
tinie. were inundated by the sea In these areas.
shallower counterpntts of the Guitgri Formation of
the shelf-mttd-cntironnient were deposited as the
Snlooni and Kiikti Fcrmatioris (Fig 7.8).
The advent ol‘ the Triassic witnessed rapid
deepening of the basin upto early Carnic time (Fig.
7 9). followed by a gradual shntlowlng upto late Nortan
(i.i:. upto Nunuluka Formation) Extensive develop-
ment ol‘ coral knoll reefs took place during rnid Norian.
A Rhaetic – Liassic transgression associated with
the rifting tBh:irgav:|. lull?) took place. Once again
the Synrma Fault Complex seems to have become
actite and allowed sedimentation 0I”lhe Kioto Foi-
mation over the Lipalt Formation in the Phtphuk area
(Fig 1 ll).
The shallower counterpart of the Kuling and
Liiang sequences in the south Lahaul area is the
Tandi Group, Several shallowing-up cycles dunng
Ti-iasic. recorded within various fonrtzitions of the
Lilang Group. 1-night have resulted in repeated re-
gressions in the south Lahaul and Chamba-
Bhaderwah areas, which had formed the shallower
parts of the basin. The Tandi Group. thus. may
include several djastcnts. which possibly account
for its smaller thickness, as compared to that of the
Lilang Group.
Al the end of the Calloviait. the Kioto basin
was submerged to the shelf mud depth in the
Zanskzir-Spill and l(innzii.tr-Kumaort sectors (Fig.7. I2).
whereas. the Kashmir, Chiimbtrflhadcmah and Tandi
pans, perhaps due to sudden Lilt of basin towards
north east, became positive areas. ln this basin ensued
the sedimentation of the Spiti Formation Dtlflflg mrly
Cretaceous in the 5piti»Zanskar and Kinnaur
Kumaon areas (Fig. 7.13), continental shelf and
continental slope areas received sedimentation of the
sandstone cl‘ the Giumal Formation. A deepening Of
the basin dunng late Cretaceous citt off the coarse
elastic supply leading to the carbonate precipitaiiflll
which. in turn, was followed by the sedimentation of
the shale ofthe Ctiitdtim Forrnation

Geology of Spiii-Kimmur, Hirnachal Himalaya | 49
RDOVICIAN‘ (THANGO FORMATION)
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Fig‘ 7.3. Dunng, (Jrdm-nciau (“|ale Cambrian), a swufl rise in lhe provenance arm_|nc|udiy|g_ lhc K\|n7,3|n Ln §cqucncc_c|a||sgd
dcpusiliun nl’ the nunglunucnnc of lhc Tlumgu Fnrmnlmn The basin was mznnly in a l|da| sea
SILURIAN (TAKCHE FORMATION)
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Fig. 7.5. Dunng Toumalsvan, hard ground. coral – algal build-ups and evapmite were formcd Thu: was a l|m|l=:d
lransgresmon In Phlphuk and lowcr Spiii areas
VISEAN (PO FORMATION)
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Fig. 7.6. Dunng the \flscan_ lh: an lnlnlly wnlhdrcw [rum Kumann ll fluctualed fmm mud-dmelf I0 l|d|l ||| S|:\|l| – Znnfikfll

Geology of Spizi-Kinnau ,
EROUS-EARLY P
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Fig. 7.7. During lnle Carbonifcrous, cenllnl purl of lhe Spili became a positivz u
Glnmushniam Formllion, Associllcd wilh rifling lh: Psnjal and Pb: Volcunics erupted in Kashmir‘ hn an
PBRMIAN (
KULING FORMATION J
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Lhambn. The early Pcrmjnn lrnnsgmssinll, lhough ofl|Ir|ilcd extent in the Himalaya Wu! more wgional, il inundlfcd area:
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I52 Menu. Geol. Surv. Ind. Val. 124
SCYTHIAN —EARLY CARNIAN (Mll<l’N—CHOMULE FORMATIONS)
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mo uonum n-umsnaue FORMATION) 7 _
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Geology of Spili-Kinnaur. Hilnachnl Himalaya I5 1
RHAETIAN – LIAS _(_fiOT’O FOEMATIONJ *4 if i __
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Fig. 7.11. Rhaclic – Linssic basin of shelf edge sand type with tidal channel lo sublidal vanalmns
JURASSfC — EARLY cnsmczous (SPITI FORM-“‘0”?
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one
Flg. 7.12. |.|:|G Junmsic blsifl was mainly lI’l shelf mud rc[.,|m|: in Znnakun Lnhaul A Spun, Kmnaur – Kumwn. It lunlly
withdrew frum Knshm|r.ChArnhc Ind Tamil In the Kumnnn. lnwnrds end‘ lhc basin became deeper.

I54
Mem. Genl. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
MID-LATE CRETACEOUS (G1UMAL—CH|l O
. I \
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in Spun was Shallm-\Cr as uumpmed In Kumann and Zanskar Proximal lurbidhes of v|||-i¢b|¢ dgpfl] wmc dgpQ§_
ited Lalc (‘rclaccnw rcccixcd scdimcnlalinn of bnsinal limeslune and shale/distal flysch
HOLQQENE (LAKE BASIN) __ 7 _ ___
4 I
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, Raised river bed along
reactivated or’! of
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me IOML and (||) |ndcnul|nn lnclonics, several [nulls were rmclnvnlad These clefioclnd river courses. and
gcncmcd |nr|ds||dcs whlch dammed the rivers I0 form vnal llkcs

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur, llimachal Himalaya 155
uotoczns (WIDE LAKE “rennacr-:> _ _
Restored course
‘ wide terroee
Fan /’

t
I)//I :;§;€ 3
ciised ctbondoned channel t
i)§l’?’l»

\\ ‘
\s
rt»
i
Fig. 7.l5. The liiult hlockiides and also landslide dams were eroded. restonng the river courses, somc of which
along, new channels, leaving behind wide lacuslrrnc terraces.
Probably at this tune the folding ensued and
the earliest recumbent MF] folds in the Palaeozoic-
Mesozoic sequence (cg, in Chikkim and Sakti
Synclincs). which are same as the F, folds
encountered in the Precambrian Vaikrita Group, were
formed. These movements also caused ditl’crentia|
burial of sediments across the Kaurik, Syarrna and
More Plain Fault Complexes to impart local biorire
grade metamorphism mainly to the Carboniferous
rocks. White thcsemovcments were taking pl3C€,
Palacocene-Eocene rocks were deposited in the
shallowed Zanskar part Subduction of thc Indian
Plat-:_ which had commenced. resulted in the
emplacement of ophiolittc rocks (abducted masses)
and rocks of northern lacies as klippe over the in
siin scqucnccs of the Zanskar and Kumaon areas,
As the subduction along the Indus Suture ceased
due to buoyancy ofthc lndian Plate, the continued
northward drill of the Indian Plate forced open the
MCT to translate the Vaikrita Group along with the
Tclhyan rocks on its back onto their present position.
The last two deformations, which involved even the
thrust planes. obviously took place alter the_lhrust
sheets were emplaccd in their present positions.
These folds are reflected even in the Siwalik rocks.
and thus. are of late Pleistocene age.
The morphogenic uplifl was followed by the
first major glaciation. The release of confined
stress and opening oflineaments (Bhargava_ I990)
developed new rind reactivated old faults (Fig.T.l4).
These movements deflected and dammed several
rivers which formed intra-mountain lake basins
(Bhargava, 1990). Bursting of the dams restored
the river flow and gradually the present topography
was acquired (Fig.7.lS).
Various events of the Western Himalayan
Tethyan basin are depicted in Fig.7.l6 A
multicyclic history of north western Himalaya
has also been synthesised by Gaetani and Garzanti
(l99l).

PERIODS FORMATION CLIMQTE SEQ LEVEL
**’*\
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mu m pruw-an urul’rlQrIlliun,IIOOl0l’IIg qclu IICOOI;
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I|d1EIr|1 Pnminlnrumg ¢¢|~=|¢»|; -in GIII_I um”.
Slnn 0’ lrwyniilli =11!-n mm uul 1| uuulcu.
Ouplninq ma-qr oovagmmi hrmnm mu run hunch!
local enrol —o|gn run’ nun-.
‘ Trnqrunlion bl! nu»-‘ -no -nun, srn-em an-||y_
‘ Slamhia vfifl, um-||— ulnmoloponiul -hrylwd-nlpl gulch rod‘
‘ |m|||=-n q gng ‘mm lhnl can m uammnuaiqn.
Sher! riu 1- ,1 _nnonn,Iumunm| n unm|y||\g Ii‘I]”.pfljI
mu m mu purl, _‘uruIue “vim; nnnu II Pu-M11;-||
-..v-ma./|»=q¢»,,
Almon nulumuq, gruum lm||l0\u0|-
Lunoapmv-¢ v¢|i‘4nu¢ nflmq Quid; pg”; yg|g||\i|I\ u“
i I. 7 I i i i ’\l91=nnmm an 9<-4 iii ‘
Grulul nonrig-
.m,nuomnI um
1 1’|0I\nqrlt|ic»\,I|;q l‘uuIuIlbn,r0g|IlIiI| ow nun: nlnnpal
En.-mu ngnmu punwry 1 usual ll uuuuunnnnl cl Ibu-
grfldr tun; Em \|:“|q W//A L.“ -I uN¢q~;ug.|-r,“ U 5“,,,|_,
– s………..
Flg. 7.16 Broad event slrltignphy, sen level flllctlmnuns ns mlalecl m globll changes and puluoclimalic vnrintinns during thc Eooambrian,
Pnluoznic Ind Mcsoznic spun.
C
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WI

8. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
Study for economic minerals in Spiti-Kinnaur
was first carried out by Mallet (1865) for the gyp-
sum deposits of the lower Spiti Valley. Later, Iyengar
(1949) examined several mineral occurrences of
Kinnaur. Though a variety of minerals are known
from Spiti-Kinnaur, but for barytes. gypsum and
limestone, all others are merely of academic sig-
nificance. About 2300 stream sediments were ana-
lysed for Sn, W, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Hg, Zr, Ti.
Mn, Sb, V and Th. None, however, yielded encour-
aging results. A brief description of important min-
eral occurrences is given here.
8.1 Barytes
Snow white barytes occurs as epigenetic veins
in the Thango quartzareniles in the Baspa, Tidong,
and Tagla Valleys. About 5,000 toruies of high grad:
barytes may be available from these occurrences
(Bassi, 1988a).
In the Baspa Valley, massive and cryptocrys-
lalline barytes occurs along east.-west joints and as
quartz—barytes lens along the crest of an anticline in
the quartzarenitc of the Thango Formation near
Arsomang. Pinkish rosettes of barytes are observed
alongjoinls. In all. there are three veins. Chemical
analysis shows 97.70% BaSO,. The details of di-
mensions and the reserves of veins and lenses are
furnished in Table tt.l. Baryres in small quantities
also occurs at Tariya in the Pin Valley.
8.2 Beryl ‘
Greenish and bluish beryl occurs in the
pegmatite intrusive into the Proterozoic rocks, though
no high concentration has been observed in any
locality.
ILJ Building Stone
Gneisses and slates exposed around habita-
tions in southern Kinnaur are extensively used as
building stones. Small scale excavations are car-
ried out near Kupa, Bhabe Dogri_ Lipa, Labrang_
Shiasu. Kanam etc. The dolomites of the Lilang
Group find extensive use as building material in
the Spiti Valley.
8.4 Clay
White to off-white lacustrine clay occurs near
Alargoo, Hurling, Sumdo, Shalkar, Change, Ganfa,
Shiasu, Kanam and Ribba. The clay at Kanam is
indigenously used for white washing. The clay at
Shalkar is pale cream in colour with low hardness
and high plasticity. its shrinkage index is three, gets
fused on firing and turns greenish at l450°t:.
8.5 Fluorite
Minor fluorite veins occur in the porphyroblastic
gneiss of the Kilba Formation in the Wangtu area.
8.6 Glues Sand
Snow white quartzarenile of the Manikaran and
Table 8.1
Probable reserves of barytes in the Kinmtur district.
Location
Vol
(Cum)
Sp G
r.
Reserves
(Tonnes)
Arsomui-lg,
444
l7760
4.44
1131.20
4.44
99.90
SI.
No.
l.
_ Supra Valley
_ do
_ do
do
Nature Length Width D/D€plh
(m) m Ext. (m)
v=m l 20 0.20 10 40
Vein 11 so 0,40 20 400
Veinfll is 0.15 I to ||.2s
Lens 10 1.00 10 |00.00-
444
22211)
‘Only 50% isbarytes while rest is quartz
4.40
264.00
2. Mung]: rt-or r Veins a0 0.20 10 so
All-IlIQlI,Tidm1g
Valley
. 1. Gckod|BglnVoll ‘ Vein +10 1.20 20 4.00
4.40
511210’
Net Proluble Rem-vu – 5006.90 tonnes

I5! Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 114
Muth Formations may be a potential raw material for
glass and ferrosilicon industries but the remoteness
of the urea and lack of local demand may pose
serious constraints on any economic exploitation.
8.7 Gold
The sandhars along the Satluj River in the
stretch between Morang and Karcham are season-
ally panned for gold by the migrants from Bilaspur
district. The extent of these sandbars is too small
for any commercial interest.
8.8 Gypsum
Large deposits of gypsum occur at Chango,
S1-ialkar, Hurling. Gyundi Nola and Duiia Dangse and
upper reaches of the Yulang Gad and small pockets in
the Yangthang area It occurs in t.he upper part ofthe
early Carboniferous Lipalt Fonnation. Some of these
occurrences were studied by Mallet (1865). Kathiara
and Raina (1965) assessed 1.25 million tonnes of
gypsum down to a depth ot25m from Shalltaratm alone.
The occurrences at Yulang Godand Shalkar-Sumia and
Hurling sections are of much larger dimensions.
Gypsum occurs as 30-35m thick beds extending itpto
two kilometres These beds often contain limestone and
sandstone lenses. The gvpsum is generally granular and
snow white in colour. The analysis of the alabaster
variety shows 31.70% to 32.5l%of Ca and 54.36% to
5-I 45% of SO, The other varieties associated with it are
earthy, impure gypsitc, transparent selenile and dense
anhydrite. The anliydrite CDl’1lELll‘I5 40 13% ofCaO and
67 51% of SO‘. A conservative estimate of the total in
sin: reserves of the gypsum in the Kinnauz-Spiti area
may be over I0 million tonnes. Despite the huge
reserves, the low market value ofgypsui-ii and the large
transportation involved, render the deposit
uneconomic
8.9 Haeiriltite
Ocurrcrice of haematite was first recorded in
the rocks of the Thango Fomiation by Hayden (1904).
The haematitoband at Thango occurs in the basal
part of the Thango Formation and is 120m long and
4.5m thick (Fig. 8.1). Similar but smiiller lenses occur
at Shitiltar. Takche and Duna Dangse.
8.10 Hydmclrhonl
Greasy black hydrocarbon encrustaiions in the
form of ‘ShiIaj¢¢i’ are observed in the black slates
near Kuno village in the Tidong Valley, Kinnaur.
l.ll Limestone
The Talichc and Lipak Formations and Lilang
Grtllp contain enormous reserves of high grade
limestone. The Ca0 contents of the metamorphosed
Lipalr limestone nmr Yangthang varies between 48.36%
to 51.77%. This marble, though lacking good shades,
can be used as chipstone for flooring purpose,
Despite good quality and enormous reserves, remote
terrain and huge cost of transportation make the
limestone deposit uneconomic.
8.12 Lithium
A few samples of pegiiiaiite from the Yangthang
area gave upto 1000 ppm Li values but the follow-
up studies were not encouraging.
B213 Mica
Most of the pegrriatite veins contain hooks of
muscovite and biotite hut these do not have any
economic importance.
8.14 Molybdenite
A single speck of molybdenite was recorded in the
schorl rock associated with the Rakcham Granite near
t.lie snout of the Jabtya Glacier in the Tidong Valley.
8.15 Fhosphorile
Disseminated phosphatic nodules occur in the
Gungri Formation. Nodulcs contain uptu 25% PiO,.
but constitute less than 5% ofthc whole rock. Simi-
Iarly, some ofthe nodules found in the Spiii Forma-
tion are also phosphatic and these too constitute a
small fraction of the total volume.
3.16 Potash
The quartzarenite of the Giumal Formation in
thin sections have been found to contain as much
as 50% glauconite by volume. The chemical analy-
sis ol‘ these rocks, however, shows a maximum potash
content of 5.64%.
8.17 Pyrite
Pyrite is profusely disseminated in the slate.
phylliie and quartzite of the Batal Formation and
shale of the Po Formation. lts concentration, how-
ever, is too insignificant. Pyri’te’s occurrence is lin0WI’I
from the Purhiini area where some old mining his-
tory also exists (lycngar. I949) Kfllhiflfl Bnd
Venugopal (I964) who re-examined it, however.
found the occurrence of academic interest only.
8.18 Radioactive minerals
Geiger Muller counter survey carried out HI
the granitic terrains did not yield any significant

Geology of Spiti-Kinnatlr. lllmaelnl Himalaya 159
Ts
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INDEX
RIVER FINGLOIEIITE
COIOLDIERATE
OO
OO
§lII
CONGLOMEIMTE
t
RED TO OFF WHITE
OUARTZARENITE
HIEMATITE — RICH SAND
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Fig. 8.l. Tape and campus! map of the haematite nch band in the Thango Formaliou Lo: Tluingo
anomaly However, the basal black slate horizon of
the Batal Formation exposed near Ropa shows higher
than background radiation counts but the anomaly
is not high enough.
8.19 Silver
The quanz sulphide veins intrusive into the
Wengtu rocks exposed 1.5 km east of Khetanang at
Matti Chm are argentiferous. A sample analysed gave
an Ag value ol‘ I0 ppm (Atneta and Swain, I980).
8.20 Sulptildc minerals (Base metals)
Malachite stained quartz veins are associated
with the rocks of the Kunzam La Formation. Galena-
sphalerite-quartz veins are observed close to the
Rakeham Granite contact near Kombo. Many basic
bodies, especially those in the Thango Formation,
contain chalcopyrite specks Rangbar (Ropa Valley)
is probably the only place in Kinnaur where small
scale excavation and smelting for copper has been
carried out in the past. The Rangba: occurrence was
examined by Gerard (.1833). Hutton (I919), lyengar
(U49), Kathiara and Venugopal (1964), Shanna (1976)
and Bassi and Chattopadhyaya (I984). Two small
old workings are situated 7 km NW of Ropa; one at

