Ethno-botanical survey and cytomorphological status of medicinal plants

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Vivek Sharma, Bikram Singh, Raghbir C. Gupta, Hareharan S. Dhaliwall
Akal School of Biotechnology, Eternal University, Baru Sahib-173101 (H.P.) India
2.P.P. Division, l.H.B.T. (CSIR) Palampur-176061 (H.P.) India.
Department of Botany, Punjabi University Patiala-147002 (Punjab) India.

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ABSTRACT

The present study reports the wealth of medicinal plant resources of Himachal Pradesh, North Indian region and especially in the Lahaul and Spiti “Cold Desert” of higher altitude Himalayas. Ethnobotanical data was recorded for 63 plant species (5 from plains, 8 species from mid Himalayas and 50 from higher altitude Himalayas) of North Indian regions. The information was collected from tribal people, hakeems, elder  villagers and traditional healers through different interview methods. Data for each species covers  vernacular name, loeality/altitude, habit, part used, ethnobotanieal use and dosage. Among these 63 medicinal plants, maximum number oftimes leaves are used against different ailments (55.56%), followed by roots (36.5l%), flowers and fruits (30.l6%), whole plant (19.05%), seeds (12.71%), bark (11.1%), stems and rhizomes (3.18%).

These medicinal plants are used by local people against many ailments and well documented by different researchers worldwide. Along with comprehensive ethnobotanieal studies, the complete cytomorphologieal analysis was also recorded for these reported medicinal plants from study areas with having few new chromosome reports. As per our knowledge, it is the first single constructive report available about the germplasm evaluation by using both eytomorphological and ethnobotanieal analysis
tools from these study areas of Himachal Pradesh.

INTRODUCTION

The total natural and traditional association and interactions between man and his surroundings environment are defined as ethnobotany. It is an interdisciplinary science, which shows the significant  association between plants and tribal’s. It reveals the precious information on the unexplored and unexploited natural resources and gives us the new use of these natural resources. Ethnobotany promotes proper utilization and also to conserve these plant resources for further future use. As per different reports India is one of the richest biological heritages with more than 50 million tribal people under 300 tribal communities, constituting about 8% of the total population of the country (Anonymous 1994; Maheshwari
1987).  About 15% of the total geographical area of the country is inhabited by the tribals (Gupta 1987). The tribal ethnobotanical information is significant not for the tribal people  themselves, but also beneficial for the whole world.

Unfortunately, these old civilizations, traditional skills and beliefs are going to be lost due to modernization, industrialization and also by discarding the traditional lifestyle by younger generation. The people of the tribal areas are the repository of accumulated experience and knowledge about traditional uses of medicinal plants. But due to modem civilization into tribal areas, knowledge about the use of traditional herbal wealth is vanishing rapidly. It is well reported by all India ethnobotanical survey by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govemment of India, that about 7500 plant species are used in traditional medicinal system by 4635 ethnic communities. World community is facing challenge to inventories and records all ethnobotanical informations before the traditional cultures are lost forever.

The state of I-Iimachal Pradesh has been extensively explored floristically by various workers such as: Atkinson 1882; Hooker 1872-1897; Collett 1902, with emphasis on taxonomy. Studies on diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants in different regions of the state have also been well known, such as: Kangra
valley (Ahluwalia 1952; Uniyal and Chauhan 1971), Kullu (Rastogi 1960; Uniyal and Chauhan 1973; Dobriyal et al. 1997), Chamba (Gupta 1961; Shabnam 1964). As per earlier reports, the estimated number of higher plant species (angiosperms and gymnosperms) on this planet is 250,000 (Ayensu and DeFi1ipps 1978) with a lower level at 2, 15,000 (Cronquist 1981; 1988) and an upper level as high as 5, 00, 000 (Tippo and Stem 1977; Schultes 1972). Of these, only about 6% have been screened for biologic activity, and about 15% have been evaluated phytochemically (Verpoorte 2000). It is a fact that the 25% of all medical prescriptions are based on substances derived from plants or plant-derived synthetic analogues (Gurib-Fakim 2006). Himachal Pradesh a hilly state has rich plant diversity due to varying degree of agro climatic zonation. In one of the earlier report it is clearly mentioned, that about 3500 known plant species recorded in the state and about 500 are reported on the medicinal value (Chauhan 2003). Keeping this in view, many researchers have explored time to time the indigenous knowledge of different parts of the area (Shanna and Mishra 2009;
Gautam and Bhadauria 2008, 2009) and many more are still trying.

The present study is therefore, a continuation of ongoing labors to explore the traditional knowledge and cultural practices in these study areas with the ultimate aim of evaluating them for diversity and utilization pattem and also to protect from disappearance of this treasure. As we know that ethnobotany is entirely and fundamentally a new field of research. It is highly mentioned in different research reports that if in this field plants investigated systematically and scientifically, it will yield result of great value of the archeologists, anthropologist, plant geographer, enthnobotanist, linguistics, botanists and phytochemists (Kumar and Choyal 2012).

