Cytomorphology of some grasses from Lahaul Spiti

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BIOLIFE RESEARCH ARTICLE
CYTOMORPHOLOGY OF SOME GRASSES (POACEAE) FROM LAHAUL-SPITI
GHMACHALPRADESHLINMA
Raghbir C. Guptal Harbans Singh Chauhanzg M.I.S.Saggoo; Navjot Kaur
I’M Department of Botany Punjabi University Patiala-1 4 7002, India
Govt. College for girls, Patiala-147001, India

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ABSTRACT

Meiotic study and pollen fertility was investigated in thirty five grass species belonging to twenty three genera from different localities of Lahaul-Spiti. This is the first cytological study in the grasses from this alpine Himalayas. Bromus gracillimus (n=7) and Melica persica (n=l0), are cytologically worked out for the first time from world, whereas Calamogrostis pseudophragmites (n=7), Helictotrichon pretense (n=7), Poa lahulensis (n=14), Stipa jacquemontii (n=2l, 22), S. koelzii (n=ll), S. splendens (n=22), Paspalum distichum (n=28) and P. longifolium (n=30) show the varied chromosome reports at the world level.
Key Words: Cytomorphology, Grasses (Poaceae), Lahaul-Spiti, meiosis.

INTRODUCTION

Lahaul and Spiti are the two remote Himalayan valleys of Himachal Pradesh (India) lying on the Indo-Tibet border. It covers an area of 13,835 sq. kms. Lahaul-Spiti district can be divided into two main parts i.e. Lahaul valley and Spiti valley. Lahaul valley is situated towards the West whereas Spiti valley lies in the middle of Ladakh and Tibet, and on the Eastem side of the district with Kaza as its head-quarter.
It is a mountaneous state and its altitude varies from 3000- 4,500 m. Due to harsh climatic conditions,the area is dominated with prostrate, thick, haiiy and bushy type of vegetation. From the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti region, Aswal and Mehrotra (1994) reported 985 species of 353 genera belonging to 79 families of Dicots, Monocots and Gymnosperms. The district is inhabited by ‘Swangla’ and ‘Gaddi’ tribal communities. Due to difficult terain, the Lahaul-Spiti area had not attracted the attention of many cytogeneticists, except for recent reports from the department. As there is hardly any cytological work on grasses from the area, so the present exploration was done. The family Poaceae is one of the largest family with maximum economic importance. The family has documented evidence for the exploitation of most of the cytogenetical phenomena such as polyploidy, aneuploidy, apomixis with lot of cytological diversity. There are many studies on the cytology of the family from South Indian, Plains of North India and temperate Himalayas, but absolutely no report of chromosomal study from Lahaul-Spiti area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

For the collection of materials, cytological survey of grasses had been carried out from the valleys of Lahaul-Spiti area. Young inflorescences were collected and fixed in Camoy’s fixative (Alcohol: Chloroform: Raghbir C. Gupta et al acid in 613:1) for 24 hours and were transferred to 70% alcohol for preservation at 4° C. Meiotic studies were carried out by preparing smears of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in 1% acetocannine. Photomicrographs of chromosome counts were made from freshly prepared slides using Leica Qwin and Nikon 80i Eclipse Microscope. Pollen fertility was estimated by their stainability in 1% glycerol-acetocannine. Well stained pollen grains were considered as fertile and shriveled or unstained nuclei as sterile. Voucher specimens were submitted to Herbarium, Department of Botany University, Patiala (PUN).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Presently, thirty five wildly growing grass species, falling under eleven tribes, belonging to twenty three genera from different localities of Lahaul-Spiti (H.P.) are cytomorphologically investigated. The information on name of the species, locality with altitude, accession number, chromosome nmnber, ploidy level, habit and pollen fertility are presented in Table 1.

TRIBE: BRACHYPODIEAE
Brachypodium sylvaticum P. Beauv.