Table 11.2
Results of Scm1-Quanlilalivc Spncizogmphic analysis of the Femaginous Quanz-Arenilc. Thango Formation
r<:~@1M-~15’101“1~1~1~1~»1¢~1$110101@~1@~1B-1110
Suuplen c
‘R112
<10
—1
<10
w
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\.1
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<10
,_
<10
1.»
0
<10
_ <10
w
0
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Q
<10
<10
v1
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0
<10
<10
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<10
<10
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o
<10
<10
1‘.
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S1’-liker
<30
<10
<10
L‘.
0
Dhum Danpe
I00
<10
<10
‘ L‘.
D
1-11/2/1
111111
LS/8
15/9
_ LS/10
LS/ll
LS/13
sm/112
151011
30
nlleclcd by Blurglvl ct cl I984]
_ Thango 30
Thungo 50
fiuangu 30
_ Takche 30
Takche 30
$11101“: 30
Shmkar 50
<10
<30’
<3 0
30
<30
<30
<30
<10
<30
F39 ,
_ S0
T300 <10
<3jJ_Q” <10
<300 10
<300 <10
| <300 <10
I <300 <10
I’ | <30o <10
I <]00 _<l0
I <300 <10
<10
A
<:1
Sam In mllecml by Bhaudlri I. Shanna 1904 , _
<30 I <100 200 <3oo <100 <30 300
<30 I <100 200 <300 20 | <30 <100 <30_ 30
<30 I <100 200 <100 <30 100
<30 1 <100 20 <300 ‘1 <10 <100 <10 100
so <10 1 <100 300 <1o0 <30 [<100 <30 100
100 <10 <100 200 <100 <30 l<100 <10 100
100 <10 <100 500 <00 ” <30 i<100 <30 30
100 <30 <100 zoo <100 <10 <10_0 <30 30
200 <30 <100 300 egg <30 <100 <30 10
so <30 I 100 300 400 <10 <100 <0 30
Analysed 111051, Fm-idabad by S/Shn 1.1<. Sacha, s.c. 01111111 ma R K. Chopra
[<50
20 60
P1021 I Thmgo 200 <10 <30
200 <10 <30
I_lfI(/21A I Ihango
<11» ,
<100 I <50
<10 I
<10
100 [<10 _<1cg_ .10 l<30 <100 so 300
<10 < <30 <100 J0 3011
Samples colkgrcd hy Bani I991
40I90I10] I<1o0I10| I I L
Analysai =1 c-s1, Faridnbed by SIShri v.s. Klliyar, s,1~1 Sinlh. v,1<. Gupla.
R.N. Aggarwul‘
B.K. Paul, R.K. Chcpra and V,ll’._ Klshyap
|s=1¢1=r=| LocalilY_ I crL| M011/J C-1| C”
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8
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s Q0’
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1 V Thnngo J 200
2 Thango I IGJ
3 Ihgggo 30
1″
59
L
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¢ lD
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45
. I .
Val11csfmPb Sn
Wf
I”
I”
F‘
F‘
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‘- 20001 10| L 140% 003%
. .W,N’b1M
‘Q
3’
F‘
SC and La we bcluw the nonnal dcleclion 1i.|ni1
Analysm at 051, Chcmical hhommty, Fafidnbad, by S/Shri RN. Rmm 1<.s. mm, s Bhan,
Mrs. P. Tiwnri ,SIShri n.1<. Chopra, 1110113111. Ram, v, Srivastava and Dr. Raul Gupfi. E I’ll ‘l°A ‘PW ‘R-“15 1°99 “WW Geology of S||itl—I(l|n|Iur, Himechnl Himalaya I6! 3450 m and the other at 3750 m above m.s.l. Both the workings have followed a quartz-pyrite-chalcopyrite vein along a shear zone in the phyllite. These veins have a limited extent. The ore was smelled at Maneshar about a kilometre northwest of the old workings. Minor excavation here yielded the huuth earthen ware and matte. Detailed examination of the old workings niles out any commercial viability of the prospect. Specks of arsenopyrite are observed in the carbonaceous shale of the Po Formation clox tubasic rocks in the Thibda Nola. The shale on analysis shows Cu-200 ppm, Pb-900 ppm, Ni-100 ppm, Co-50 ppm and As-500 ppm‘ Small lenticular pockets ofgalena occur in quartzarenite of the Po Formation about 1.5 km NW of Tabo along an escarpment 8.21 Tin and Ttlltgrtell ,ln the Yangthang area, the limestone of the Lipak Formation has been extensively intruded by die tounnaline-bearing Nako Granite and associated! related pegtnatite It has thermally altered the limestone into calc-silicate rocks and marble A grab sample from this rock yielded 3000 ppm of Sn. However, detailed investigation of pegmatite and marble, despite a favourable set-up, could not locate tin and tungsten mineralisation in the area (Bassi and Singh, 1987). 8.22 Wollastonite Light greenish, bladed wollastonite is exten- sively developed in the metamorphosed limestone of the Lipak Formation near Yangthang on the NH- 22. Its economic viability has yet to be assessed. Smaller wcurrenoes of wollastortite exist in the Lingtl Valley near Phiphuk 9. GEOCHEMICAL EVENTS ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN THE SPITI VALLEY Extraordinary events of short duration and of global ertent are oflen manifested in sediments in the form of rare earth/trace element anomalies, isotopic anomalies, shock minerals, microspheniles, carbon soot. etc. Major stratigraphic boundaries across which mass mortality and mass extinction occurred are known to coincide with these geochemical events. This concept formed the basis of the l.G.C.P Project- 29] (Geochemical Events during Phanerozoic). As a follow-up in lndia, the Permo-Triassic sequence ex- posed in Lilang village was sampled to find if any geochemical anomaly existed at P/Tr boundary. A similar study was also carried out by Bhandari er at. (I992) in Spiti, who had collected samples at five centimetre interval across the Pfl‘ r boundary. The PI Tr boundary traditionally is delineated along the Gungri-Mikin contact. However, Bhatt and Arora (i984) favour its delineation above the Otoceras bed. I 1- about 30cm above the base of the Mikiri Forma- llOl’l. In the Lalung section, a one centimetre thick fcrruginous layer occurs above the Gungri Fonna- tron and below the Lilang Group (Fig.9.l)_ This tcrruginous layer possibly marks a short hiatus during Dorashmian, the faunal elements of which are not known in Spiti. ln the present study samples. representing one centimetre stratigraphic width, were oollected across the Gungri-Lilang succession with the helpof a PVC chisel. These samples were powdered by agate ball mill for the analysis of the Rare Eanh Elements at the Nuclear Activation Laboratory. Geological Sur- vey of lndia, Pune 9.1 Distribution pattcrrrofllare Earth Elements 32 samples were analysed for Ce, La, Sm. Eu, Yb, Tb and Lu (Table-9.1). All these REEs‘, par- ticularly Eu_ show a conspicuous positive anomaly Confined to a one centimetre top black shale layer of the Gungri Formation, occurring immediately below the Fe-layer (Fig.9. I). The REE distribution pattern in the Gungrr and Mikin Formations, i.:. across the P/Tr boundary, is summarised in Table-9.2 From Table-9.2 and Fig. 9.1 it may be noticed that the REE in abundance pattern in the black shale of the Gungri Formation ts abruptly disturbed by that of the top one centimetre layer. However, in one centimetre Fe-layer the REE re-acquire a trend similar to one found in the black shale occurring below the top one centimetre layer. The overall pat- icrn of REE abundance in top one centimetre layer and that in the Mikiii Formation are comparable (Fig.9. l). Similarly. overall pattern in the black shale below this and the Fe»1ayer are comparable. The changing patterns of REE: possibly suggest that event which occurred during the period represented by the sedimentation of top one centimetre black shale-layer caused an immediate but ephemeral im- pact on REE pattern. lt, however. took quite some time to produce long lasting effect on normal sediments of the basin. 9.1 Implications of the REE anomalies The positive anomaly of seven REEs in one centimetre zone represents a distinct geochemical event. The concentration of all the seven R.EEs in one centimetre layer points out to a single source. Eu anomaly is known to be associated with volcanogenic sediments, sulphides and iron forma- tions (for detailed references see Taylor and McLennan, I985, Bhandari el cl, I992) and also in extra-terrestrial eucrites and lunar anorthosites (Consolomagno and Drake, 1977). No volcanogenic event of Permo-Triassic age is known in lttdta. The Panjal Volcanics, being of early Permian age. are unlikely to have any influence on the constituents of this layer of late Permian age. ls this concentrationtdue to bolide impact or some indirect influence o’l’ extra-terrestrial phenomenon? ll‘ so, similar anomalies are likely to be of global extent. From only of one section ol’Spiti, it shall be premature to draw any definite conclusions regarding extra-tex- restrial source as the cause of the REE anomalies. The topmost one centimetre layer showing geochemical anomalies occurs just one centilnclfli below the traditional Pfl’r boundary across which dramatic changes in faunal contenli §l>f”d °‘/¢’
5 Ma (Telchert, 1990) are known not only in
Spiti, but throughout the globe. The temptation
is too high to conclude that whatever was the
source of the REE anomalies, it was an important
event and a causative factor to effect extinction
of Palacozoic taunal elements and cessation Of