The plants of Himachal Pradesh have been deeply studied by different researchers and scientists, such as: wild plants of Himachal Pradesh (Shanna 1976); some commercially
important medicinal plant of the Kullu forest division (Uniyal and Chauhan 1982); ethnomedicine and supplement food by Gaddis of Himachal Pradesh (Brij Lal et al. 1996; Chauhan 1999) described the medicinal and the aromatic plants of Himachal Pradesh; the ethno-botanical study of the useful plants of the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh (Singh 1999); ethnobotanical studies of Gaddi- a tribal community of the Kangra district (Shanna et al. 2000); ethnobotanical wisdom of Gaddi tribe in the westem Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh) (Singh and Kumar 2000); ethnobotany of Rawalsar (Mandi District), Himachal Pradesh
(Thakur 2001); commercially importance of medicinal and aromatic plants of Parvati Valley (Himachal Pradesh) (Shanna et al. 2003); characterization of some traditional fermented food and beverages of Himachal Pradesh (Thakur et al. 2004); indigenous herbal remedies to cure skin disorders by natives of Lahaul-Spiti (Brij Lal and Singh 2008); traditional uses of medicinal plants oflower foot-hills, Himachal Pradash (Prakash and Aggarwal 2010); uses of plants in control of different diseases in Mandi district (Kaur et al. 201 1); ethnobotanical uses of herbal shampoo of Shivalik hills, Himachal Pradesh (Kharwal and Rawat 2012); traditional phytotherapy for snake bites used by the rural people of Hamirpur district (Kumar
and Choyal 2012).

As a part of our investigation on ethnobotanical inputs along with cytomorphological data for
reported medicinal plants from Himachal Pradesh, the aim of this research Work is to provide
precise, truthful and detailed information of reported medicinal plants to future researchers
Worldwide. As per our knowledge, there is not even a single constructive report available
about the gennplasm evaluation by using both cytomorphological and ethnobotanical analysis
from these study areas of Himachal Pradesh.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The North Indian (I-Iimachal Pradesh) medicinal plants have been extensively studied by
using different parameters. These are given under the subsequent headings such as:
exploration of medicinal plants diversity, germplasm evaluation by using cytomorphological
and ethnobotanical analysis.
Plant Material
Area Surveyed and Identification of Plants
The extensive field surveys have been carried out in the North India especially from the
higher altitude Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh to investigate the existing medicinal plants.
Specific localities have been marked and infonnation about these localities, Where the
collection tours have been made is provided in maps (Maps-I). For the exploration of
cytomorphological diversity, collection tours have been made to different localities during
different times of the study period 2006-2009. The various regions of Northern India
(Himachal Pradesh) were surveyed during the study period for collection of some important
medicinal plants include: Keylong, Trilokinath, Udaipur, Darcha, Losar, Kaza, Rahla fall,
Rohtang Pass, Manali, Kullu, Chamba, Kangra, Palampur, Una, Baddi, Solan, Shimla,
Fatehpur, Dhameta, Samkar and Indora of (Himachal Pradesh). Photographs of the area
surveyed were arranged in (Plate-A). Ethno-botanically reported plant specimens were
arranged in Table 1, and identified at the Botanical Survey of India (BS1, Northem Circle),
Dehra Dun, Department of Biodiversity, IHBT (CSIR), Palampur and deposited in the
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab) India. Some of these plant
specimens were photographed and illustrated in photographic plates (Plate-B).
Germplasm Evaluation
Genetic diversity of medicinal plants has been evaluated by using morphological, cytological
and ethnobotanical parameters. The infonnation on diversity, distribution, habitat
preferences, habit, part used, medicinal uses, active principle of medicinal plants of North

India and ethnobotanical inputs/ infomiations were compiled with the help of tribals, local
people and hakeems from different study areas and results were critically cross checked and
compiled from different research publications and books (Kirtikar and Basu 1935, 1984;
Chopra 1956; Chopra et al. 2007; Pullaiah 2006; Acharya and Srivastava 2008; Khanna et al.
2008; Kharc 2007).
Cytomorphological Stuidies
Morphological Analysis
With the help of different morphological parameters from field observations, with varying
phenotypic characters were recorded to find out new morphotypes. The detailed
morphological data of so marked morphovariants and for all medicinal plants were recorded
and summarized in Table l.
Cytological Studies
Chromosome numbers of different medicinal plants were studied with the help of meiotic
analysis of young flower buds by using standard acetocannine squash method. The young
flower buds were fixed in Camoy’s fixative (6 parts ethanol : 3 parts chloroform : l part
glacial acetic acid) for 24-48 hrs and then stored in rectified spirit until use. For chromosomal
preparations, anthers were squashed in 1% acetocarmine (Prepared by fluxing BDH carmine
in 45% acetic acid). The chromosome counts were confirmed by observing a number of well
spread PMCs and meiotic abnormalities if any, were analysed from many PMCs. Pollen
viability was estimated by heating the mature pollen grains in 50% glycerol-acetocannine
staining. Well filled pollen grains with stained nuclei were taken as fertile whereas shrivelled
or unstained nuclei as sterile. Photomicrographs were taken from temporary slides using
Leica Qwin Digital Imaging System. The reported cytological data were presented for each
medicinal plant and given in Table l.
Ethnobotanical Studies
Inventorisation of ethno-botanical inputs and information regarding the local uses of
medicinal plants for different medicinal purposes was collected from the diverse habitat of
study areas by conducting regular field trips during 2006-2009. Various tribal people, local
people and hakeems of the area were interviewed for the present study. As we know that
maximum ethnobotanical information were collected from rural people. Study has been
carried out in several time intervals during the period 2006-2009, to collect information on
the medicinal, cultural and traditional uses of plants of the area. For these studied plants