It shows the regular meiosis with n=9 at
diakinesis and A-I (Figs. 1, 2). The chromosome
number is in confinnation with the earlier
reports from India and outside India (Mehra
1982)
Elymus semicostatus (Nees ex. Steud) Melderis
Cytologically, all the populations of the species
show the chromosome count of n=14 with
normal meiotic course (Fig. 3), and relatively
low pollen fertility. The present meiotic course is
in conformity with the previous reports by
Mehra and Shanna (1972, I977) from Gulmarg
(Srinagar) and Ranikhet (Nainital).
TRIBE: BROMEAE
Bromus gracillimus Bunge
Cytological study of the species reveals the
diploid chromosome count with n=7 at M-I (Fig.
4), which is the first chromosome report for the
Indian population and confirms the previous
1zss|
©Copyrig ht@2014
reports from Russia (Podlech and Diaterle 1969).
It shows normal meiosis with high pollen
fertility.
B. tectorum L.
Extensive cytological studies on 7 populations
from the high altitudinal range of Lahaul-Spiti
area revealed the same chromosome number of
n=7 at diakinesis (Fig. 5). All the populations
show normal meiotic behavior with high pollen
fertility (84-99%). The present report is in line
with the previous report by Sharma and Sharma
(1979).
B. unioloides Kunth.
Cytologically, the meiotic course reveals the
presence of n=7 (Fig. 6) with nonnal meiosis
and almost cent per cent pollen fertility. The
present report of diploid cytotype confirms the
previous reports by Shanna and Shanna (1979).
TRIBE: POEAE
A grostis pilosula Trin.
The haxaploid (2n=42) chromosomal count has
been confirmed with the presence of 21 bivalents
at diakinesis. The species also shows inter-
chromosomal connections at A-I (10-12%
PMCs) and chromosomal bridges at A-I/T-I (1 1-
13%PMCs) (Figs. 7-9) which leads to abnormal
microsporogenesis, heterogenous sized pollen
grains and low pollen fertility (62-78%). Mehra
and Sharma (1975) recorded the same
chromosome number from Tiffin Top, Nainital
(2l00m) and Toong-Soong Darjeeling (1 800m).
Calamogrostis pseudophragmites (A. Haller)
Koeler
Meiotic study on the single population from high
altitudes of Spiti area showed 7 bivalents at early
M-I. The further course of meiosis was abnormal
with the presence of interbivalent connections at
M-1 (14%), late disjunction of bivalents at A-I
(1 1.32%) (Figs. 10-12), although the pollen
fertility was high (86.6%). The present
chromosome report is a first ever diploid (n=7)
cytotype for the species. Previously, tetraploid
(n=14) cytotype was reported from Kashmir
Himalayas (Koul and Gohil 1991).
Biolife | 2014 | Vol 2 | Issue 4

Raghbir C. Gupta ct al ©Copyrig ht@2014
Table 1: Locality with altitude, accession number, chromosome number, ploidy level, habit,
and pollen fertili
ty of the
species studied
Species
Pop
ulat
ions
Locality with
altitude (m)
Accessio Chromosom Ploid Pollen
. . Remark
e number y fertiht S
0
n no.
(PUN)
(2n) level y ( A»)
TRIBE:
BRACHYPODIEAE
Brachypodium
sylvaticum P. Beauv.
Pl
Nako (H.P.), 3660
m
54664
18 2x 99.2
P2
Hansa (H.P.), 4075
m
54702
18 2x 98.6
\ TRBE: TRITICEAE
1 1
Elymus semicostatus
(Nees ex. Steud)