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Mom. Goal. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
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Geology of Spiti-kinnnur. Hlmachll Himalaya If-
Tnbl: 9.2
Summary of REE abundance across the Pfl‘ r boundary
ahgve GIll’Il!J’l (UM F-IflIP|=) ‘
“fqrrnm me mnrmctre 519 ppm l.2 Carxvax -Eu nnannly 4-ive
black shale layvrlOnn
stlmplk) d —— ~————— r *1”
. til t – Tb I
Uungri (mpnim “mph” u7Wm.144W||1(,\vq¢@g l.2 2(Ava’ap L66) Concave ch we lnaml y
E) lnFe-la!/I _ M
on ‘i,Mw|:¢],y‘-, ‘ 7 ‘ llldppm 7 H Curtcnvcduw-iveT\s||lunul_v
l§$¢’\ ‘
lkiwrn)
Mum“ — whim REE! v-mam uttwu-),, vlluc Ovcnll wr=m1P’-s9-1)
___,____ _– (tA+CvSn|rEu*Tb+Yb+Cu) I
Fmmation vnlua ‘ I t
t t Com the Eu anunlly. I
}\.||k|“(hoflnn\ mm smqllfl) lflppm-1 l6F|I’I\(A’fl’l8¢ |9 n-7049″”? 1°” “ ‘° ‘ma
‘An\ariun1lu.l¢mrnpo¢il:u I l6ppr||(H\nlinn.tnl. I96!)
sccnmcnutuon and to tnduce new Triassic elements‘ the REE anomaly pattern is establtshcd over
H0wcvcr_ no model should be envisaged til] wide rcgton, at least of the Gondwanaland.

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A I1, |9!\’t. ‘|‘mnm [F:h<nn|rrn) cnnndonls and nnhcr inccnvl-\\sil= from fiilong Valley. Klnnaur dislricl. Ilimmllnl Pndtlln India. Rec Re: (.7¢ol.. V ll. pp Z84-287 (‘r-whiz, K. C.. 1992. Hare Teclomcx and Crimnl Evohrnz-n. Pergamnn Floss, Jl0p. Unumioain-mrr, G. I. AND Daavz, M._ I977. Cnrnposilion and avoluimn of lhe eucrnc parenl body ‘ Evidences from rar: :arlh :l:|nenla_ Gaochem. Acla_, V. 41. PP. I1 7 I -I 1! 1 CUKYK, H E arm ‘l‘av|un. M I-1., I977. Cnmparison of Cunllncnlal slope and shell” :|1v||’o||||1g|1l; in rm Uppgy Camhnan and Lowcsl Ordovician nl‘ Nevada. In: Cunk. |l.E and Enoa, P. (E111). Deep Walzr Cnrhrrrum Spit Publ, SEPM._ v as. |’|1’I sr-u ’ mo Muuuus, H. T.. I98] Basin Mlrgin Envurnnmenl. In n sulinlle, |’.A., Bclmul. D.0. and Moore, C.H. (Edx.)_ Carbonate Depouilinnal Environments. Mini Amer Armc Pclrai. Gm, v 33. pp. 5404,11. C\-mrnumw. J_. D._ H44. Non: on Moor: Cmlh iravelr in Ladahh and’Gaurd’l accounl of Kunawar Jour. Anal. Snr”. Btllgal. v. I3, l71p Dns. ll .\’. I982. Repnrl on geutherrnal explorauon in Xallnj Valley haul spring arcaa. Sunla and Kliimuilv dialricll. HP. Gaul Saw. Ind Rap (Unpuhl). F.S. L930-ll. l’)ax(\HI’1A, r. x. 1911 On lexlural chana:leri\li(‘s -‘run Mulli Qaarlnlc of span and Kllli rnpcvnl. Canlral Himalaya: J»-r» Gaol. sap. ma. v. 12(2). |1|I I51-I56 D’\\rm>r'<_ T_, I964 Nulz on |h= Carhoflifemul aml Jurassic hraizliinpmll colleded by Cnplaln Godwin – Aullen Qnan Juur Gen! Son, v. 20, !ll7p. harms. D. K, EnnuocE_ F. G um Bzao, B. IL, I97! Reuognilinn of barrier environmenla. Bull’. Amen Anne. Petrol G001, V55, |1|i SSO-S65 Dun. C. l… IOILHAN Rm um Rm. S V-. 19!}. A nole on lhc lino of I lepidmdrold in the Po Fonnalion. Spili., Him. GIOL, V. ll. PP‘ 442-40] Dlcmvu, _J. M.. 1957 Lnwor Permian palacypud: and gaalaopoda. from lht Camavun Basin, W. Aulralia. Bull. Mm. Ru. Geo! & Geophy:.. V. 41. pp. 19-4|. Drcnzumn, W. ll‘. nun Sucun. C. A., I979. Plate Ioclonicn and aamlrlom compoailion. Ann. Auoc. Patrol. Ginl. 5111., v 63, pp. 1164-znaz. arm-. c, |I90 Anlhrncolilhir: foanll of Kashmir and spin. Pal. Ind. su, 15, v 1(2), 193p -—-. H195. Ceplialupmia of lhe Muachallrallr Pal. ]r|d., Ser. 1!, V 2(2). l88p. ~’—, I897 Ceplialupoila 0|’ llre Lower Tail: Pal. Ind.. Sn. I5, V. Z(l), llllp —-,1903. The Permian fouila af Ila: Himalayas. Pal Ind, s=r. 15, v |(s), 2049. ~~,1907. Fauna nf lh: Himalayan Murchelkalk. Pal. Inrl., sq. is, v !(1). 1:09. W’, Wu! Ladinic. Cami: and Nari: fauna of Spill. Pal. Ind, Set. ‘I3. V. 5(3). l57p. ~~, 1912 The Tr-in of ihe Hirnalayu, Men. Gnol. Surv. Iml., v 1s. pp. 101-JSI. ii, I915 The Anlhrlcolilhic fauna of Kaahmir, Kinnaur and Spili. Pa! ind- Scr. N. s.. v 5(2), nsp. Din-n, ll. K mo Buarracnuvn. D. P., 1975. Main: foanila from Sllooni Formation. Chlmba diamct, H.P. Gaol. SHIV Ind. Muc. Pm, v 14 11). pp. 59.0. Evusn. F… lill. Geological remark: laud: during a jmunay from Delhi lhroupr lne Himalaya monnlaina Io lh: frnnliu nl Lillie Tibet. Prnc. Gaol. Soc. London, V. ll, Sfifip. \ l70 Mem. Gcol. Surv. be-60:11:10. 0., 1936. Helvy |||‘nl\I lndliiqm Id IIni| Aplbuiun In \him|eIln Qnligqhy. Bull Anon Auoc. Pntnl Owl, V 40, W. 984-I000 Finn. A. 0.. I964 Tln Lofet Cyclofliein of lhe Alpine Triulic. In : Merriam. D.F.. (Eat). Symposium on Cyclic Sedimentation. Bull. Gaol. Sur. Kansas. V. I69, pp. 107449. 1-, I915 Tidnl Dtyonitl, Dlclulcin Limalnn: of lh: Nnflh Mpim Trilllic. In Gimlnu-g, Il.N., (EA), 17¢‘nI Dapoun : n can book of mun! unupln and foul! cornm-porn. Ipvilqet Velllg (Bellin), pp 23$-141. I~‘Lum.. E . I981. Mtcrofavdn mlnlym afLlmc.uaIm. Springer v-1-;_ 1-Iuidqlblr‘ . amen, N” York, mp. PIAIIL \V., Gauulll. A um TIOIIIIIIOIFF, V., l971.Genloju1 nhnrvntimu in lhu l_ndnkh lrul (Hjlnlllyn) ; 1 pnlimincry reporl. Sclwetx. Mmnral. Pvlrog. NHL. v. :7. pp. no-m. FIIIIIIAII. O. M. no Simona. J E.. 1978. Principle: 0]’ Scdiniuwlagy. Jnhn Wilcy U Soul. New Yuk. 797p Fucus, 0., |91s. Cnnlriblllinll ll: tho genlngy nf lln North- wqum mm-1-yn. AM. Gaul. BA- v. nus), l59p. ——-. l9l2. The |eolo|y of IIIG Pin Vulley in Spiti. I!.P.. um; _/¢m>_c“| H||ndn., v 114(1). w J2!-3:9.
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R- ml Pelconl smu, v v|(4), W. 44341:.
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W U9-|s1.
—. lnriuln. L. Ann !n|vunv,._ S 5., I911 Lu
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n mung, run“ n spm rH~»¢I~y- ll”
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Hashnhl and tn-pun Mam. Gaol Sun»: 1»-1, v. aw),
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. ltrltti A sketch nf the geugrlphy Ind geology of the
Htlttnlnyl Mountain -no Trbet. The geology fly Ike
Htmflla. 4′. Cmvl nf Ifldil Press, c-tcutu. 236p.
IIF.|M. A. tn» Cntrlxsul. A., me CEIIITII amt-p – Oeologiunl
observations I-r Ih: Swiss Erp:d|Itn|\_ ms. um Soc
mu». su, v. 1.1, us,
llmnlmtts, |;_ Wt] rum Br llte Spili sh-tn .
temellihrnnchietn lml Gllllopndl Pal. Ind, Ser. I3,
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notes on lltz “mm to the Spili Vnlley (P-n|,=t-)
jointly wtth the Jn! Ilnynl Dlnilh Expedition In
Centrlf Am, mo om Surv Ind Rip. (Ur|pt||I|],
ES. I949-50.