about 80 peoples from different areas were consulted for information collection. The
interviews were conducted for collecting information from community leaders, elderly
persons of the villages and local medicine men. We have collected information by asking
questions during the interview in native local language in order to minimize bias information.
While, maximum information was collected from older individuals, but in some cases young
people have also actively participated in the interview sessions. About eighty persons have
been interviewed from different villages of the study area and most of the persons were
farmers with a primary or little education and their age varied from 40-70 years. The final list
of plants was prepared according to information obtained from local people, hakeems,
medicine men and trivals. The floristic surveys were conducted throughout the study period
in different area of North India. The plant specimens were collected during these surveys
were identified at the Botanical Survey of India (BS1, Northern Circle), Dehra Dun,
Department of Biodiversity, IHBT (CSIR) Palampur and deposited and preserved in the
Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab) India. The reported field data
was compared with literature on medicinal plants of Himachal Pradesh. Plants were
identified and nomenclature with the help of “Flora of British India” (Hooker 1872-1897),
Flora of Lahaul-Spiti and Flora of India. Some literatures of ethnobotany have also been
considered like: Srivastava et al. 1992; Yadav and Suresh 2003; Pushpangadan and Kumar
2005; Thakur 2011; Gautam et al. 2011; Kumar and Choyal 2012; Shanna and Sood 2013.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Cytomorphological Studies
The detailed cytomorphological data have been compiled for different species of medicinal
plants from Himachal Pradesh. The research data has been given for each plant on the basis
of cytological studies and its morphological research analysis made during 2006-2009. Along
with that the detailed infonnation on diversity, distribution, habitat preferences, habit, part
used, medicinal uses, active principle of each species were compiled from different sources.
These medicinal important plants are reported in Table l.
Ethnobotanical Studies
Presently the ethnobotanical data is collected from North Indian regions especially in the
Lahaul and Spiti “Cold Desert” of higher altitude Himalayas. The information was collected
from tribal people, hakeems, elder villagers and traditional healers through interview method.
The collected information was verified by showing same species to different people and the
actual information was considered if seemed to be valuable and true for further use. In the

present study, such information was recorded for 63 plant species and data was arranged in
the tabular fonn. Data for each species covers botanical name, family, vernacular name,
locality/ altitude, habit, accession number, part used, ethnobotanical use and dosage (Table
1). In the present study, ethnobotanical data was recorded for 63 plant species (5 from plains,
8 species from mid Himalayas and 50 from higher altitude Himalayas) of North Indian
regions especially from the Lahaul & Spiti “Cold Desert”. The infonnation was collected
from tribal people, hakeems, elder villagers and traditional healers through interview method.
Data for each species covers vernacular name, locality/ altitude, habit, part used,
ethnobotanical use and dosage. Among these 63 medicinal plants, maximmn number of
times leaves are used against different ailments (55.56%), followed by roots (36.51%),
flowers and fruits (3O.16%), whole plant (19.05%), seeds (12.71%), bark (11.1%), stems and
rhizomes (3.18%) (Graph 1). These medicinal plants are used by local people against many
ailments such as: gastric disorders, rheumatism, fever, asthmatic problems, heart troubles,
skin, liver and kidney problems, constipation, cough, cold, jaundice, arthritis, diabetes, sexual
disorders and some plants are also used as nervine tonics. The detailed results are Well
reported and compiled in Table 1.
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Graph 1. Graphical elucidation of percentage of different parts of medicinal plants used
ethnobotanically.
O\ 2| all ” 0 :12? of differ mt pa) [S of l\’|E(l1(illiIlI)l2Il‘AlS used ellumbntmnc r\ll\’
I Leaves
I Roots
Flowers & Fruits
30.16% I Whole Plant
I Seeds
5 Bark
Stems& Rhizomes
Highlights
l. Ethnobotanical research data of 63 plant species has been from Lahaul and Spiti “Cold
Desert” of higher altitude Himalayas and from lower foot hills of Himachal Pradesh,
India.
2. Maximum number of times leaves are used against different ailments (55.56%) followed
by roots (36.5l%).
3. The complete cytomorphological analysis was also recorded for these reported medicinal
plants from study areas.
4. Few new chromosome reports have also been reponed.
5. It is the first single constructive report available about the germplasm evaluation by using
both cytomorphological and ethnobotanical analysis tools from these study areas of
Himachal Pradesh (The Treasure of Medicinal Plants) (India).