Melderis
Pl
Nako (H.P.), 3660
m
54660
28 4x 62.4
P2
Mud11(l-1.1).), 4610
m
54669
28 4x 64.8
P3
Sichling (H.P.),
3809 m
54677
28 4x 63.2
P4
Kaza (H.P.), 3740
1T1
54685
28 4x 68.4
P5
Losar (H.P.), 4080
m
54723
28 4x 64.6
\ TRIBE:BROMEAE
Bromus gracillimus
Bunge
P1
Hansa (HP), 4075
m
54701
14 2x 86.2
\ 1
First
report
from India
P2
Chhatru (H.P.),
3560 m
54542
14 2x 84.3
B. tectorum L.
P1
Nako (H.P.), 3660
m
54653
14 2x 99.4
P2
Rangrik (H.P.),
4590 m
54689
14 2x 99.4
P3
Kibber (H.P.),
4205 rn
54693
14 2x 86.4
P4
Pegmo (H.P.),
4060 m
54706
14 2x 86.2
P5
Losar (HP),
4080 m
54709
14 2x 84,2
B. uniuloides Kunth.
P1
Koksar (HP),
3160 m
54546
14 2x 98.4
y TRIBE:POEAE
1 \
A grostis pilosula *
Trin.
P1
I I
Kibber (H.P.),
4205 m
54687
42 6x 78.2
P2
Losar (H.P.), 4080
m
54713
42 6x 76.4
P3
Sumling (H.P.),
3809 m
54668
42 6x 62.4
P4
Kaza (H.P.), 3740
m
54682
42 6x 66.6
P5
Chhota Darra
(H.P.), 3690 m
54737
42 6x 68.4
Calamogrostis
pseudophragmites *
(A. Haller) Koeler
P1
Kee-Monestry
(H.P.), 4166 m
54697
14 2x 86.6
First
report
from
World
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Raghbir C. Gupta et al ©Copyright@2014
Table 1: continued…
Species
Pop . . Accessio Chromosom Ploid Pollen
ulat
ions
Locality with . . Remark
altitude (m)
n n0.
(PUN)
e number y fertiht S
(Zn) level y (%)
Dactylis
g10merata* L.
P1
Sumling
(H.P.), 3809 m
54681
14 2x 68.2
P2
Chhota Darra
(H.P.), 3690 m
54547
14 2x 68.1
P3
Chhatm (H.P.),
2050 m
54709
14 2x 70.4
P4
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54739
14 2x 65.0
Festuca rubra L.
P1
Mudh (H.P.),
4610 m
54674
28 4x 82.4
P2
Klbber (H.P.),
4205 m
54686
28 4x 84.8
P3
P4
Losar (H.P.),
4080 m
Kaza (H.P.),
3740 m
54708
54722
28 4x 88.6
28 4x 87.8
Helictotrichon
pretense (L.)
Pil g.
P1
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54541
First
report
from
World
14 2x 98.8
Koeleria
macrantha
(Ladeb.) Schult
P1
Chhatru (H.P.),
2050 m
54550
14 2X 100
P2
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54552
14 2x 99.4
Poa alpine L.
P1
Chhatru (H.P.),
2050 m
54543
28 4x 86.4
P2
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54544
28 4x 88.2
P. annua L.
P1
Chhatru (H.P.),
2050 m
54736
28 4x 82.6
P2
Chhota darra
(H.P.), 3690 m
54721
28 4x 82.8
P. bulbosa L.
P1
Chhatm (H.P.),
2050 m
54711
28 4x 88.2
P2
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54739
28 4x 88.6
P. lahulensis L.
P1
Nako (H.P.),
3660 m
54654
First
report
from
World
28 4x 68.8
P. pratense L.
P1
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54545
28 4x 88.2
P2
Rampur (H.P.),
924 m
54640
28 4x 88.4
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Table 1: continued
Species
Pop
ulati
ons
Locality with
altitude (m)
Accessi
on no.
(PUN)
Chromosom Ploid Pollen
e number y fertilit S
(Zn) level y (%)
Remark
Trisetum
spicatum (L.) K.
Richt.
P1
Chhota darra
(H.P.), 2150 m
54662
28 4x 78
TRIBE:
PHLEAE
Alopecurus
arundinaceous
Poir.
P1
Nako (H.P.),
3660 m
54655
28 4x 78.6
P2
Chhatm (H.P.)