I12 Mom. Geol. Sun”. Ind. Vol. I24
KAYNIARA. ll S. AND BIIAIOAVA. 0. N. I962 – Note on lhe
Copper mineralinlion lfld gzoclumncal nnrpling near
Shililur llld Q:O€h=ll1i€l1 Inverse bclween Lin-gli and
Hurling, Llhaul-Spili disvicl. Fuhjub. Geo! Surv Ind.
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— AND VENVGOPAL. D. \’.. i964. A nol: on lh: gcochmiical
lllversel for hnsemclals belwcen Wnnglu and Namgya
in nu s-nu, v.1|=y nl’ mm Kinnlul dinricl. Himnclial
Prnde:l|.G¢al. Surv Ind Rlp. (U11p||h|.), rs. was.
64
—— AND Rum. A. K. I965 llcpon an lhe gypsum dipflill
ncnr Shalkar. Knnnuur dislriva. Himachnl Pradesh. Gevl.
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——-, Swim A K ANKI Sm, S L’. D, I985. Yong Lirncslnn:
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pp. l9l-l9!
Ihiln. 1.. L1i.aw1s. 1.. LR‘/l£I\i, J um C|.u51=ms. W. |’J!7.
Cnulll EVl)|\-“I011 of the Nnrlhcrn Kvharian llzll.
Eulern and CGI\l[£l| Africa. ln Krn||:r_ A (lid).
Pruluozoic Lilhnsphere Evnlulmn (iendynunrc Series.
I7, AGU Gaol Sac. ,4n|, Cnluradu, pp 1|‘!-l\]_
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Kvmn. O. mo Darn. I M, I984 . G¢0|(\5y nf 1 par! ur
Kinnnur dinric! (Lip:-Knnam-Ra-pa]. llimachnl Praclerh.
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– ?D¢voniAn) Spili Vnllcy. Hlmachul Pradnh, India
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—— Msnm, S. H. mm Pmuuau, G , I972. A review ml‘
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Rumiz. RAVI mu NAGAL, S. C., 1981. Geology of a plfl of
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FS. 1980-81.
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H.P. GIOL Surv. Ind. Rep. (Unpubl.). RS. I981»
92
i», Rum, B. K, BMARGAVA, O. N . Mm-nv. P K. run lhnu.
R . l984 The Pr|:c:|n|hri:||rCnmla|’inn Iloumlzry pmhlzm
and ils pr0!p&c\s_ Norlhwzsl mm-|=y=. India. G201
Alng. V. lZl(]J. pp. ‘Ill-729.
ii, Small, G AND SRlVA.‘<‘YAVA_ G S, ]9H7, Fnlneulnlc §!Is|l|f,rl|’|hy of Kmslrrmr bum wilh =;,»m| Itrtlrlltt lo I-ldder Valley. Kulinur G101. Surv. Ind. Spcl. Puhl_, V ll. pp u|-102 um.-, s. §|NOII, |. B. AMI Slrmll, ax. 1911 L|lhoclnliynphy, HIIICIIIHI. depnsilmlinl environmem and “I6! fossils hf III: Tcllnyan scdinlenls uf Mall: John!‘ urea. Pvlhbrlgalll-Cllamnli dixlncl. Ullar Pmduh. lndia ./our. Palaeom Sac. Ind.. V Z0. pp. J96-435 Kumui, Suntan, I916 Rb-Sr Gcochronnlogical sludrzs ol mm: granitic nnd gneissn: rocks Rom Himaclial Prlduli and Kashmir Himalaya Unpublished PI: D. 1’11;-11.1. Punjab Univ:-rsny. Chandigarh liwmm. 8. R.. BllAMnT, V 8.. KAKAI. ll. K. AND KANSAL, A K. 19116 Rb-Sr radmmclric age of lhe Wnnglu Gneiuic Complu, Kinnaur dislricl. Hima-.I|a| llinulayn. Bull ma. Gwl, /1.002., v. mm, W 91-|o|. — . Kntsu. A K AND SHARMA. K K. 1981 Rh-Sr lg: of lh: Len Plrgill Ieucnglnilc of the Hnnmchal l-light! Hmulayn. UGC Nanonal Seminar an IHJIMY/UNI” Plalex — Hhnnlayen Mounmm I|l4I|lfM‘ and Rock Fuhm: New Delhi. 26-27lh Feh.. 1987. Imiaww. M W., I980 Cnrhnnnle dingenelii: mrlures from nllrlhmc dingznelic znvironmenh Bull. Anncr. A1101‘ Pilmf, final, V 64(4), pp. l6l—lI7 Geology of Spill-Kinuaur. Hilnachal Himalaya I73 Mau.Er. F. IL, lI65. On |l1e gpaum of Lowe: Spili Wilh I lil Bl lninalah wllmal fmln lhe I-funalayu. Mam. Gaul Svrv. Jmi, V. 5(2), pp. SS-173. Mmoaru, V. D. mo Mun. ll-5-. W99‘ Bifififllirlvhifi “”45″ pf up Palaeezoic and Menaluic aallimenla of Tdhyan Frau ill UP. Hilllllyla. RM. GU01 Surv. Ind. V. I11”). pp. 190198 Mcm\nou,,C. A.. I879. Note of a luur through Hanging and Spin. Rec. Gaol. Sum Ind. V, I2. |‘lp. I34. Mznaorn. I‘. C.. Smou. G.. Kulaal, G. auq AIILUWALIA, A D.. U951. Chilinizua from Lower Palaenzoiz anquerlcc pr Spili, Hr. 1-mi-. Gcaphylology. v. 12(1), pp Ill-I|6. MIDDLEMISS, C. S. l9I0. A reviaion of the Silurian-Triu sequence in, Kuhmir. Ree. Gaol. Sarv. !nd., V. 10(3), pp. 206-160. Muuvsovzcs. E. Von, I899. Upper Tnauie Cephnlnpod fauna: of the Himalaya: Pal. lr|d.. Scr. 15, V. 3(l), l5‘Ip. MOORE. R C.. I936-I964 A Trealue on Invertebrate ‘/’o.ml.1. Geof. Soc. of/lmu: Univenily 0/ Kama: Publ. Paru H4911]! )- C(2!Jp ). H(I927p.), I(1Slp’I. K0199’). L(490P~). O($50P’) & Q(“1P’) Nana, K. Ann Ru, S. K, 197]. I-lvidencea of ovrrlhrualing in znelamnrphic lernin in lhe Simla Klippe, bower Himalayas. Amer. Jcmr. s=.., v. :10, pp 10-42 Namaa. M. M. AND Smon. M. P., I976. Siraligraphy and scdimznlaliun nl‘ lhe Zamzliar area, Ladakh and adjoining pails pr mp Lahaul rtgiofl of Hllnlflllal Pradeth Hm. 0=p1._ v. s. pp 1’6:-an — -—— awn SINIIA, I’. Ii… I97! On Ihe Volcanic: of ill: Yanalur Valley, Ladakh. Rec. Geol. Sum Ind, V. |l0(1), pp 191.101. Nnma. Kznaa, I975. Telhya Sedilllelllalinn in ppm pr spin om. Surv. Ind‘. Mu: PIIDL, v am), pp. I76-IE7. N.\l/wan Daa, G R., Fumaaaaann, T. N , TAuyA_ ll. C. Mm Puma. N. V. A. S., I979. Geological alructurn and Uranium mineraliaalion an Xlllu, Himaclu] Himalaya. J…” am. 50¢. !pa.. v. 20(1). pp. as-ma. ULBHAN. T.. I868. Nole on the fuaaila in lh: Socin|y’| Collection; repmltfl lo bu from Spill. Jour. Anni. Sew Bangui. v 11. pp. 212-691. llmiau, ll 1)., I888. Nolea on Ihe pology of Iha Nominal Himalaya Rec. Gaol. Sum !nd., V. 2|. I49]! Pam, P C. mo Azm, R 1., l9ll1l. A record ml‘ omaeollea from llle middlz Triaaaic of Spiti, Kllllldlll Fladeah rm-. 0-»-‘.. v 1|. Pp. 444-449. Pascoi. E. H., I96! A manual ojlha geology of India and Burma. 2.. A Govt nl India Pub]. Calculla, pp. IDS-I338. PASIIOA.‘ R.. I964. Grain aizc rlplcsnnlllion on CM Pallema an a geolugical lool Jnur $14.. P¢|mI., v. 34(4). pp. no-:41 Puollu. G. E AND Win‘. W. D.. I928. The almdure and correlalion of the Silnla rocku. Mam Gaol. Surv lnd.. V. 53. 140p. Powtas, M. C.. I953. A new mundneaa acale for sedimentary parliclu. Jaun Sad. P:lr0L, V. 11. pp. I17-lI9. Pnmsn, Gnu arm BAIM, A. K.. 19I3. Reporl on lhe preliminavy geolhermal invelligatinn in Sallnj and spin hp: -pm‘; -m-I Kinnlllr -pa Llhll-l| -pa spin aamml, H.P. 0.01. Surv. ma. mp (UIlp\.lb|.), |=.s. I981-82. ‘>
Plasma, K. C. am: DE! Ru, I990. Permu-Trilasit Folaila
ftum lhe Tandi Group of Lahaul Himalaya, Himachal
ma.-n . ‘n.=i| Sllaligrapllic and P-I-=pp=pgnpm=.
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SIB.
I’lu.\>IlA. K. _C., Dn Ilal AID Kimnxaaru, S., l9lIlI Geology
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Himauhal Pu-inn. Gaol Surv. /-.4 Rip (Unpllhl),
PS. |9i6-I7
Pulll, V. M. K., I981. Trace foaaila fimn Nelang Fnmialiun
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Ruin» Rm, A., mu, c L., Ravi, 1., Ian, s. v. Juan Snail,
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Rzanlxn, H. Cl, 1981 Scdmrcnlnry Envlranmcnla and Faun
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rm. Set. I5. v. 1(|). “mp.