Table 1. Ethnobotanical and Cytomorphological data collected for some plants from North India.
Botanical
Name
(Family)
Meiotic Vernacular
Chromosome
Number
(n)/Status
Locality
/Altitude Habit Accession
Part
Used
Ethnobotanical
Use
Dosage
A bulilon
indicum
Linn. Sweet
(Malvaceae)
n=21
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Atibala,
Kanghi
Solan (14
63m) Perennial 52111
Root
bark
seeds
Used in case of
fever, nervine
tonic, dysentery,
leucorrhoea, piles,
psoriasis, anti-
inflammatory.
]-1/2 cups of
water extract
per day.
Adhazoda
vusica Nees
(Acanthaceae)
n=17
Vasaka,
Vasa
Houri
(458m)
Devi Under shrub 52169
Leav
roots
flowe
Plant is used to
cure the fever,
asthma,
bronchitis,
inflammation,
whooping cough,
jaundice, heart
trouble, leprosy
and rheumatism.
Boil 2-4g of
dried plant
parts in water
and take 1-2
cups per day.
Allium
carolinianum n=8
DC.
(Liliaceae)
Lo-adh
(Spiti)
Kaza
(3 800m)
Rhizomatous 51959
Leav
and
flowe
head
Stimulant,
diuretic, flowers
and leaves are
used in local dish
“Thupka” used as
a soup.
Fresh leaves or
powder (5-8 g)
per day in
soups or dishes
and also water
extract (20
mL) per day
early in the
morning.
*PUN: Abbreviation for Herbarium, Department of Botany, Punjabi University Patiala as indicated in Index Herbariomm.
691

Amaranthus
spinosus L.
(Amaranthaceae)
n=l7
Chaulai
Sarada
(Lahaul)
Trilokinath Annual herb 51976
(3020m)
Roots
Plant is used as
diuretic, in case
of anaemia, piles,
leucorrhoea and
against gastric
ulcer.
10g of fresh
roots boiled in
water and one
cup of
decoction
taken daily to
cure the
gastric ulcer.
A ndrographzs
peniculata
(Bunn) Nees
(Acanthaceae)
n=25
I-luilimb,
Chirata,
Kalmegh
Kullu
(123Om)
Annual herb 51 193
Leaves
Plant is used in
case of
dysentery,
diabetes,
influenza,
swellings,
bronchitis, piles,
blood purifier
and to cure the
skin disease.
500mg of
leaves powder
taken three
times a day.
Arnebia euchrom
Royle.
(Boraginaceae)
£1
n=7
(First
chromosome
number report
from India)
Dymong,
Dimok,
Ratanjot
Losar
(4079m)
Perennial
herb
52026
Roots
Cold and cough,
hair tonic,
antiseptic and
blood purifier
Water extract
of dried roots
(1-1/2 cups
per day)
A rtemisia
maritima L.
(Asteraceae)
n=9
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Khamchu,
Phurang,
Kunj a,
Shuomao,
Neerchuo
Keylong
(3350m)
Aromatic
perennial
herb
52014
Leaves,
roots
Fever, pains,
stomach ache,
asthma
Powder roots
2 g in a day to
cure asthma
and Water
extract of
leaves (20 g in
200 mL)
prepared and 5
692

mL of it given
twice a day.
Astragalus
rhizanthus Royle
(Fabaceae)
n=8
(Abnormal
meiosis)
J omuoshangae
Kaza (3 800m)
Perennial 52208
herb
Roots
Gastric,
disorders
liver
Powdered
roots and
leaves (1-3g)
per dose given
twice a day.
Atropa belladonna
L.
(Solanaceae)
n=3 6
Sagangur
Baddi (602111)
Perennial
herb
52178
Roots,
leaves,
seeds
Sedative,
antidote,
problems,
I1€
ulcer,
rvous
cardiac
muscle relaxant
Water extract
of plant parts
(25-50 mL)
per dose
twice a day.
Bacopa moneri
(L.) Pennell
(Scrophulariaceae)
n=32
Brahmi
Shimla
(242 1 m)
Perennial 52048
creeping
herb
Whole
plant
Astringen
asthma,
I,
1’lCI’\/6
and cardiac tonic,
bronchitis
25 mL water
extract thrice a
day or dried
powdered
form (5-8 g)
with one glass
of milk twice
aday.
Centella asiatica
(L.) Urb.
(Apiaceae)
n=9
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Brahmi,
Mandukpami
Mandi
(754m)
Herbaceous 52175
annual plant
Whole
plant
Brain
tonic,
useful for loss of
memory, leprosy,
10-15 g of
powdered
form with
milk or water
twiccaday.
Chenopodium
album L.
(Chenopodiaceae)
n=9
Bathu, Aem
Keylong
(3350m)
Annual herb 51984
Whole
plant
Stomach
disorders,
constipati
soup
On
=
Leaves
powder (2-4
g) per day for
three days.
Chenopodium
ambryasides L.
n=16
Aiyaar
Keylong
(335()m)
Annual herb 51992
Whole
plant
Stomach
disorders
One cup of
leaves
693