2050 m
54733
28 4X 74.2
Phleum alpinum
L.
Cyto
type-
A
Pl
Koksar (H.P.),
3160 m
54548
14 2x 83.0
Cyto
type-
B>k
P2
Chhatru (H.P.)
2050 m
54731
28 4x 66.2
TRIBE:
MELICEAE
Melica persica
Kunth.
Cyto
type-
A
Pl
Pegmo (H.P.),
4060 m
54705
18 2x 99.0
Cyto
type-
B
P2
Koksar (H.P.)
3160 m
54726
20 2x 78.6
TRIBE:
STIPEAE
Oryzopsis
lateralis (Regel)
Stapf.
Pl
Kibber (H.P.),
3691 m
54692
24 2x 64.6
P2
Pegmo (H.P.),
4060 m
54704
24 2x 62.2
P3
Hansa (H.P.),
4075 m
54540
24 2x 63 .4
Stipa
jacquem0ntii*
Jaub. & Spach.
Cyto
type-
A
P1
Sum1ing(H.P.),
3809 m
54676
First
report
from
world
42 3X 62
P2
Moring (H.P.),
3900 m
54678
42 3x 59.5
Cyto
type-
B
1zss|
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Raghbir C. Gupta ct al ©Copyrig ht@2014
Table l: continued
Species
Pop
ulati
ons
Locality with
altitude (m)
Accessi
on no.
(PUN)
Chromosom Ploid Pollen R k
e number y fertilit engar
(2n) level y (%)
P3
Rangrik (H.P.),
3900 m
54698
44 4x 91.2
First
report
from
world
S. koelzii
R.R. Stewart
P1
Kibber (H.P.),
3691 rn
54698
44 2x 88.8
First
report
from
world
S. splendens
Trin.
Pl
Kaza (H.P.),
3740 m
54684
44 4x 68.2
First
report
from
world
P2
Kibber (H.P.),
3691 m
54688
44 4x 67.4
TRIBE:
ARUNDINEAE
Arundo donax L.
Pl
Koksar (H.P.),
4110 m
54644
32 4x 78.3
P2
Nako (H.P.),
3660 m
54661
32 4x 76.4
P3
Chhota darra
(H.P.), 3690 m
54717
32 4x 79.2
P4
Chhatru (l-LP),
2050 m
54735
32 4x 77.4
Neyraudia
an1ndinacca*
(L.) Henrard
P1
Nako (H.P.),
3660 m
54651
40 4x 78.4
P2
Mudh (H.P.),
4610 m
54670
40 4x 66.2
P3
Chharru (H.P.),
2050 m
54730
40 4x 74.4
TRIBE:
CYNODONTEA
E
Muhlenbergia
himalayensis
Hack. ex Hook.
f
P1
Rampur,
(H.P.), 924 m
54641
40 4x 67.4
P2
M61111 (H.P.),
4610111
54672
40 4x 64.2
Sporobolus
coromondelianus
P1
Chhatru (H.P.),
2050 m
54728
36 4x 76.2
\ (Retz.) Kunth \
I I
S. diander (Retz.)
P. Beauv.
Pl
I 1
Nako (H.P.)
3660 m
54657
36 4x 86.4
S. tremulus
(Willd.) Kunth
Pl
Mudh (H.P) 4610
m
54671
24 2x 68.8
First
report
from
world
1239 | 5161116 | 2014 | v61 2 | Issue 4

Raghbir C. Gupta
Table 1: continu
et al
ed
©Copy
rig m@2o14
Species
Pop
ulati
ons
Locality with
altitude (m)
Accessi
on no.
(PUN)
Chromosom
e number
(Zn)
Ploid
Y
level
Pollen
fertilit
y€%)
Remark
s
TRIBE: PANICE
AE
Paspalum
distichum L.
Pl
On way to Nako
(H.P.), 3660 m
54648
56
8x
48.2
First
report
from
world
On way to Nako
(H.P.), 3660 m
P. longifolium
Roxb. P1
54649
First
report
from
world
60 6x 33.6
Pennisetmn
flaccidum
Griseb. ex
Roseheb.