I74 Men. Gcnl. Surv. Ind. Vol. I24
llsw. F. I1. C.. 19l2. Ordovician and Silurian fnaaill
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llslnznll, H. E. arm SIMON, I. B., I97]. Dav Golf Van
0…… .1‘,-.n……=r… .4…) .1 0.. G./.3. I/0..
v……..».4 …..! s.i..lf……………. s….i…i…g. M…-._
v. 3, pp la!-201.
__ …..> sum… |. a., um. o..,…………1 s..2………..,-
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lfl – Will!” RE. (Ede). fldfve Taeranicr. National
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s¢…….., w._ mo. s:…..¢…..; s……….-. … 2……» ……
N…»-.>…… n.»…:..y..». ruck: 1.. . s.u…. as (m),
1‘..¢.y’. ….i r……>….w.-. r..b|., N… n=1|.i, 62..
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Projzcl in Salluj Valley. Simla and Kmnaur dimicu,
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s……., 1. 0., was 1>.|.=»..=..,;..,.|.y ..r v….n.y… 1…… …<1 iu .=|..i…..i..|, wan. other Lale .>………..a= mi… ..r
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llS||.

LOCALITY
Mqw
Alamr
Alingdar
Angla
Arsomang
Alargoo
Baragaon
Baralacha La
Barn Shigri
Baren
Baru
Halal
Balserig
Bhabe Pass
Brali Thanh
Change
Charang
Charna Pass
Chuktyanjan Thach
Chichim
Chidang
Chikkjm (Peak)
Chi Lkul
Choling
Chomule
Chum
Dabling
Dakar Kuru
Dalhousie
Dankar Gompa
Darcha –
Dunadangse
Fa Ion g be nda
Ganfa
Ganmachidam (Hill)
Gcchang
G-ckod
Ghunsarang Pass
Giabong
Giumal (Domai)
Giumdo
Gllling
LOCALITY INDEX
LMEEH EQMEEH
wwwwww
|~>–n–
3]
32
32
3|
ll
32
31
3|
3|
3|
Jl
32
31
32
32
32
31
31
ww
Mm
ll
32
32
J2
J2
32
12
3|
32
J2
3]
ll
31
12
32
32
I an u
O-Onnw
~1m~|a\au-
20
46
.16
J6
n
2|
24
u
u
59
26
ll
SJ
Z1
04
20
€8§fi
44
J3
12
05
40
26
52
57
25
09
17
55
47
10
()4
09
888888
45
00
00
l5
J0
30
20
O0
30
00
30
l5
W
m
00
88888
30
O0
00
00
00
30
40
15
45
J0
00
45
00
00
00
00
In
22
57
38
2]
43
I0
22
25
30
20
00
37
l7
04
38
39
J4
09
17
59
08
S9
26
09
I9
34
-u.–us
O\\lG-l
I5
42
32
36
16
59
42
14
27
l0
39
06
45
O0
30
10
00
00
l5
00
00
30
25
00
40
O0
00
00
10
10
O0
O0
00
40
25
00
30
l5
888888
00
00
00
45
15
30
00
50
00
00

Gungri
Gurgursumdo
Gyundi
Hal
Hango
Hangrang Pass
Hojis confl ucnoc
Hurling
labtya Glacier
Jakhri
Jangi
Jo n gchen
Kand|yali
Kah Dogri
Kan
Kanam
Kalcham
Karzok
Kaurik
Kebri
Khab Dogri
Khadra
Khar
Kharo
Khetanang
Khimokul La
Khokpa
Kibhcr
Kidul
Kinuer Kailash
Kinlno
Kiolo
Kimsang
Kmnbo
Kuang
Kan
Kuno
Kunzam La
Kupa
Kurig
Kurmo
Ki Gonrpa
Ki Village
Linn];
Lagudarsi Pass
Lalung
Mean. Gaol. Surv. Ind. Vol. 124
. 0 ‘
32 09
3| 51
32 20
12
31
31
31
32
J1
31
31
Kl
3|
3|
32
31
3l
32
32
32
3|
3|
32
3|
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Moppo Plain
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APPENDICES
DETAILS OF LITI-IOSTRATIGRAPHY AND SEDHVIENTARY SEQUENCES
APPENDIX – I
REPRESENTATIVE LITHOLOG OI-‘ A PART OF THE BATAL FORMATION
Fine sand. ripple bedding. low angled truncation.
Fine sand succeeded by shale at top.
Medium fine sand. fining-up cycle. ripple bedding.
Ripple bedded sand showing fining up
Ripple bedded silty fine sand to fine sand, -succeeded by finer silt and
clay showing lenticular bedding and laminated clayey silt.
APPENDIX – ll
LITEIODOG OF THE KUNZAM LA FORMATION
Kunzam La Section
Thango Formation
Pinltish/maroonish silty shale. fine siltstorie and fine grained
sandstone. beds show cross-bedding and ripple lamination.
Dolomite bands silty at bottom and sandy towards top, showing
algal column and mat and nodular bedding inlerbedded with shaly
siltstonc, finc sandstone and silly shale showing low angled cross-bedding
in lenticulai beds. These at point of pinching show thicker ripple unit less
than one centimetre ripple layers mostly with mud drapes. Low angle
cross-bedding. wavy bedding, lestoon cross-bedding with local herringbone
cross-bedding and mud cracks.
Matrix-poor sandy beds, showing large scale cross-bedding, ripple and
lcniicular bedding.
Gindcd rhythmites of limited lateral extent (50-l00 cm), shaly sequences
have thicker rhythms on dcm scale with leriticular and wavy bedding
towards top Sand packages with mud drapes show low angle tnincalion
stirfnces. Local flute and small scale ripple.
Silistone. lilllc shale and sporadic medium grained sandstone layers
snowing ripple bedding. leniicular bedding. low angled truncation,
ripple mrirks. channel fills and sand over silty shale sequence.
The channel sand and also underlying units show syn-depositional
deformation and load casts. Rich in trilobile trace fossils.
lliital Formation
Parahio Section
Tliango Formation
Green-pink-white, cross-bedded quartzarenite-shale siltstone,
mudcraclts, ripple marks.
Siltstone-shale-dolomite sequence, local graded bedding between
siltstone and shale of limited lateral extent, low angle truncation
Details of stratigraphic section measurement are furnished in the Appendices 1 – XX. The top of each
sedimentary cycle has been identified, e.g. cycle A. (lC) stands for incomplete cycle. These details have
been some what generalised in the lithologs illustrated in the main text.
3m
Sin
6m
6m
4m
3m
450m
500m
700m
l000m
470m

Geology of Spiti-Kinnaur. Himachal Himalaya
surfaces. local flute casts, high as well as low angle cross-bedding.
The siltstone and shale show thin rhythmite, with sand lenses.
Encioses Ptychoparia Jpifiensis, Oryctocephaius sp., Opsidiscus sp,
Lingulellu sp, Argaulus sp, below three metre thick dolomite bed
occurring towards basal pan. (Bl-iargava at u/, l9tl2)_ Hyolitlies,
Plychoparia sp, Liosrmcina sp, and Emencrichelle sp, in shale in between
two dolomite beds developed in middle part and trilobite fragments in the
two metre dolomite in upper part.
Grey green micaceous sillstone-quanzwacke and claystone graded rl-iythmite
of limited lateral extent ending in ripple bedding and low angle llminfltion.
Sand packages. low angle truncation surfaces. Convolute bedding low angle
ripple bedding, cone in cone structure.
Siltstone, shale and fine grained sandstone, showing lenticular, ripple
bedding, low angle truncation. Sand as channel fill showing
syn-depositional deformation, load cast. Trace fossil 7 Aslropnlilhon.
Diplichnites, Planalltes, Monomorphicimus. trilabile traclrways.
Dimorphichnus, Gyrocharle, (Bhargava el al, 1982).
Batu! Funnation
APPENDIX – Ill
LITHOLOG OF T]-[E THANGO FORMATION
Pin Section
Takelie Formation
Purple sandstone, cross-bedded, mudcracks, cuspate and oscillation ripple marks,
olten llat-topped.
Cross-bedded sandstone with shale partings and trace fossils.
Fernigirious sandstone, mudcracks and burrows in upper part, cross-bedding
and ripple marks in basal part
Fine to medium grained sandstone and interbedded shale with ripple
cross-bedding in basal part and herringbone cross-bedding in upper 70m.
Sandstone with mud cracks.
Cross-bedded sandstone, herringbone cross-bedding and tidal bundle structures.
Cross-bedded sandstone with shale (I0-l5%), local pebble beds, ripple marks.
cross-bedding and local load cast. Planoliles and Ilouaultia in sl-tale.
Cross-bedded (30cm thick) sandstone local fine shale parlings, low
angle cross and planar beddings.
Conglomerate with liaematitic material, quartzarenite clasts are from
Kunzam Ln as ‘well red sandstone akin to that of Thango‘s,
Kunnm La Formation
Takehe Section
Takehe Formation
Ferniginous fine grained medium bedded (20-40cm) sandstone. Ripple
bedding, rare festoon bedding, bioturbation.
Medium to thick bedded sandstonqtliin bedded laminations. locally coarse.
Mega cross-bedded, medium grained sandstone with cross laminations, mud
I8]
185m
60m
37t’lm
Uni
35m
145m
lO7m
l2m
280m
50m
l9.5m
180m