(Chenopodiaceae)
deeoction each
moming
before eating
for three
consecutive
days.
Chenopodium
bong/s Linn.
(Chenopodiaceae)
n=9
Sokana
Udaipur
(2743m)
Glandular
pubescent
herb
51956
Whole
plant
Herbal soup,
pains, stomach
disorders, semen
problem.
Leaves
decoction used
to cure the
gastric pain
and also to
cure the
discharge of
semen through
urine.
C henopodium
foliosum
(Moench)
Aschers.
(Chenopodiaceae)
n=9
(First
chromosome
number report
from India and
abnormal
meiosis)
Kupuledeo
Darcha
(3360m)
Glabrous
herb
52010
Leaves,
fruits
Gastric disorders
1-2 cups of
fresh leaves
decoction in
early moming
used to cure
the gastric
problems.
Cichorium inlybus
L.
(Asteraceae)
n=9
Kasni,
Chickory
Darcha
(3360)
Perennial
herb
52181
Roots
Carminative,
anti-
inflammatory,
stomach ache,
cardio tonic,
jaundice, liver
disorders,
rheumatism,
diarrhoea, asthma
One teaspoon
root stock per
l/2 cup of
cold Water
twice a day to
cure numerous
diseases.
Codonopsis 0
V0161
Golchokpa
Darcha
Perennial
52078
Leaves,
Rheumatic pains.
30g of herb
694

Benth.
(Campanulaceae)
n:8
(3360m)
herb
flowers
powder taken
with one cup
of water twice
a day in case
of rheumatic
pains.
Convolvulus
arvensis L.
(Convolvulaceae)
n=24
Gerachae Kaza (3 8
00m)
Creeping
perennial
herb
51960 Whole
plant
Antiseptic,
memory tonic,
washing of cuts
and wounds
Leaf paste is
applied to cure
skin problems,
one cup of
leaves
decoction used
per day as a
memory tonic.
Cynoglossum
zeylanicum
Thunb. ex Lehm.
(Boraginaceae)
n=l2
Kachi Udaipur
(2743m)
Biennial
herb
52083 Roots
Applied on cuts,
remove pains,
improve
digestion
Root
decoction
prepared in
Water and
boiled to
maximum, 4-6
teaspoons
twice a day to
treat
indigestion
and pain.
Datum metel L.
(Solanaceae)
n= 1 2
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Dhatura, Fatehpur Under shrub 52092 Whole
Dhastur (436m) plant
Narcotic, asthma,
fever, skin
disorders,
nervous system
disorders
0.5g of seeds
taken orally to
treat the
disorders of
nervous
system, leaf
and seeds
695

paste is
applied to cure
the skin
disease.
21 . Daclylorhiza
helagirea
Don) Soo
(D.
(Orehidaceae)
n—20
(First
chromosome Hathajadi,
reports from Salampanja
world basis)
Darcha
(336Om)
Angbolakpa,
Sanchu,
Hathpanj a,
Marshy
herb
52070 Roots,
flowers
Kidney
complaints,
Aphrodisiac ,
sexual disorders,
leucorrhoea
2-5 g of root
powder given
twice a day
with milk.
22
Andrews.
(Rosaceae)
. F ragaria indica
n=3 5
Manali
(2050m)
Pallaya
Perennial
herb
52062 Leaves,
flowers,
fruits
Gastric disorders
and source of
energy
Leaves
decoction used
for treatment
of swelling,
flower
decoction is
used to
increase the
blood
circulation,
fruits are used
externally to
cure the skin
disease.
23. Gentiana ku
Royle
(Gentianacea
rroo
6)
n—l3
(First
chromosome
reports from
world
with
meiosi
basis
abnormal
S)
Pangyin Kaza (3 800m)
Perennial
herb
52180 Flowers, Cough, stomach-
I‘OOlS
ache
Boiled water
extract (1/2
cup) twice a
day.
24.
Gentiana
Tikta,Santik Kaza (3800m) Annual herb 52035 Aerial Fever, rheumatic
Extract of
696

moorcrofliana
Wall. ex G. Don.
(Gentianaceae)
n: l 3
(New
chromosome
COll1’1[
for the
species)
parts
pains, gastric and
liver disorders
leaves (15-25
mL) twice a
day to cure the
liver infection
and disorders.
Gentiana
pedicellata D.
Don. Grisb.
(Gentianaceae)
n=lO
Tikta
Keylong
(3350m)
Annual herb
51970
Aerial
parts
Rheumatic pains
Leaves
powder (5-15
g) given with
‘/2 glass of
water.
Geranium
wallichianum D.
Don. ex Sweet
(Geraniaceae)
n=28
(New
chromosome
COLl1’lt
for the
species)
Porulue
Kaza (38
00m)
Ascending
perennial
herb
53007
Aerial
parts
Cough, jaundice,
pains
2g of leaves
powder given
thriceaday.
Heracleum
lanatum Michx.
(Apiaceae)
n—l l
(First
chromosome
number report
from I
ndia and
abnormal
meiosi
S)
Tunak,
Rasal
Tukar,
Trilokin
at
(3O20n-1)
h
Hairy to
pubescent
herb
52204
Leaves,
flowers
Liver complaints,
arthritis, tooth
ache
Leaves
powder should
be taken with
milk to reduce
liver
problems.
Heracleum
thomsonii Clarke
(Apiaceae)
n=l l
(First
chromosome
reports from
world
with
meiosi
basis
abnormal
S)
Raoc
Kaza (3 8
00m)
Glabrous to
pubescent
herb
52032
Whole
plant
Stomach ache,
cough
Water extract
(l0-20 n-1L)
given per day
for three days.
Holarrhena
n=l]
Kuda, K
urchi
Samkar
Deciduous
52161
Seeds,
Gastric disorders,
2g dried bark
697