Rampur
(H.P.),924 m
Pl 54646 18
2x 76.4
TRIBE:
ANDROPOGON
EAE
Chrysopogon Pl Nako (H.P.), 54665 20
gryllus subsp. 3660 m
2x 100
Echinulatus
(Nees ex Steud.)
Cope
Lasiurus hirsutus Chhatm (H P )
(NeesexSteud.) P1 2050 54710 20
Cope m
2x 83.2
*species with abnormal meiotic course
Dactylis glomerata L.
Four populations of the species were studied
from the Lahaul-Spiti area with diploid
chromosome count (n:7). Besides this, the
species shows irregular meiosis in the form of
chromatin transfer (29% PMCs) and chromatin
bridges at A-I/T-I/A-II/T-II (17.3% PMCs)
(Figs. 13-15), which subsequently resulted in
heterogenous sized pollen grains and low pollen
fertility (68%). The present chromosome count
confirms the previous reports (Koul and Gohil
1990)
Fesluca rubra L.
The species studied cytologically from the high
altitudinal regions of Spiti area showed the
presence of n=14 at M-I (Fig. 16), with
subsequent normal meiotic course. The same
chromosome number has been reported by
1240|
Mehra and Remanandan (1973) from Pehalgam
area of Srinagar.
Helictotrichon pretense (L.) Pilg.
The species is found to be diploid with n=7 at
diakinesis (n=7) (Fig. 17). The chromosomes are
relatively large in size and meiotic course is
normal with cent per cent pollen fertility.
Cytologically, the species is first time worked
out for an Indian accession and gives a new
chromosome report at world level as earlier the
species has been reported with n=21, 56 and 63
(Hubbard 1954; Lovkist and Hultgard 1999 and
Roser 1997).
Koeleria macrantha (Ladeb.) Schult.
The species is collected from the bank of
flowing water in Lahaul area. Meiotic studies on
the species reveal the presence of 7:7
Biolife | 2014 | v01 2 | Issue 4

Raghbir C. Gupta et al ©Copyright@2014
Plate-I
Figs. 1-19. 1,2. Brachypodium sylvaticum. (n=9) 1. PMC showing 911 at Diakincsis 2. PMC with 9:9
chromosome distribution at A-I 3. Elymus semicostatus. (n=14) PMC showing 1411 at M-I 4.
Bromus gracillimus. (n=7) PMC showing 711 at M-I 5. B. tectorum. (n=7) PMC showing 711 at
Diakinesis 6. B. unioloides (n=7) PMC with 711 at Diakinesis 7,8,9. Agrostis pilosula (n=21) 7. PMC
with 2111 at Diakinesis 8. PMC at Anaphase-I with 21:21 chromosome distribution 9. Chromatin
bridge at Anaphase-I. 1O,11,12 Calamogrostis pseudophragmites. (n=7) 10. PMC showing 711 at M-
I 11. PMC at M-I with inter-bivalents connections 12. PMC at A-I showing late disjunction of
bivalents 13,14,15. Dactylis glomerata (n=7) 13. PMC showing 7:7 chromosome distribution at A-I
14. PMCs involved in chromatin transfer 15. PMC at A-I showing chromatin bridge 16. Festuca
rubra (n=14) PMC showing 1411 at M-I 17. Helictotrichon pralense (n=7) PMC showing 711 at
Diakinesis. 18. Koeleria macrantha (n=7) PMC showing 7:7 chromosomes at A-I 19. Poa alpina.