s)
0
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Geology of Split-Ktnnaur, I-llatachal Himalaya
cracks. rounded crest. bifttrcating ripples.
Thick bedded fine to medium grained sandstone with shale beds (20%).
Massive thinly bedded, cross-bedded sandstone with shale partinga.
Ferruginous medium to thick bedded sandstone. Planar and cross-bedding.
Thick cross-bedded sandstone.
Cross-bedded sandstone with shale pebbles.
Cross-bedded sandstone, siltstone-shale, low angle (l0°-l5°) cross-bedding,
high angle, planar, rare cross-bedding, festoon bedding.
Cross-bedded medium to coarse sandstone with haematitic bands in basal
part, trough cross-bedding, rare tow angle cross-bedding, planar ripple layers
with mud drapes and large cross-lieils with tidal bundles.
Kunzant La Formation
APPENDIX – IV
LITHOLOG OF THE TAKCBE IOIMATION
Taltehe Section
Muth Formation
Predominantly fine ripple bedded sandy dolomite to calcareous sandstone,
a few centimetres thick ‘oioturbated siltstone, wave ripples common.
Silty bioturbated siltstnne with a few centimetres thiclt arenaceous dolomite.
Fine grained carbonate with thin hioturbated silty bands showing ripple
bedding, parallel lamination with low angle discordance.
Silly to fine grained bioturbated sandstone with 0.5 to 5 cm fine
calcarwus sandstone.
Bioturbated stltstone tnterlayered with centimetre thiilt rippled fine
calcareous sand. The sand content increases towards top.
Shell rich coarse grained dolomitic limestone.
Calcareous, silty bioturhated siltstone with a few millimetre to
eight centimetre thiclt calcareous sandstone. Sand content maximum
tn mtddle part.
F0ۤlllflZl0tl5 calcareous sandstone, interbedded with a few centimetre
thick biuturbated siltstone.
liioturbated siltstone, a few centimetre to four centimetre thick fossil-rich
calcareous sandstone in basal one metre. 7PsIlopIty|on and large crinoid oasicle.
Calcnreous fossil rich sandstone showing low angle cross-bedding.
Decimctre-thick calcareous sandstone and bioturbated siltstone altemations
with one centimetre thick sandstone intercalations
Richly losstltferous calcareous sandstone showing low angle cross-bedding.
One metre above base large scale syn-depositional deformation structures.
Btotuibated siltstone with decimetre to centimetre thick calcareous horizon
l’lCit in fossils. Between three to four metres from top, horizon rich in corals;
between six to seven metres from bottom, hummoclty cross-bedding.
Predominantly low-angled. cross-bedded, fossililerous. calcareous sandstone
showing ripple bedding and httmmocky cross-strstificstion.
Biorurhated silty sandstone with several centimetre thlelt tine sandstone.
Bioturbatecl siltstone with millimetre thick l’|ne silty sand.
l2.5m
45m
l2.$m
65m
66m
l7m
50m
l70m
Cycle 1-l
2.5m
Zm
l.5m
Cycle G
16m
l3.Sm
1.5m
14m
9m
7m
3|n
9m
4m
7m
Cycle F
7m
5m
9m

Geology of Splti-Klnnonr, Himnchal Himalaya
t-lumrnocky, cross-bedded, fine sandstone with thin bioturbated siltstone.
Bioturbaled silty sandstone with centimetre thick rippled sandy layers.
Bioturbated siltslone and a few centimetre thick parallel laminated.
rippled sandy layers; top l.5rn shows several decimetre thick fine
sandstone with hummocky cross-stratiticatiorr and low angle discordance.
Fossiliferous calcareous sandstone with millimetre to one centimetre
thick silty intcrcalatinns increasing towards top.
lnterlayercd 30cm-lm thick fossiliferous calcareous sandstone and
binturhated silty clay.
Fine grained sandstone showing hummocky cross-stratification and low
angle discordance.
Bioturhated silty fine sand alternating with centimetre to 10 cm thick
calcareous sandstone showing parallel lamination with low angle
discordance.
Fossiliferous calcareous sandstone.
fine grained sandstone with hioturbated silty sandstone. Thicker units
show hummocky cross-stratification.
Brachiopod rich rippled, bedded and low angle cross-bedded sandstone
containing fossil debris.
Fine grained sandstone showing low angle cross-bedding and hurnrnoclry
cross-stratification.
Bioturblted fine grained sandy siltstone.
Allcrnltion of medium to fine grained sandstone and calcareous medium
grained sandstone, having individual unit of one to three metres.
Nonautcareous sandstone show low angle cross-bedding, hummocky
cross-stratification in calcareous variety, trough cross-bedding, ripple bed
and thin silty clay intercalations common. Fossil debris at
5.30m above base.
Calcareous, medium grained sandstone showing festoon type cross-bedding.
Bioturbated clayey siltslone with a few cm to lOcm thick fine
sand horizon.
Thango lornntion
Plrllllo River Section (Gechnng)
Muth Formation
Thinly bedded dolomitic limestone with corals and stromatoporoids at 20m
and 25m above base.
Nodular dolornitic limestone
Ripple marked Iossiliferous clolomitic limestone with wavy and
ripple beddings.
Shale with limestone.
l8S
1m
Cycle E
1m
l0m
Cycle D
l0m
llm
Cycle C
5.5m
22m
Cycle B
2.2m
12.5111
Cycle A
l.2m
1.8m
lm
15m
Sm
49.5rn
Cycle G
2.8m
l 0.6m
Qcle F
9.6|It

K)
i)
i)
1″)
8)
D
=)
d)
0)
ts)
II)
B .=.’2‘=”b<‘-‘-‘ 539535 ¢l ll) Geology of Spltl-Klnnour, Hlmlchal Himalaya Medium to thick bedded earthy, nodular dolornitic limestone with current and wavy bedding and shale partings in the basal part. Shale with limestone, occasional cross and wavy beddings. Shale with ripple marks and cuspale current bedding. Thin to medium bedded marl. lnterbeddod shale and dolomilic limestone (fossiliferous). Cross-bedded marly limestone with shale partings, trace fossils at eight metres from base. Cross-bedded sandstone with interference ripples and load cast; shale, siltstone. Shale with marl. Thinly bedded calcareous sandstone; burrowed in upper part. Greenish sandstone. Cnnoidal hioturbated mudstoue. Thaogo Fonuetlon Pin Valley Section (between Mud and Shim) Moth Formation Cross-bedded sandstone Calcareou! sandstone with shale, hioturbated. Dolomitic limestone. Thin bedded limestone with syn-depositional slumps. Nodulsr limestone (strontatoporoid) with shale psrtings. Cross-bedded calcarenite with shell fragments, syn-depositional Slllmpl. Coquina limestone. Nodular (stromatoporoid, corals) limettcne. Bedded limestone. Limenone, marl, calcareous shale with burrows. Limestone (70%) with brown shale alternations. 1‘hu|go Foromloo Clmlttyanjeo Thaeh Seetloo Geellng Formation Grey Sandstone. Menoeeoua limestone. l3.2m Cycle E \[IC) 24.fIm Cycle D l.6m 14.2m Cycle C z7.51n lB.4m Cycle B 3.8m 0.8m Cycle A l.3SIn l.lm 3.2m Cycle B 2.8m l4.8m l0m l5.3in 46.9m Cycle A 6.8m 0.2m l4.3m 6.3m 32.6111 l6‘.5m Cycle C 4m 0.5m Geology of Spirl-Kinnaur, Illmachal Hilllllnyn Fossiliferous herringbone cross-bedded sandstone with lensoidal limestone. Coquina limestone. Calcareous sandstone with shale band. Tlungo Formatloo Ghunaa Lana Tlmck Section (zzum N at Chuktyanjnn-Laraa Section) Gechang Forlnntlon Fossiliferous sandstone. Thango Formation Gurgur Sumdn Section Geehang Formation Calcareous sandstone. Limestone. Calcareous sandstone‘ I-‘ossiliferous limestone. Grey calcareous sandstone Thango Formation Lnnltnpnnug Sectlon Mnth Formation Grey calcareous sandstone. Earthy brown limestone with calcareous shale. rich in Cortl- Brown argillaceous sandstone. Nodular limestone with coral. Brown sandstone with brachiopods. Thango Formation Leo Section Muth Formation Cross-bedded grey to brownish weathered calcareous sandstone, I87 Cycle B 16m l5m Cycle A Sm Sm Cycle C lilm L5l’n Cycle B 10.5m l7_5m Cycle A 2.5m Cycle C 25m 40m Cycle B Srn l0rn Cycle A 60m Qcle B d) c) l>)
1)
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cl
bl
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n3)
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1″)
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Geology of Spitl-Iilnnauraflintaeltll Himalaya
occasional brachiopods.
Brownish, calcareous sandstone, rich in corals and brachiopods.
Thiclt-bedded to massive dolomitic limestone with Hulysites, Favorites,
other corals, sponge, itromaluporoids, rare brachiopods.
Argillaceous limestone to marl, with nodular coral colonies.
Cross-bedded calcareous sandstone with fossils.
Thango Formation
Mancliap Sectlon (Tldnng Valley)
Matti Formation
Brownish calcareous sandstone. arenaceous limestone with Halysites,
brachiopod shells and 7 Psilophylon.
Bluish grey to grey dolomite, dolomitic limestone with large number of
tabulate and rugose corals,
Grey argillaceous marly limestone, minor intetbeddetl shale. It
encloses inverted” basket-shaped Favorites colonies and erinoid remains.
Brownish calcareous to ferruginous cross-bedded sandstone
enclosing casts of orthids and peatamerids.
Thango Formation
APPENDIX – V
LITHOLOG OF THE MUTH FORMATION
Takehe Section
Llpalt Inrtliatlnn
Calcareous ferruginous sandstone, interlayered with parallel
laminated sandstone
Sub-parallel laminated sandstone with low angle cross laminations,
calcareous, ferruginous. l0-30cm thick sandstone with low angle
cross-lamination:
Sub-parallel laminated 5-l0i:m thick low angle cross-bedded unit.
Low angle cross-bedded units.
Sub-parallel laminated sandstone with low angle truncation surfaces.
0 3 to t.5m thick low angled cross-bedded sandstone interlayered
with sub-parallel laminated (20-50cm) unit with truncation surfaces
Sub-parallel laminated (5-10cm) sandstone interlayered with a few
low angled cross-beds.
0 1 I0 l metre thielr low angled cross-beds with 5-10cm thick sub-parallel
laminated beds; l.5|n towards top, the cross-bed units are 5-lScm thick and
occur sub-horizontally over discordant surfaces representing
channel fills,
I0-20cm thiclr sub-parallel laminated layer with equally thick and in equal
proportion of low angle. cross-bedded sandstone with prominent
truncation surfaces
50m
20m
50m
30m
50m
Cycle C
40m
40m
Cycle B
70m
Cycle A
l00m
3m
7m
J.l,
l.Irn
2m
10m
7m
8.5m
9m