antidysen terica
Wall.
(Apocynaceae)
(Abnormal
meiosis)
(434m)
shrub
bark,
leaves
relief
dysentery
from
powder is
used twice a
day to control
dysentery.
30.
L.
(Solanaceae)
Hyoscyamus niger
n=l7
Thangdum-
langtang-tse,
Dhandhura
Keylong
(3350m)
Hairy tall
herb
51963
Flowers,
seeds
Tooth ache
Seed powder
paste applied
on the tooth
for getting
relief.
31. Lindelqfia
anchusoides
(Lind.) Lehm.
(Boraginaceae)
n= l 2
(First
Chromosome
number report
from India)
Shuyawaray
Losar
(4079m)
Perennial
herb
52061
Leaves
Wound healing
properties,
to cure
disorders
used
gastric
Leaves paste
is used to cure
wounds and
applied
externally in
case of skin
problems.
32.
Lindelofia
longzflora (Royle
ex Benth.) Bail.
(Boraginaceae)
n=lZ
Shawarang,
Shuyawaray
Kaza (3800m)
Perennial
herb
52034
Leaves
Stomach
disorders,
pains.
gastric
Leaves
decoction, ‘/1
cup twice a
day is used to
treat the
gastric pain.
33. Lonicera
hypoleuca Decne.
(Caprifoliaceae)
n—9
(First
chromosome
reports
from
world basis
with abno
meiosis)
rmal
Karmeo
Darcha
(3360m)
Pubescent
herb
51955
Leaves,
bark
Wound
healer,
antiseptic, kidney
problems.
Decoction (l
cup twice a
day) of leaves
and bark is
used for a
week in case
of kidney
problems.
34. Mentha longzfolia
(L.) Huds.
n=24
Madeenae
Udaipur
(2743m)
Strongly
aromatic
52029
Leaves
Gastric
cough, col
pains,
d and
Fresh leaves
may be
698

herb used in various
(Lamiaceae) recipes.
inserted into
nostrils or in
boiled water
for inhalation
of vapours,
juice from
leaves also
used in case of
gastric pain
due to
indigestion.
35 . Origanum vulgare Lameysha Udaipur Hairy herb 51987
L. n=1 5 (2743m)
(Lamiaceae)
Whole
plant
Asthma, cold,
gastric disorders,
herbal soups, tea
rheumatism
Whole plant
decoction (1-
1/2 cup twice
a day for one
week) is used
to cure the
asthma,
rheumatic
pain, cold and
gastric
problems, tea
made from
leaves and
flowers is
useful to cure
the influenza.
36. Oroxylum indicum Tatpalanga, Dhameta Small Tree 52160
Vent. n:l 5 Arul, Tetoli, (435m)
Shyonaka,
(Bignoniaceae) Arlu
Roots,
bark,
leaves,
fruits
Diarrhoea,
dysentery,
rheumatism,
headache, ulcer,
wounds.
l-2 g bark
powder used
daily to
compensate
the loss of
699

weight, cure
rheumatism
and also check
diarrhoea. In
case of
dysentery
100g of stem
bark and 50g
of leaves are
boiled in
250mL of
water till the
quantity
become one
third then the
residue is
sieved out and
taken one
glass twice a
day for one
week.
37.
Pedicularis
bicornuta
ex Klotz.
Klotz.
(Scrophulariaccac)
n=7
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Langana Darcha Erect or 52006 Leaves,
sarpoea (3360m) sub-erect roots
herb
Body ache, joint
pains
Powder
material (5-12
g) with water
twiceaday.
38. Pedicularis
longzflora
Rudolph.
(Scrophular
iaceae)
n—7
(First
Chromosome
number report
from India
with
Sarpoea Trilokinath Perennial 52069 Flowers,
(3020m) herb leaves
Gastric disorders,
bleeding from
stomach through
mouth
Boiled water
extract (15-30
mL) given
thrice a day
for one week.
700

abnormal
meiosis)
Pedicularis mollis
Wall.
(Scrophulariaceae)
n=8
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Lunguroe
Trilokinath
(3020m)
Erect herb
52209
Flowers,
leaves
Abdominal
joint pain
pain,
Powder (5-8
g) thrice a day
early in the
morning.
Pedicularis
pectinatu Wall. ex
Benth.
(Scrophulariaceae)
n=8
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Lunguroe
sarpoea
Darcha
(33 60m)
Erect herb
51985
Whole
plant
Gastric disorders
Whole plant
powder (10-15
g) taken twice
a day for three
days.
Phlomis bracteosa
Royle ex Benth
(Lamiaceae)
n=l4
Gehandha-
sehangha
Trilokinath
(3020m)
Pubescent
herb
52011
Flowers,
leaves
Stomach
disorders
joint pain
and
Dried material
(10 g) taken
thrice a day to
get relief for
joint pains.
Picrorhiza
kurrooa Royle ex
Benth.
(Scrophulariaceae)
n=17
Honglen,
Kutki
Rohtang
(3978m)
Perennial
herb
52019
Roots,
rhizomes,
flowers
Fever,
purification
blood
25-60 g of
roots or
rhizome
powder boiled
in water and
extract of (10-
25 mL) thrice
a day for one
week.
Plantago erosa
Wall.
(Plantaginaceae)
n=12
Bhatti,Thmay Udaipur
(New (2743m)
chromosome
count for the
species with
abnormal
Perennial
herb
52058
Fruits,
seeds
Stomach
disorders,
constipation
problems
Seed powder
(5-1 Og) twice
a day.
701