(n=14) PMC with 1411 at Diakinesis
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1241 | Biolife | 2014 | v<>| 2 | Issue 4

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Plate-II
Figs. 13-26. 20. P. annua. (n=14). PMC showing 1411 at Diakinesis. 21. P. bulbosa. (n=14). PMC
with 1411 at Diakinesis. 22. P. lahaulensis (n=14). PMC showing 1411 at Diakinesis. 23. P. pretense
(n=14). PMC with 1411 at Diakinesis. 24. Trisetum spicatum (n=14). PMC showing 1411 at M-I. 25
Alopecurus arundinaceous (n=l4). PMC with 1411 at M-I 26,27,28. Phleum alpinum (n=7, 14). 26
PMC showing 2n=14 at A-I with a laggard 27. PMC showing 1411 at M-I 28. Chromatin bridge at
A-I 29,30. Melica persica 29.PMc showing 911 at M-I 30. PMC showing 1011 at M-I 31. Oryzopsis
lateralis. PMC with 1211 at M-I. 32,33,34,35. Stipajacquemontii 32. PMC showing 2111 at M-I 33.
PMC showing scattered chromatids at A-II 34. PMC showing spindle abnormalities 35. PMC at M-I
showing 2211_ 36. S. koelzii PMC showing 1111 at M-I 37. S. splendens PMC showing 2211 at M-I 38.
Arundo donax PMC with 1611 at M-I 39. Neyraudia arundinacea PMC with 2011 at M-I
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Plate-III
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Figs. 26-35 40,41 Neyraudia arundinacea 40. PMC at T-I with laggards. 41. Tetrad with two
micronuclei. 42. Muhlenbergia himalayenis PMC showing 2011 at Diakinesis. 43. Sporobolus
coromondelianus PMC showing 1811 at M-I. 44. S. diander PMC with 1811 at M-I. 45. S. tremulus
PMC showing 1211 at M-I. 46. Paspalum distichum PMC with 28: 28 at A-1. 47. P. longifolium
PMC with 3011 at M-I. 48. P. flaccidum. PMC with 911 at M-I. 49. C. grylus subsp. echinulatus.
(n=10). PMC showing 1011 at M-I. 50,51. Lasiurus hirsuzus PMC showing 9:9 chromosomes at A-I.
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chromosomes at A-I with normal course of
meiosis and high pollen fertility (Fig. 18). The
present report is in conformity with the previous
reports of Mehra and Sharma (1975).
Poa alpina L.
The species is distinguished from the other
species with ovate to pyramidal inflorescence
tinged with purple. Meiotic study of the species
shows the presence of n=l4 at diakinesis with
normal course of meiosis (Fig. 19).
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The present report is in conformity with the
previous reports of Ghorai and Shanna (1981).
P. annua L.
Cytological investigation of the species reveals
the presence of 14 bivalents (n:14) at diakinesis
(Fig. 20). Meiosis is found to be normal. The
present chromosome count is in confonnity with
the previous reports (Sharma and Khosla 1989).
P. bulbosa L.
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Raghbir C. Gupta et al
The identifying key point of the species is that
the leaf blades are abruptly contracted to a
hooded tip often tinged with purple. Cytological
investigation reveals the presence of n=l4 (Fig.
21), and is in conformity with the previous
report given by Koul and Gohil (1987).
P. lahulensis L.
Cytological investigation reveals the presence of
14 bivalents (n=l4) (Fig. 22). Cytologically,
worked out for the first time from world, with
normal meiotic course but has low pollen
fertility (68.8%).
P. pretense L.
Meiotically, the species is normal which showed
14 bivalents (n=l4) at diakinesis (Fig. 23). The
present report confirms the previous reports by
Ghorai and Shanna (1981) from India, and
Tischler (1934) from outside India.
Trisetum spicatum (L.) K. Richt.
Meiotic study showed the presence of 14
bivalents (n=l4) at M-I (Fig. 24). The present
report confirms the previous reports from North
India (Mehra 1982).
TRIBE: PHLEAE
Alopecurus arundinaceous Poir.
Cytologically, the species shows the presence of
14 bivalents (n=l4) at M-I (Fig. 25). Meiosis is
found to be normal. The present chromosome
count is in conformity with the previous reports
(Mehra and Sunder 1970).
Phleum alpinum L.