Geology of Spiri-Kinnaur. Ftimaclial Himalaya
Sub-horizontal, laminated sandstone with a few l0-l5 cm thick low
angled cross-beds and tnincation surfaces (5“-7“).
0.5-1.5m thick sub-parallel, laminated sandstone alternating
with thin low angled cross-beds with prominent discordant
surfaces (l0°-15°).
10-30 cm thick sub-parallel laminated sandstone, alternating with l0-20 cm
thick low angle cross-beds.
0.3 to one metre thick irregular cross-bedded sandstone with an 8fOSlDl11tl base.
Sub-parallel laminated sandstone.
0.5 to l.$m thick low angled cross-bedded sandstone, interlayered with
equally thick units of sub-parallel, laminated sandstone. Discordant layers
very prominent (maximum angle 20″).
Sub-parallel laminated sandstone with low angle discordance surfaces.
20-50 cm thick low angle cross-beds (low trough) interlayered with 0.3
to one metre thick low angle sub-parallel laminated units.
l0-20 cm thick sub-parallel, laminated unit, interlayered with low angle cross~beds
of equal tl iclrness.
Low angle cross-beds with sub-parallel laminated units.
l0-20 cm thick sub-parallel laminated beds, interlayered with low angle
cross-beds of equal thickness.
20-30 cm thick low angled cross-bed with 5-10 cm sub-parallel laminations.
Sub-parallel lamination with low angle cross-bedding.
Low angle cro'”s-bedded unit.
Sub-parallel laminated unit with a few l0-20 cm thick cross-beds.
Low angle cross-bedded unit.
Sub-parallel laminated unit.
Low angle cross—bedded unit.
Sub-parallel laminated unit.
Cr0ss—bedded unit with moderate dip of the foreset.
Sub~paralleI laminated unit.
Low angle cross»beclded unit with erosional base.
5-l0 cm thick sub-parallel laminated unit with a few low angle cross-beds
and discordance: (3°-7‘? ).
Low trough cross-beds.
ll)-40 cm low angle cross-beds (low trough), interlayered with 5-30 cm
thick sub-parallel laminated unit with 10″-15“ dip of discordant surfaces.
Predominantly 5-l$ cm thick, sub-parallel Iaminations with a few 5-l0 em
thick low angle cross-beds. Discordance surfaces mostly dip at 5° to 10°
l0~30 cm thick low angle cross-beds, interbedded with 5~l0 cm
thick sub-parallel laminntions. Discordance surfaces dip at 15°-20°
5~l0 cm thick sub-parallel lamination with irregular erosional base.
5-l0 cm thick units of sub-parallel lamination showing discordance
surfaces upto l0″ and low trough cross-beds with l0°-15° dip of the
foreset in upper three metres and feeble discordance and rippled surface
in lower four metres. lrregular erosional surface at base.
l0~20 cm thick low angle cross-beds, interbedded with a few centimetre
thick units of sub-parallel lamination, with low amplitude ripples. Rare low
amplitude trough cross-_beds and low angle discordance surfaces.
l0-30 cm thick cross-beds alternating with 5-l0 cm thick predominantly
sub~para1lel laminated unit with low angle truncation. Local low amplitude
ripple laminations.
l0-30 cm thick, low festoon cross-beds with hi- to polymoclal
palaeocurrent directions.
I89
Sm
l3.5m
13m
7m
5m
SI11
Sffl
4.5m
Sm
2m
Sm
3.3m
1.7m
0 03m
Mm
0.7m
2.7m
0.7m
0.8m
0.6m
(17111
0.5m
2m
lm
Sm
4m
4m
2m
7m
5.5m
12m
13m

Geology at‘ Spiti-Kinnaur, Hintathal Himalaya
Trough cross-bedding and low angle cross-beds with discordance surface.
Contact erosional 7 ii
Takehe Formation
Mud (Mnth) Section
Lipak Formation
Ripple marked (a few round crested) quarturenite.
White, thin to medium bedded sandstone, oscillatory, wave and
current ripples; mud cracks with fer-ruginous filling.
Thick and cross-bedded medium grained sandstone with
‘burrows (cross-bed 30 cm thick).
Brownish, fine grained, thick bedded sandstone with green
sandstone pebbles and thin dolomitic sandstone beds.
Cross-bedded sandstone with thin to medium horizontal
lamination/bedding. At places friable and leached.
Cross-bedded (cross-bed 25 cm thick) fine to medium grained sandstone.
Medium grained ripple marked sandstone enclosing torrential
cross-bedding in the middle part.
ii Contact erosional 7 a
Takehe Formation
llango-Tumtum Thanga Section
Lipak Formation
Snow-white sandstone.
Dirty brown, calcareous sandstone with bands of white sandstone.
Snow-white sandstone.
Haematite-rich zone with burrows.
White quartzarenite with trace fossils
ii Contact erosional 7i
Takche Formation
Khimokul Ln Section (Tldong Valley)
Geeltang Formation
Snow-white sandstone.
Brownish, ferruginous sandstone.
_Snow-white sandstone with brachiopods.
Grey. micaceous sandstone.
Snow-while sandstone.
e-—*4~ Contact erosional Te-~—i
Takehe Formation
APPENDIX – V]
LITHOLOG OF THE LIPAK FORMATION
Takche Section
Top not exposed
3m
l4.7rn
l4.3tn
21m
2.4m
slm
26m
l07|n
Bm
6m
BIII
. Zrn
60m
15m
l5m
lllrn
5m
45m
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Cycle
Cycle D (IC)
59m
Cycle C
47.5m
1(|n
21m
Cycle B

Geology of Spitl-Klnruur. lllmechnl Himnlnya
N.X. (in Lateral extension limestone, shale, sandstone)
Brownish, fossilifelous limestone.
Medium bedded sandstone and limestone with
herringbone cross-bedding.
Sandstone.
Calcarenite with bird‘; eye structure.
Mutt: Fonnntlon
Lipnlt Gad Section
Po Formation
Yellow and huff dark, flaggy hard and splintery limestone.
Grey shale and limestone alternations.
White qummrenire.
Compact, dark crinoidnl limestone.
White and grey sandstone. purple slate. minor flaggy limestone.
Limestone, weathering to yellowish and reddish brown colour.
Hard, dark grey and splintery ooralline limestone.
Mtnh Formation
“APPENDIX – VII
LITHOLOG OF THE PO FORMATION
Plnglung Section
Genmachidnn Formation
Sandstone, local shale, pebbly in upper part.
Shale, local sandstone. siltstone beds.
Sandstone, shale, siltstone.
Base not seen i-.ii—-—–
Genltnehidnm Hlll Section (ltt pert)
Genrnschidnm Formation
Sandstone, local shale pebble in upper put.
Shale, eiltstone, sandstone.
Snndstone, shale
23:11
2.3m
Cycle A (IC)
tl.6m
Jim
l.2rn
Cycle C (IC)
164m
l22m
Cycle B
Um
61m
Cycle A
73m
43m
ll8nt
Cycle C
80m
Cycle B
50m
Cycle A
350m
Cycle B
$0rn
lD0m
Cycle A
250m