meiosis)
Plantago
himalaica Pilger.
(Plantaginaceae)
n=6
Kharechaya
Losar
(4079m)
Perennial
herb
52087
Seeds,
leaves
Constipation
problems, itching
Extract of
seeds in water
should be used
for three days
(25-50 mL per
day).
Plantago
lanceolala L.
(Plantaginaceae)
n=6
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Tharnay
Trilokinath
(3020m)
Perennial
herb
52199
Whole
plant
Gastric disorders,
constipation
problems
Powder of
plant material
(5-10 g)
should be
given to cure
gastric
problems.
Plantago major L.
(Plantaginaceae)
n=6
Kharechaya
Batal
(3960m)
Perenial
herb
52113
Seeds,
leaves
Constipation
relief, joint pains
Roasted seeds
(15 g) should
be taken to
cure the
constipation
and joint
pains.
Podophyllum
hexandrum Royle
(Berberidaceae)
n=6
Tandik,
Demobkusu,
Bankakri,
Omosheya
Kukumseri
(2 7 3 Om)
Perennial
herb
53010
Rhizomes,
roots
Dysentery with
blood, skin
disorders, cough,
tuberculosis
Powdered
form of
rhizome (2-6
g) given per
day with
honey to cure
the cough and
extract of (100
g) rhizome in
water given.
Polygonum
n=10
Naram,
Chatru
Under shrub 52073
Aerial
Gastric disorders
5 g powder
702

alpinum Al
(Polygonac
1.
eae)
(First
Chromosome
number report
from India with
abnormal
meiosis)
Alepea
(3360m)
parts,
stem bark
given with
Water thrice a
day for gastric
relief.
49. Polygonum
barbatum L.
(Polygonac
eae)
n=ll
Neyoloe
Keylong
(3350m)
Perennial
herb
52080 Leaves,
young
stem
Cough,
constipation,
check dysentery
One teaspoon
of leaves
powder to
relief from
constipation.
50. Polygonum
cognalum Meissn
(Polygonae
eae)
n=3O
(First
Chromosome
number report
from India)
Neyoloe,
Kopedeo
Losar
(4079m)
Perennial
herb
52202 Aerial
parts,
stem
Stomach
disorders
Leaves paste
is used
externally for
skin diseases
and its
decoction (5-
l5mL) is used
to cure gastric
problems.
51. Polygonum
Huds.
(Polygonac
nflnu
eae)
S
n=24
(First
Chromosome
number report
from India)
Naram
Losar
(4079m)
Perennial
herb
5 I997 Aerial
pans
Gastric and
abdominal
disorders
Young leaves
are used for
the
preparation of
decoction and
taken orally
for relief from
abdominal
pain.
52. Polygonum
polystachyum
Wall. ex M
eissn.
n=1 0
(First
Chromosome
Naram,
Neyoloe
Darcha
(336()m)
Branched
shrub
52008 Young
leaves,
stem bark
Check dysentery
and relief from
abdominal pain,
Stem bark (2-
4g) taken with
hot water to
703

(Polygonaceae)
number report
from India with
abnormal
meiosis)
liver disorders
check
dysentery and
young leaves
deeoction (1
cup for one
week) is used
to cure the
liver
disorders.
Polygonum
recumbens Royle
(Polygonaceae)
n=1 O
(First
chromosome
reports from
world basis
with abnormal
meiosis)
Kopedeo Chatru
(3360m)
Ascending
perennial
herb
52072 Bark,
stem
powder
Jaundice, liver
disorders, gastric
pain and blood
purifier.
A paste made
of the bark is
applied in the
treatment of
various skin
diseases. A
decoction of
the plant is
given orally as
a blood
purifier and
gastric
abnormalities.
Rauwolfia
serpentina Benth.
et Kurz
(Apocynaceae)
n=ll
Sarpgandha, Kullu
Chandarika (l362m)
Perennial
undershrub
52190 Roots,
leaves
Reducing blood
pressure,
hypnotic,
stimulate the
central nervous
system, antidote
to snake venom,
eye problems
200mg of root
powder with
one cup of
milk to reduce
the blood
pressure. Root
paste and
decoction is
used as a
antidote to
704