The species shows great morphological
variations. Two populations (Pl and P2)
collected from the Lahaul-Spiti area are found to
be diploid (n=7) and tetraploid (n=l4),
respectively (Figs. 26-28). Besides a little
morphological disparity, the tetraploid cytotype
shows abnormal meiotic course with the
presence of chromatin bridges observed at A-
I/T-I (9-11% PMCs), which results in
heterogenous sized fertile and sterile pollen
grains and reduced pollen fertility (66%).
Population (Pl) is normal with high pollen
fertility. Both the cytotypes are common and are
reported earlier from different parts of India
1244|
©Copyrig ht@2014
Pashuk (1987) reported diploid cytotype,
whereas Mehra and Remanandan (1973)
reported tetraploid cytotype from India and
outside India (Probatova and Sokolovskaya
1980). Petrova and Stoyanova (1998) reported
B- chromosomes in the diploid cytotype.
TRIBE: MELICEAE
Melica persica Kunth.
The species shows morphological distinction
between two cytotypes. Two populations were
worked out, population Pl shows n=9 where as
P2 with n=l0 chromosome number (Figs. 29,
30). The population with n=l0 is a new varied
chromosome report from the world and the
pollen fertility is slightly reduced (78.6%). The
cytotype (n=9) confinrrs the previous reports
from North India (Mehra and Sharma 1972;
Gohil and Koul 1986).
TRIBE: STIPEAE
013/zopsis lateralis (Regel) Stapf.
Meiotically, the species revealed the presence of
12 bivalents (n=12) at M-I (Fig. 31), which is in
conformity with the previous reports from India
(Mehra and Sharma 1975, 1977).
Stipajacquemontii Jaub. & Spach.
During the present study, three populations were
worked out from the different localities of
Lahaul-Spiti. Two populations (P1 and P2)
showed n=21 chromosome count. Meiotic
analysis showed some sort of spindle
abnormality that was reflected in the form of
unequal distribution in chromosomes. Some of
the PMCs shows scattered chromosomes at A-II
(6-7% PMCs), few PMCs with chromatin
bridges at T-II (7.6% PMCs) (Figs. 32-34),
which leads to the abnormal microsporogenesis
which (4-5% PMCs) lead to the fonnation of
polyads, besides tetrads and heterogenous sized
pollen grains. Further, it leads to reduced pollen
fertility. The population (P3) reveals 22
bivalents (n:22) (Fig. 35). It shows normal
meiotic behavior. Both the cytotypes are the new
chromosome reports for the species, as the only
earlier report is of 2n=24 (Mehra and Sharma
1975). Both the cytotypes show great
morphological variations.
S. koelzii R. R. Stewart
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Raghbir C. Gupta et al
Meiotic study on the species showed the
presence of 11 bivalents (n=11) at M-I (Fig. 36).
Meiotic course is normal. The present
chromosome report for the species is a new
chromosome report from world.
S. splendens Trin.
Meiotic study on the species exhibited the
normal meiotic behavior with the presence of 22
bivalents (n=22) (Fig. 37). The presently
reported chromosome count is a new varied
chromosome report from world, as the earlier
reported chromosome numbers are n=23 from
Srinagar (Gohil and Koul 1986) and n=24 from
outside India (Love 1948).
TRIBE: ARUNDINEAE
Arundo donax L.
Cytollogically, the species shows the presence of
16 bivalents (n=l6) at M-I (Fig. 38) showing
normal meiotic behavior and high pollen
fertility. The present chromosome count is in
conformity with the previous reports from India
(Mehra 1982, Sinha et al. 1990). Larsen (1963);
Devesa et al. (1991); Delay (1947) and Gorenflot
et al. (1972) reported n=30, 50 55 and 56,
respectively, from outside India.
Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard
Cytologically, the species revealed the presence
of 20 bivalents at M-I. The meiotic behavior is
observed to be abnormal with the presence of
high frequency of laggards (33%) at A-I,II/T-I,II
(Fi gs. 39-41), subsequently affecting
microsporogenesis as micronuclei in tetrads and
heterogenous sized pollen grains. The present
chromosome number has been reported earlier
from India (Mehra and Kalia 1976) as well as
outside India (Larsen 1963) with low pollen
fertility.
TRIBE: CYNODONTEAE
Muhlenbergia himalayensis Hack. ex Hook. f.
The cytological investigation of the species
reveals the presence of 20 bivalents (n=20) at
diakinesis (Fig. 42). This chromosome number is
stable in the species as the same number is
earlier reported from India (Mehra and Shanna
1972) and outside India (Teppner 2002).
Sporobolus coromondelianus (RetZ.) Kunth
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©Copyrig ht@2014
During the present studies, the material was
collected from high altitudinal regions of
Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul-Spiti). The meiotic
couse is normal with the presence of 18 bivalents
at M-I (Fig. 43). This confinns the various
earlier reports from India (Bir et al. 1987, 1988)
and outside India (Moinuddin et al. 1994).
S. diander (Retz.) P. Beauv.
Meiotic study on the species revealed the
presence of 18 bivalents at M-I (Fig. 44). The
meiotic course is normal which confinns the
previous report from India (Bir and Sahni 1985).
S. lremulus (Willd.) Kunth
Meiotic studies on the species reveal the
presence of 12 bivalents at M-I (Fig. 45) with
low pollen fertility and normal meiotic course.
The species is first time worked out
cytologically from the world.
TRIBE: PANICEAE
Paspalum distichum L.
Cytological investigation on the species reveals
the presence of 28 bivalents at M-I (Fig. 46), that
is first ever octaploid cytotype for the species.
Previously, n=l0, 15, 20 and 24 are reported
(Mehra 1982; Chatterjee 1975; Bir and Singh
1983).
P. longzfolium Roxb.
Meioic analysis of the species collected from the
high altitudes revealed the presence of 30
bivalents (n=30) at M-I (Fig. 47). The species
shows the new cytological report for the species
from world. The previous reports of n=20 and 25
were reported from India (Mehra 1982; Malik
and Mary 1970), whereas, n:20 and 40 were
reported from outside India.
Penniselumflaccidum Griseb. ex Roscheb.
The present meiotic analysis reveals the
chromosome count of n=9 at M-I (Fig. 48). This
is in conformity with the previous reports from
India (Koul and Gohil 1987, 1991).
TRIBE: ANDROPOGONEAE
Chrysopogon gryllus subsp. Echinulatus (Nees
ex Steud.) Cope
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Raghbir C. Gupta et al
During the meiotic analysis the species is found
to be diploid with 10 bivalents at M-I (Fig. 49).
Present study confirms the previous report by
Sinha ct al. (1990). Mehra (1982) reported 2B
chromosomes in the diploid cytotype.
Lasiurus hirsuzus (Forssk.) Boiss.
Meiotic study on the species revealed the
presence 9 bivalents which are equally
distributed at A-I (Figs. 50, 51). The presently
reported chromosome count is in conformity
with the previous reports from India (Bir and
Sahni 1986) and outside India (Faruqi et al.
1979)
CONCLUSION
Presently, five species show new euploidy levels
as were not reported ear1ier:Octaploidy in
Paspalum distichum (2n=8x=56), hexaploidy in
P. longjfolium (2n=6x=60), tetraploidy in Poa
lahulensis (2n=4x=28) and in case of Stipa
jacquemontii both tetraploidy (2n=4x=44) and
triploidy (2n=3x=42). Among the 35 species
studied from the Lahaul-Spiti areal9 species
(54.2%) show various levels of polyploidy in
comparison to diploid level (45.7%). Thus, it
concludes and reveals that in case of grasses
polyploidy is more frequent than diploids.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful to UGC (SAP-III grant)
and DBT (IPLS grant) for financial assistance
and also thankful to UGC for awarding teacher
fellowship (Harbans singh).
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