snake venom
55. Rumex nepalensis
Spreng.
(Polygonaceae)
Chomasae, Kaza (3 800m)
n:27 Nabachalai
Perennial
herb
51961 Leaves,
flowers
Joint pains due to
rheumatism
Powder of
aerial parts (2-
6 g) given
with half glass
of milk to
reduce the
joint pains.
56. Saussurea
albescens (DC.)
Sch.-Bip.
(Asteraceae)
n=l 3
(First
chromosome
report
world
s from
basis)
Jangli kuth,
Pong-choya,
Buchae-
sheong
Darcha
(336()m)
Perennial
herb
52054 Roots,
leaves
Blood purifier,
pain remover
Root powder
(5 g) given per
day to purify
blood. Oil
from plant
used to apply
on joints.
57. Saussurea
helromella D.
Don. Had. Mazz.
(Asteraceae)
n=l 3
(New
chromosome
count
for the
species with
abnormal
meios
is)
Pong-choya,
Trilokinath
(302()m)
Erect herb
52091 Flowers,
roots,
leaves
Blood purifier,
body ache, joint
pain, skin
problems
Root paste is
used over
burnt part of
the body to
cure darkness
of the skin,
leaves and
root decoction
(15-20mL
twice a day) is
used to cure
the joint pains
and also as a
blood purifier.
58
. T araxacum n=l 2 Handh,
oflicinale Wigg. Kanphul,
Sirshem,
Udaipur
(2743m)
Perennial
herb
52004 Whole
plant,
roots
Jaundice, liver
disorders,
rheumatic pains,
5 g of root
powder given
with milk
705

(Asteraceae)
Manteok
body ache, fever
twice a day for
one week to
reduce
jaundice.
Thalictrum
foliolosum DC.
(Ranunculaceae)
n=7
Chaitra,
Sarphar,
Pilij ari
Trilokinath
(3020m)
Branched
herb
53006
Roots
Ophthalmic
treatment,
diuretic, skin
problems
Root powder
is used for
ophthalmic
treatments and
root paste is
applied to
check the skin
problems.
Thymus linearis
Benth
(Lamiaceae)
n=l2
(First
Chromosome
number report
from India with
abnormal
meiosi
S)
Ban-ajwain,
Taksha nakpo
Udaipur
(Z743m)
Aromatic 52056
branched
herb
Fruitin
parts
leaves
g
and
Tonic, child
birth, whooping
cough.
5g of it taken
with lO0mL
of warm water
and black salt
in case of
whooping
cough and act
as a tonic.
Decoction of
leaves helpful
to relief from
pain during
child birth.
Valeriana
jatamanasi Jones
(Valerianaceae)
n=l6
Nihani, Tagar,
Shivjadi,
Sugandhbala
Chamba
(996m)
Perennial 52018
herb
Roots
Antiseptic,
cardiac stimulant,
diuretic,
epilepsy, nervous
problems,
hysteria
One teaspoon
of root powder
is given three
times a day for
two weeks.
Verbascum
n:l8
J eewar-londha
Keylong
Unbranched 52042
Seeds,
To check the
Whole plant
706

lhapsus L.
(Scrophulariaceae)
(Abnormal
meiosis)
(3350m) herb leaves,
roots
abdominal pains,
fever, asthma and
dysentery
decoction is
used to cure
asthma,
cough.
63. Withania
somnzfera (L.)
Dunal
(Solanaceae)
n=1 2, 24
(Abnormal
meiosis)
Ashvagandha, Kullu Perennial 52149 Roots,
Asgandh, ( l230m) under shrub
Indian
ginseng
Tonic, hypnotic,
diuretic, narcotic,
sedative,
abortifacient,
rheumatism,
cough, delay
ageing, greying
of hairs, provide
physical and
mental strength
200-500mg of
root powder
should be
taken with one
glass of warm
milk before
sleep for 15
days to relief
from all these
diseases.
CONCLUSION
The plant biodiversity, traditional knowledge and cultural practices of the rural people are facing threat due to rapid urbanization and
uncontrolled grazing in these study areas. Our attempts for this research work will not only provide recognition to this treasure, but also help in
the conservation of thcse medicinal plants for further researchers worldwide. Ethnobotanical studies have a major role to play in modern drug
development programmes from plant resources. There is a great role of botanists in the correct identification of the medicinal plants and
allowing chemists to isolate and identify active principles and pharmacologists to investigate therapeutic properties. These traditional claims
should be scientifically proved by using different analytical tools for production of drugs with least side effects. The present study revealed the
information of plants used to cure different disorders. These plants are arranged in alphabetical order, with their family, local name, part/parts
used and folk uses. The present study includes 63 plants belonging to 26 families. The popular use of herbal remedies among the rural people of
Himachal Pradesh reflects the restoration of interest in the traditional medicine. The scientific validation of these remedies may help in
discovering new drugs from these plant species. The information on therapeutic uses of plants may provide a great potential for discovering new
drugs and promoting awareness among the tribal people to use them as remedy in health care system with supreme accuracy and knowledge.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to His Holiness Baba Iqbal Singh Ji President, The Kalgidhar Trust
& Founder Chancellor of Eternal University (H.P.), Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, Eternal
University, Baru Sahib (Himachal Pradesh) India; Director, IHBT (CSIR), Palampur
(Himachal Pradesh) India and Head, Department of Botany-SAP-II DRS (UGC) Punjabi
University, Patiala (Punjab) India for providing necessary facilities and logistic support for
carrying out the study. The authors are also greatly thankful to the local communities for their
willingness to share their valuable empirical knowledge and experiences on wild medicinal
plants.
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